Notes for Final Exam
Notes for Final Exam
Popular in Human Behavior Social Environment I
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha McGrew on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Pilkinton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Human Behavior Social Environment I in Social Work at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 7 Social Structure and Social Institutions Patterns of Social Life Social structure set of interrelated social institutions developed by human beings to impose constraints on human interaction for the purpose of the survival and wellbeing of the collectivity. Social institutions “Patterned ways of solving the problems and meeting the requirements of a particular society”. Organize rights and duties into statuses and roles and the expected behaviors that accompany them. Statuses are specific social positions; roles, are the behaviors of persons occupying particular statuses. Each institution organizes social relations in a particular sector of social life. Social institutions persist only when they are: carried forward by individual actors only when they are actively monitored Three different types of processes that contribute to the stability of social institutions: regulatory processes normative processes culturalcognitive processes Regulatory processes involve rules, monitoring, and enforcement through rewards and punishment. Normative processes involve values and norms about how things should be done. Culturalcognitive processes involve beliefs, internalized understandings about the world and how to behave it. Contemporary Trends in Global and U.S. Social Institutions most important and troubling trend in contemporary life: continued extremely high level of social inequality, both between nations and within nation states. Regions of the world can be divided into three groups with different recent income trends: Group 1: (1st world) Rich regions that have been growing richer (Western Europe, Northern America, and Japan) Group 2: Regions with lower than average per capita but rapidly growing income (South Asia, East Asia, and China) Group 3: (3rd world) Poor regions with slower than average growth, or decline, in average income Need to understand the patterns of inequality within a given country. The most commonly used measure of income inequality is the Gini index, which measures the extent to which the distribution of income within a country deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. Societal health is best maintained when economic growth is balanced with attention to social equality. High levels of inequality are bad for the social health of a nation. Poverty rates in the United States, one measure of social inequality, demonstrate that social inequality is related to: race and ethnicity age gender family structure geographic location Vulnerability to poverty has shifted from older adults to children. Women are more likely than men to be poor in the United States as well as globally. Trends in Government and Politics The government and political institution is responsible for how decisions get made and enforced for the society as a whole. Three historical factors are important for beginning to understand current complexities: 1. Colonialism 2. Aftermath of hot and cold wars 3. Economic globalization Countries around the world have attempted to adapt to the challenges of economic globalization by changing the way that government does business. One common adaptation is to make change in the level of government that assumes power in particular situations: Upward movement Downward movement Outward movement Privatization Contracting out Deregulation Economic globalization combined with war and political strife has produced mass crossnational migration. Social work has been “at the mercy of political forces throughout its history”. Social workers cannot afford to ignore processes and trends in the political arena. Trends in the Economy The economic institution has the primary responsibility for regulating the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Most people, if they are not selfemployed or independently wealthy, exchange labor for wages, which they then use for consumption. The primary ingredients of economic globalization are: a global production system a global labor force global consumers The global economy is driven by corporate desire for the bigger profits that come from cheap raw materials and cheap labor, and by consumer desire for cheap and novel products. The future of globalization is not certain, but several trends can be identified at its current stage of development: 1. Regional disparities 2. Labor force bifurcation 3. Corporate downsizing 4. Work intensification 5.Limited protection by organized labor Trends in Education The Education for All movement an international effort to meet the basic learning needs of children, youth, and adults of the world. continue to be large global gaps in opportunities for education. inequalities in the resources available for schooling across the world. There is a shortage of trained teachers in many areas around the globe. The education institution in the United States is becoming a prime force in perpetuating, if not exacerbating, economic inequalities. The trends in education that perpetuate societal inequalities: 1. Trends in early childhood education 2. Trends in primary school education 3. Trends in secondary education 4. Trends in higher education Trends in Health Care Child development, adult wellbeing, and family stability are all affected by health. health care institution primary institution for promoting the general health of a society. There is much disparity in the global health care institution, both between and within countries. highly influenced by factors in the economic and health care institution, but also by factors in the education and family institutions. In poor countries, basic health prevention and treatment services are almost nonexistent. Level of uninsured individuals bankruptcies related to health care costs have increased The rapid growth in therapeutic medicine has drained resources from the U.S. public health system, which focuses on disease prevention and health promotion. Societies around the world struggle with: health care costs quality and access to care medical technology Trends in Social Welfare The social welfare institution