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Chapter notes

by: Monica Parham

Chapter notes PSYCH 100

Monica Parham
Introductory Psychology
Michael Anderson

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Lecture notes broken down
Introductory Psychology
Michael Anderson
Study Guide
psych 100
50 ?




Popular in Introductory Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Parham on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at George Mason University taught by Michael Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 12/01/15
Diagnostic Classification in psychiatry and psychology 0 Predicts the disorder39s future course 0 Suggests appropriate treatment 0 Prompts research into its causes 0 American Psychiatric Fifth edition 0 Describes disorders Changes to the DSM5 0 Label changes like autism spectrum disorder intellectual disability 0 New or altered diagnosis 0 New categories hoarding disorder bingeeating disorder Attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD o 11 of Americans 417 yrs old are diagnosed after displaying extreme inattention hyperactivity and impulsivity o 25 have ADHD symptoms 0 Symptoms can be treated with medications and other therapies gt Psychological disorder rates vary depending on time and place of the survey Poverty is a RISK FACTOR 0 Conditions and experiences associated with poverty contribute to the development of psychological disorders Anxiety disorders are marked by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 Person is apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system Panic Disorder 0 Person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread and often lives in fear of when the next attack may strike Phobias 0 Person experiences a and avoidance of a specific subject activity or situation 0 Unpredictable 0CD o and repetitive thoughts obsessive actions compulsions or both 0 Occurs when obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors interfere with everyday life and cause distress o Often veterans are diagnosed Classical Conditioning research helps explain how panicprone people associate anxiety with certain cues Stimulus Generalization research demonstrates how a fearful event can later become a fear of similar event little Albert was scared of everything white and fluffy Reinforcement Operant conditioning can help maintain a developed and generalized phobia Genes The Brain Natural Selection 0 Biological preparedness to fear threatseasily conditioned and difficult to extinguish Findings that any theory of depression must explain 0 Behaviors and thoughts change with depression Depression is widespread 0 Most major depressive episodes end on their own Stressful events often precede depression The Depressed Brain 0 Pet scans show that brain energy consumption rises and fall with the patient39s emotional switches Red areas are where the brain is using energy most rapidly Psychological and social influences socialcognitive perspective 0 Depressed people view self and world negatively o Learned helplessness may exist with selfdefeating beliefs Self focused rumination and selfblaming and pessimistic explanatory style Social Cognitive Perspective Suicide 0 Involves higher risk with diagnosis of depression 0 More likely to occur when people feel they are a burden Nonsuicidal Self Injury N55 0 Cutting 0 Burning o Hitting oneself o Pulling out hair 0 Inserting objects under nails or skin Schizophrenia o Psychological disorder characterized by symptoms Chronic schizophrenia also called process schizophrenia 0 Form of schizophrenia in which symptoms usually appear by 0 As people age psychotic episodes last longer and recovery periods shorten Acute schizophrenia also called reactive schizophrenia 0 Form of schizophrenia that can begin at any age frequently occurs in and has extended recovery periods Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Problems with several brain regions and interconnections More rapid brain tissue loss Genetics and Risk Adopted children39s risk is related to the biological parent Schizophrenia influenced by many genes Epigenetic factors influence gene expression Prenatal environment and risk Low birth weight oLack of oxygen during delivery oMaternal prenatal nutrition oMidpregnancy viral infection eg flu dense population season of birth Warning Signs of Schizophrenia Social withdrawal or other abnormal behavior Mother with severe and longlasting schizophrenia Birth complications Separation from parents Short attention span and poor muscle coordination Disruptive or withdrawn behavior Emotional unpredictability Poor peer relations and solo play Childhood physical sexual or emotional abuse Dissociative Disorder Dissociative Identity disorder Multiple personality disorder Personality disorder o This disorder forms three clusters characterized by anxiety eccentric or odd behaviors and dramatic or impulsive behaviors Antisocial personality disorder even toward friends and family members 0 Genetic predispositions may interact with the environment to produce the altered brain activity associated with antisocial personality disorder Anorexia nervosa 0 Person usually an adolescent female maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight Bulimia nervosa 0 Person alternates binge eating usually of high calorie foods with purging by vomiting or laxative use fasting or excessive exercise Bingeeating disorder 0 Significant binge eating followed by distress disgust or guilt but without the purging fasting or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa attempt to improve functioning bv and defenses Behavior Therapies ARE NOT insight therapies o The goal of behavior therapies is to to modify problem behaviors o Psychological techniques derived from psychological perspectives 0 Treatment with medical procedures 0 Trained therapist 0 Approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy 0 Goal is bring patients39 repressed feelings into awareness o degosuperego 0 Techniques initially through hypnosis and later through free association anoi 0 Goal is to help people understand current symptoms and gain a new perspective 0 Client centered facetoface meetings 0 Exploration of past relationship troubles to understand origins of current difficulties 0 Gain new insights o Reduces inner conflicts that interfere with natural development and growth 0 Help clients grow in selfawareness 0 Client centered therapies focusing on responsibilities for feelings and actions focusing on the person39s conscious self perceptions 0 Most people posses resources for growth 0 Therapists must express growth by showing the client classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they avoid associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxietytriggering stimuli Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy treats anxiety by creative electronic stimulations in which people can safely face their greatest fears consequences drive behavior desired behavior reinforced undesired behavior not reinforced sometimes is punished people earn a token for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for privileges or treats seeks to reveal irrational thinking and then to persuade people to change their perceptions of their own and others39 actions as dark negative and pessimistic o Conducted with groups rather than individual 