HIST1020: Final Exam Study Guide + Notes
HIST1020: Final Exam Study Guide + Notes HIST 1020
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Aaron P Althouse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 253 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
HIST1020: World Civilizations II c. 1000-1800 Althouse FINAL EXAM: WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 2 (10:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m.) true/false multiple choice identification WTWA pp. 468-551, 563-564 IDENTIFICATION/MATCHING TERMS (FOUND IN WTWA, pp. 468-551, 563-564) 1. Forbidden City of Beijing a. Palace city of the Ming and Qing Dynasties 2. Macao a. Port along the coast of southern China b. Trading port with a wide range of diversity, including a strong Portuguese presence 3. Wang Yangming a. Government official stressing neo-Confucian thought and commitment to social action 4. East India Company (1600-1858) a. British charter company created to outperform Portuguese and Spanish traders in the Far East; in the 18 century the company became, in effect, the ruler of a large part of India 5. Fleet Street a. Area in London known for its many stimulants, sociability, and especially coffeehouses 6. Mercantilism a. Economic theory that drove European empire builders; in this system, the world had a fixed amount of wealth, which meant one country’s wealth came at the expense of another’s b. It assumed that colonies existed for the sole purpose of enriching the country that controlled the colony 7. Chartered royal companies a. Firms that were awarded monopoly trading rights over vast areas by European monarchs (examples: Virginia Company and Dutch east India Company) 8. Plains Indians a. North American natives, many of whom were taken as slaves by newcomers (Spaniards) b. Very agile equestrians who were adept at killing buffaloes and forsook agriculture for hunting; when relocated to reserves where hunting was not possible, their population greatly decreased 9. Santo Domingo a. Present-day Haiti; captured by the French and renamed Saint- Domingue b. Wealthy society based on slavery c. Capital is Port-au-Prince which is one of the richest cities in the Atlantic world 10. Bight of Biafra/Biafra a. In the African Slave Trade, English merchants relied on traditional practices of African pawnship; humans were used as pawns to secure European commodities in advance of the delivery of slaves b. The West African Bight (also called Biafra) is a bay 11. Olaudah Equiano (Equiano, Olaudah) a. A slave who was taken to America, gained literacy, and wrote an account of his experiences; this writing was important for the abolitionists 12. Kongo Kingdom a. Part of Africa that was chaotic due to the booming slave trade beginning in 1665 b. Civil wars raged in this area, and captured warriors were taken as slaves c. Trade was controlled by use of firearms and gunpowder 13. Nzinga Queen of the Kongo (1583-1663) a. Masterful diplomat and shrewd military planner b. She was a strong Christian leader who kept Portuguese slave trade at bay; conducted guerilla warfare into her sixties and continued a strong reign even after being defeated on an open battlefield by the Portuguese 14. Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita (Vita, Dona Beatriz Kimpa) a. Christian visionary who claimed to have visions from Saint Anthony of Padua b. Believed that she died every Friday and was transported to heaven to speak with God, returning to Earth every Monday to preach God’s commands to everyone else c. God told her she needed to end the Kongo civil wars to recreate a unified kingdom 15. Oyo Empire a. Empire that was active and enriched by the slave trade in Africa; it linked tropical rainforests and interior northern markets in the savannah areas b. Had an impressive army with weapons from European trade, large cavalry units in the savannah, infantry in the rainforests, and military campaigns as annual events; warriors only returned home for annual agricultural duties; during the dry seasons warriors captured entire villages 16. Dutch East India Company a. A royal chartered company in India that Dutch government persuaded merchants to establish b. Main impact was in Southeast Asia c. Key exports: spices, coffee, tea, and teak wood d. Objective: secure a trade monopoly wherever possible, fix prices, and replace the native populations with Dutch planters 17. Dutch Batavia/Batavia a. Javanese port of Jakarta was renamed Batavia by the Dutch 18. Safavid Empire a. Required a powerful, religiously-inspired ruler from the beginning to enforce Shiite religion; by 1722 there was had been many weak rulers, so the empire was under assault both inwardly and outwardly b. Internal turmoil was caused by changing the trade route to Persia and tribal incursions against the central government c. Outward turmoil was caused by invading Afghan clansmen who besieged the capital of Isfahan; these invaders executed thousands of government officials and members of the royal household, bringing the empire to a steady downfall 19. Mamluks a. Military men known for asserting Egypt’s political and commercial autonomy from Istanbul b. Ruled Egypt as an independent regime until the Ottoman conquest of the country c. Very wealthy and powerful group of people who kept much of the area’s fiscal resources for themselves by aligning with Egyptian merchants 20. Koprulu Reforms/Koprulu