functions to promote interdependence and to deal with issues of dependence. Individuals are interdependent with institutions, as well as with other individuals, for survival and for satisfactory role performance. There are several major challenges facing the social welfare institution around the globe: Aging population Labor market insecurities Debt in lowincome countries Increasing evidence of the importance of the early years The social welfare institution functions to promote interdependence and to deal with issues of dependence. Individuals are interdependent with institutions, as well as with other individuals, for survival and for satisfactory role performance. There are several major challenges facing the social welfare institution around the globe: Aging population Labor market insecurities Debt in lowincome countries Increasing evidence of the importance of the early years The social welfare institution, like any other social institution, reflects the culture of the society. The social welfare institution has had a mix of governmental and nongovernmental monies and activities, but the nature of this mix has changed over time. The most controversial trend in the social welfare institution is the entrance of forprofit organizations into the mix of publicprivate partnerships, beginning in the 1980s. Trends in Religion A religious belief system helps people to feel secure, and exposure to different belief systems can be unsettling and sometimes perceived as a threat to the integrity of one’s own beliefs and identity. Today, it is almost impossible for believers in one religious tradition to be isolated from other religious traditions. Both violence and nonviolence have been used in the name of religion. Each of the major world religions has changed over time and place and become more diverse, a “patchwork of contradictory ideas stitched together over the centuries”. Each of the major world religions, but especially the Western religions, has an internal struggle, sometimes called a culture war. The traditionalists believe that moral obligations are rigid, given, and absolute. The modernists believe that moral commitment is voluntary, conditional, and fluid. These two branches often engage in a struggle for the heart and soul of the religious tradition, sometimes using violence to press their case. The religious institution is quite resilient. Trends in Mass Media The mass media institution is the primary institution for managing the flow of information, images, and ideas among all members of society. Mass media serves an entertainment role for society, but it also influences how we understand ourselves and the world. Mass media technology is the engine of globalization, giving people worldwide immediate access to other cultures and other markets. Electronic media now allow twoway communication as well as oneway communication, and they can store and manipulate vast amounts of information. There are several important trends in the mass media landscape: 1. Growth in media outlets and media products 2. More time and money spent on media products 3. Integration of media functions 4. Globalization 5. Concentration of ownership Trends in Family and Kinship Family and kinship institution is primarily responsible for: the regulation of procreation for the initial socialization of new members of society for mutual support Three global trends in family life: 1. Modified extended family form 2. Mass migration 3. Feminization of wage labor Two other trends: 1. A rise in divorce rates 2. Declining fertility Two other longterm trends in family relationships are likely to continue: greater valuing of autonomy and selfdirection in children equalization of power between men and women The average life expectancy is increasing in all of the advance industrial societies. Theories of Social Inequality Social class contemporary structures of inequality. In the conservative thesis, inequality is the natural, divine order, and no efforts should be made to alter it. In the radical antithesis, equality is the natural, divine order; inequality is based on abuse of privilege and should be minimized. Classical Sociological Theories of Social Inequality Karl Marx (1818–1883) and Max Weber (1864–1920) Marx saw the relationship between the classes to be based on exploitation and domination by the owners and controllers of production and on alienation among the workers. Marx believed that class consciousness is what motivates people to transform society. Weber saw a class division based on “life chances” in the marketplace. Life chances reflect the distribution of power within a community, including economic power, social prestige, and legal power. The Contemporary Debate Functional theories of social stratification present structural inequality (social classes) as necessary for society. Conflict theorists emphasize the role of power, domination, and coercion in the maintenance of inequality. Functionalism was the root for modernization theory, which attempted to explain on the global level why some countries are poor and others are rich. Conflict perspective counterargument to modernization theory was dependency theory, which argued that poor societies are created by worldwide industrial capitalism, which exploits natural resources and labor. Neoliberalism is based in classic economics and argues that free trade and free markets, with limited government interference, will result in a fair distribution of resources. The world systems perspective suggests that inequality is created and maintained by economic globalization. The world is divided into three different sectors: a core sector that dominates the capitalist world economy and exploits the world’s resources a peripheral sector that provides raw material to the core and is heavily exploited by it a semiperipheral sector that is somewhat independent but very vulnerable to the financial fluctuations of the core states Structural Determinism Versus Human Agency Social scientists who see human behavior as highly determined by one’s position in the social class structure (structural determinism) are challenged by social scientists who emphasize the capacity of humans to create their own realities and who give central roles to human actors, not social structures (human agency). Macroorientation human action is a byproduct of social institutions that are external to human consciousness. Microorientation