0 Provides group interaction 0 Used when client problems involve others saves time and money enables people to see that others share their problems provides feedback of a new way of behaving encourages exploration and social skill development 0 Attempts to open communication within the family 0 Treats the family as a system 0 Behavior Therapies bedwetting phobias compulsions marital problems and sexual dysfunctions o Psychodynamic Therapy depression and anxiety 0 Cognitive Therapies anxiety depression and posttraumatic stress disorder 0 Evidencebased Practice integration of best available research with clinician39s expertise and patients39 characteristics preferences and circumstances abnormal states often return to normal and the placebo effect can mislead effectiveness evaluation some effectiveness shown not from eye movement but rather from the exposure therapy nature of the treatments relief from depression symptoms can be relieved by light activating a brain region that influences arousal of hormones u39 l Psychopharmacology studies the drug effects on the mind and behavior 0 Widely used biomedical treatments 0 Include prescribe antidepressants for 27 million Americans 0 Involve placebo and doubleblind techniques to evaluate drug effectiveness Mimic certain neurotransmitters o Produces sluggishness tremors twitches and tardive dyskinesia 0 Used in combination with psychological therapy Xanax or Ativan or Klonopin o Depakote controlling manic episodes 0 Lithium levels emotional highs and lower of bipolar disorder 0 Manipulates brain with shock 0 Administration of general anesthetic and muscle relaxation to prevent convulsions 0 Causes less memory disruption than earlier versions 0 Involves several theories about reason for effectiveness Alternative neurostimulation therapies o Stimulates neck nerve that sends signal to limbic system increases available serotonin by increasing firing rate of some neurons 0 Manipulates depressed brain via pacemaker stimulates inhibition activity related to negative emotions and thoughts Sends magnetic energy to brain surface through coiled wire held close to brain fewer side effects modest effectiveness 0 Involves surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior o Is irreversible o Psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients Moniz 0 Less invasive techniques used nowadays o MRIguided surgery in severe disorders 0 Goals aerobic exercise adequate sleep light exposure social connection anti rumination nutritional supplements 0 Preventive mental health programs work to build resilience 0 Based on the idea that many psychological disorders could be prevented by changing oppressive esteemdestroying environments into more benevolent nurturing environments that foster growth selfconfidence Chapter 13 Study Guide 10 the scientific study of how we think about influence and relate to one another Focuses on the situation the tendency for observers when analyzing other39s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition In class Jack may be as quiet as Juliette Catch Juliette at a party and you may hardly recognize your quiet classmate Feelings often influenced by our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects people and events occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as a speaker39s attractiveness A politician may declare climate change a hoax and people believe it because they trust him A perfume ad may lure us with images of in love occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts An automobile ad may itemize a car39s features Because it is more thoughtful and less superficial it is more durable the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request To get people to agree to something big a set of norms about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave You39re a college student so your role is to study the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort dissonance we feel when two of our thoughts cognition are inconsistent When we become that our attitudes and our actions clash we can reduce the resulting dissonance by adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard conforming to ideas or authority Obedience is highest when the person giving the orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure Chapter 13 Study Guide 11 an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members 0 Generally involves stereotyped beliefs negative feelings and a predisposition to discriminatory action O 12 stereotypes and discrimination 13 Beliefs stereotypes 14 Emotions how the person feels 15 the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get 16 Stereotypes a generalized belief about a group of people 17 below the radar feelings leaving us o Unconscious Patronization o Raceinfluenced perceptions 18 Harber1998 19 people more often shot at black men holding harmless objects than a white man 0 Fatigue influences and amplifies the wanting to shoot 20 even people who express little prejudice may give off tell tale signs as their 21 genetic neural and biochemical aspects influence behaviors that create aggression 22 genes influence aggression 23 animal and human brains have neural systems that given provocation will either inhibit or facilitate aggression Chapter 13 Study Guide 25 26 27 28 29 30 our genes engineer our individual nervous systems which operate electrochemically The hormone testosterone for example circulates in the bloodstream and influences the neural systems that control aggression how proximity attractiveness and similarity mix together to create arousal how close you are with a person Jane and Jeffrey are friends for years before realizing they love each other Women are more likely than men to say that another39s looks don39t affect them but studies show that a man39s looks do influence a woman39s behavior the more alike people are the more their liking m 3 Q 5 m S an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually present at the beginning of a love relationship TwoFactory theory of emotion Arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another depending on how we interpret and label the arousal The Schachter Singer theory or twofactor theory of emotion states that emotion is based on physiological arousal and cognitive label The theory was created by researchers College men have been aroused by fright by running in place by viewing erotic materials or by listening to humorous or repulsive monologues Chapter 13 Study Guide 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 occurs when we are emotionally quotcharged upquot and feel passionate about something Some people fall easily into affective arousal and may be considered to have a volatile temperament the personal interpretation of a situation it is how an individual views a situation the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined Hormones involved unselfish regard for the welfare of others t the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present selfinterest underlies all human interactions that Cost benefit analysis Utilita rianism we should help those who need our help Helping those who cannot give as much as they receive The norm of reciprocity is the expectation that people and responding with either indifference or hostility to harm The


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