family a. A pragmatic and incorruptible family of generational leaders who rooted out corrupt peers, balanced the country’s budget, and reversed Ottoman army’s misfortunes b. Reforms: allowed the military to regain lost possessions, country revenues increased, inflation decreased, state was given a new burst of energy, rekindled plans to seize Vienna, and Istanbul renewed assault on Christianity c. Revived expansionist ambitions 21. Specie a. Money in coin 22. Wanli Emperor a. Zhu Yijun (1573-1620) b. Ascended the throne at age 9 and lived in the Forbidden City c. Nicknamed the “Son of Heaven” d. Inactive in office 23. Buillon a. Uncoined gold or silver 24. Canton System (Canton, China) a. Established officially by imperial decree in 1759 b. Required European traders to have guild merchants act as guarantors for their good behavior and payment of fees 25. Muscovy a. Kingdom of Moscow 26. Absolute monarchy/absolutism a. Form of government where one body, usually the monarch, controls the right to tax, judge, make war, and coin money 27. Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) a. Worldwide war that ended when Prussia defeated Austria, establishing itself as a European power, and when British gained control of India and many of France’s colonies through the Treaty of Paris 28. Enlightened absolutists a. Seventeenth and eighteenth century monarchs who claimed to rule rationally and in the best interests of their subjects and who hired loyal bureaucrats to implement the knowledge of the new age 29. Taj Mahal a. Royal palace of the Mughal Empire, built by Shah Jahan in the seventeenth century in homage to his wife, Mumtaz 30. Palace of Versailles a. The palace complex, eleven miles away from the French capital of Paris, built by Louis XIV in the 1670s and 1680s to house and entertain his leading clergymen and nobles, with the hopes of diverting them from plotting against him 31. Cartography a. Mapmaking 32. Denis Diderot (1713-1784) a. Enlightenment thinker and French writer b. Denounced the despotic tendencies of the French kings Louis XIV and Louis XV c. Trusted nature and individual human reason and distrusted institutions and traditions 33. Laissez-faire a. The concept that the economy works best when it is left alone— that is, when the state does not regulate or interfere with the workings of the market 34. Peninsulars a. Spaniards who, although born in Spain, resided in the Spanish colonial territories; they regarded themselves as superior to Spaniards born in the colonies (Creoles) 35. Captain James Cook (1728-1779) a. European voyager who showed how closely related science and imperial ventures could be and how unequal cultural exchange could be b. Portrayed as a saintly scientist of enlightened progress c. Observed the movement of Venus from the Southern Hemisphere and was assigned to find and claim “the southern continent” for Britain Based on Lecture Notes and Reading THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE Government structure (i.e., House of Osman, viziers, pashas) Army and navy Policy of religious tolerance Slavery Achievements of Suleiman the Magnificent/Legislator Economy (taxation, trade with Europe, economic policies) Decline of empire post-Suleiman “Cultural synthesis” (found in WTWA) Ottoman society and culture from European viewpoint THE MUGHAL EMPIRE Military activity Religious policy (esp. under Akbar) Evidence of Muslim policies toward non-Muslims Expressions of “mixed” culture Policies of Aurangzeb Growth of British presence in India Trade activity/economic policies (esp. tied to land/found in WTWA) Decline of empire in eighteenth century MING AND QING CHINA (be able to compare and contrast these dynasties) Collapse of Ming Dynasty Manchu “preparation” for conquest and early Qing policies Government structure/role of emperor/bureaucracy(mandarins) Population growth Economic activity (late Ming economic crisis, Qing recovery efforts) Intellectual trends (neo-Confucianism, art, literacy and literature, cultural values) Popular culture/religion Contact with foreigners (including politics, trade, religion) Territorial expansion under Qing TOKUGAWA JAPAN Unification in the late 1500s Political policies (shift of capital to Edo, including growth of Confucianism) Economic development Contact with foreigners Cultural activity RUSSIA Moscow’s rise as center of power Attempted reforms and tension between state and boyars under Ivan IV Internal control by Romanov Dynasty Modernization and westernization under Peter I “The Great”—limitations on such reform Continued westernization under Catherine II “The Great”—reasons for turn away from modernization in later 1700s WESTERN EUROPE Thirty Years’ War Economic growth and change in seventeenth century Rise of absolutism Scientific Revolution Scientific ideas and exchange of ideas The Enlightenment Enlightenment ideas on religion, social order, and culture THE AMERICAS Dutch colonial activity (here, also include information on Dutch in Asia, found in WTWA) French colonial activity (found in WTWA) English colonial activity (found in WTWA) Plantation agriculture (Caribbean, found in WTWA) The African Slave trade in terms of both slave experiences in the Americas and consequences in Africa Concepts of race/hybrid culture (both the racial rankings covered in lecture and the “hybrid culture” covered in WTWA)
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