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Exam 3 Materials

by: mack

Exam 3 Materials 3640

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > 3640 > Exam 3 Materials
Industrial Psychology 3640
Eric McKibben

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Comprehensive exam 3 study guide
Industrial Psychology 3640
Eric McKibben
Study Guide
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Popular in Industrial Psychology 3640

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by mack on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology 3640 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 12/01/15
Psych 364 Exam 3 Tuesday December 1 2 15 8253 PM People Skinner American Psychologist Human action dependent on consequences of previous actions Behaviorism Respondent behaviors are classical conditioning or pavlovian condition Operant conditioning Operant behaviors are emitted meaning that initially they are not induced by any particular stimuli The occurrence of a response yields a reinforcer This may differ on latency or strength Kirkpatrick Professor Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin past president of the American Society for Training and Development ASTD Most wellknown for his Four Level of Learning Evaluation Four levels consist of Reaction 1 What participants thought and felt about the training Learning 2 The resulting increase in knowledge and or skills and change in attitudes a demonstration of skills Occurs during training Behavior 3 Transfer of knowledge skills and or attitudes from classroom to the job 36 months post training Results 4 The final results that occurred because of attendance and participation in a training program Theories Reinforcement Theory Rewards are used to reinforce the behavior you want and punishments are used to prevent the behavior you do not want Extinction is a means to stop someone from performing a learned behavior The technical term for these processes is called operant conditioning Social Learning Theory Learning is not purely behavioral rather it is cognitive and takes place in a social context Learning can occur by observing a behavior and by observing the consequences of the behavior Learning involves observation extraction of info and making decisions about the performance of the behavior Reinforcement plays a role in learning but is not entirely responsible for learning The learner is not a passive recipient of info Modeling or learning by observing a behavior Live model An actual person is demonstrating the behavior Verbal model In which an individual describes the desired behavior in detail and instructs the participant Symbolic model In which modeling occurs by means of the media can be either real or fictional Behavioral modeling Observe actual job incumbents demonstrate positive modeling behaviors Rehearse before using role playing Receive feedback Try behavior Concepts New Section 1 Page 1 Types of validity Predictive validity Investigates how effective predictors are at forecasting applicants job performance BEST gives selection battery to applicants compute validity coefficient and see if it works Fire the employee if they don39t do well Concurrent validity More viable than predictive Steps Collect predictor and criterion from current employees compute the validity coefficient Problem Range restriction only using current employees This is used more because it is cheaper Incremental validity Seeks to answer if tests add too much info that might be obtained with simpler methods How much does selection battery improve decisions Synthetic validity Isn39t used a lot Based on the fact that there are KASOs for most jobs validity is inferred based on links between job components Empirical cross validity Apply predictors and criteria to a different sample to see how close it is to the original sample Cross validation Original sample of data confirmed by other sample of same population Validity Accuracy Selection ratio what is it how to calculate it Refers to the ratio of the number of job positions to the number of job applicants Typically a number between 1 and 0 closer to 0 implies there are a lot of applicants Number of positions divided by the number of applicants EX 20 new jobs open up and there are 100 applicants calculate the selection ratio 20100 02 Errors in selection decisions TruePositive Hit Applicant hired and performs well FalseNegative Miss Applicant rejected but would have performed well TrueNegative Correct rejection Applicant rejected and would have performed poorly FalsePositive Applicant accepted but performed poorly Cutscores types and how they are determined Selected points on the score scale of a test the points are used to determine whether a particular score is sufficient or not Raising score will result in fewer false positives but more false negatives New Section 1 Page 2 Criterionreferenced cut score Consider desired level of performance and find test score corresponding to that level Normreferenced cut score Based on some index of test takers39 scores rather than any notion of job performance Utility Is something worth the cost of doing it ROI Statistical vs clinical decision making Clinical Uses judgment to combine information and make decisions Statistical Uses a mathematical formula Subgroup norming Develop separate lists for individuals in different demo who are then ranked within their respective group Discrimination and generally not allowed as a staffing strategy Hurdle vs compensatory decision making Hurdle Individual has no ability to atone for lower earlier scores at a later stage Series of cut scores if one is not made then you do not pass go More expensive testing is set later in the process Good for large pool of people Compensatory Results in equations for combining test scores into a composite based on correlations of each with performance score Crossvalidation See above Score banding People with similar test scores can be grouped together in a category or score band Selection within band can then be made based on other considerations Also controversial Disparate treatment prohibits employers from treating applicants or employees differently because of their membership in a protected class Disparate adverse impact substantially different rate of selection in hiring promotion or other employment decision which works to the disadvantage of members of a race sex or ethnic group Learning outcomes types and examples Cognitive Declarative knowledge rules facts principles Skill based Development of motor or technical skills Affective Includes attitudes or beliefs that predispose a person to behave in a certain way Training needs analysis levels and procedures Organizational analysis Where Examines companywide goals and problems to determine where training is needed Task analysis What Examines tasks performed and KSAOs required to determine what employees must do to perform successfully Developing Task Clusters Developing Task statements New Section 1 Page 3 Identifying KASOs Person analysis Whom Examines knowledge skills and current performance to determine who needs training and what kind of instruction Trainee readiness refers to whether employees have the personal characteristics necessary to acquire knowledge from a training program and apply it to the job Goal orientation Specific difficult goals direct attention and improve performance Selfefficacy Belief in one39s ability to perform Active practice Actively participating in trainingwork tasks Whole vs part learning Whole learning When the whole task is practiced at once More effective when complex task has high organization Part learning When the task is broken down into subtasks and practiced separately then combined later More effective when complex task has low organization Massed vs distributed practice Massed Individuals practice task continuously and without rest TEST CRAMMING Distributed Rest and intervals between sessions Generally more efficient learning and retention than massed Apprenticeship training Formal program used to teach skilled trade Horizontal vs vertical transfer Transfer of training Degree to which trainees apply knowledge skills and attitudes gained in training to their job Transfer climate Workplace characteristics that either inhibit or facilitate transfer of training Horizontal transfer across different settings or contexts at the same level of organization Vertical Transfer across different levels of the organization Quid pro quo Something for something A transfer is dependent on the transfer of something else Coaching Practical one on one training Flexible targeted form of individualized learning Informal learning Takes place outside of work but include job specific activities New Section 1 Page 4


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