humans are proactive agents who construct meaning in interaction with others. Structuration theory the relationship between human agency and social structure. Human actions produce social structure, and at all times human action is serving either to perpetuate or to transform social structure. Critical consciousness an ongoing process of reflection and knowledge seeking about mechanisms and outcomes of social, political, and economic oppression that requires taking personal and collective action toward fairness and social justice. Chapter 8 Formal Organizations, Communities, and Social Movements Formal Organization Defined Formal organization has three key components: a collectivity of people a highly formal structure the common purpose of working together to meet a goal or goals They differ in size, structure, culture, and goals. They can be both functional and dysfunctional for society or for specific groups. Perspectives on Formal Organizations Classification system for orgs includes four perspectives: rational perspective systems perspective interpretive perspective critical perspective Contemporary research on org theory needs to address three basic questions: How can we understand current changing organizations (the theory question)? How can we live in these organizations? How can we more healthily live with these organizations? Rational Perspective on Formal Organizations rational perspective on organizations views the formal organization as a “goaldirected, purposefully designed machine”. organizations can be designed with structures and processes that maximize efficiency and effectiveness, concepts that are highly valued in this perspective. Efficiency means obtaining a high ratio of output to input, achieving the best outcome from the least investment of resources. Effectiveness means goal accomplishment. The IdealType Bureaucracy Bureaucracy the most efficient form of organization for goal accomplishment. characteristics of idealtype bureaucracy include: clear hierarchy and chain of command clear division of labor based on specialized skills formal rules of operation formal and taskoriented communications meritbased recruitment and advancement keeping files and records for administrative action Scientific Management Scientific management was directed toward maximizing internal efficiency. widely adopted by both industry and government, first in the United States and then worldwide. This new type of organization, which operates on the combined principles of bureaucratization and scientific management, has four key traits: 1. Efficiency 2. Calculability 3. Predictability 4. Control Scientific Management These principles are: time and motion studies to find the “one best way” to perform each organizational task scientific selection and training of workers; training focused on performing tasks in the standardized one best way close managerial monitoring of workers to ensure accurate implementation of task prescriptions and to provide appropriate rewards for compliance managerial authority over planning and decision making with no challenge from workers Human Relations Theory This theory emphasized the importance of human interaction in organizational efficiency and effectiveness. It proposed that democratic leadership is more effective than authoritarian management in securing worker cooperation. It calls attention to how staff attitudes about the work situation can influence the way they relate to clients. Human Relations Theory It focuses on maximizing efficiency and effectiveness, and it endorses the interests of owners and managers. Managers must become leaders capable of securing the cooperation of workers, but they are still in control of the organization. Human relations theorists still assume that, with “leadership skills,” human interactions can be as rationally managed as structures and procedures. Perspectives on Formal Organizations Classification system for orgs includes four perspectives: rational perspective systems perspective interpretive perspective critical perspective Contemporary research on org theory needs to address three basic questions: How can we understand current changing organizations (the theory question)? How can we live in these organizations? How can we more healthily live with these organizations? Rational Perspective on Formal Organizations rational perspective on organizations views the formal organization as a “goaldirected, purposefully designed machine”. organizations can be designed with structures and processes that maximize efficiency and effectiveness, concepts that are highly valued in this perspective. Efficiency means obtaining a high ratio of output to input, achieving the best outcome from the least investment of resources. Effectiveness means goal accomplishment. The IdealType Bureaucracy Bureaucracy the most efficient form of organization for goal accomplishment. characteristics of idealtype bureaucracy include: clear hierarchy and chain of command clear division of labor based on specialized skills formal rules of operation formal and taskoriented communications meritbased recruitment and advancement keeping files and records for administrative action Scientific Management Scientific management was directed toward maximizing internal efficiency. widely adopted by both industry and government, first in the United States and then worldwide. This new type of organization, which operates on the combined principles of bureaucratization and scientific management, has four key traits: 1. Efficiency 2. Calculability 3. Predictability 4. Control Scientific Management These principles are: time and motion studies to find the “one best way” to perform each organizational task scientific selection and training of workers; training focused on performing tasks in the standardized one best way close managerial monitoring of workers to ensure accurate implementation of task prescriptions and to provide appropriate rewards for compliance managerial authority over planning and decision making with no challenge from workers Human Relations Theory This theory emphasized the importance of human interaction in organizational efficiency and effectiveness. It proposed that democratic leadership is more effective than authoritarian management in securing worker cooperation. It calls attention to how staff attitudes about the work situation can influence the way they relate to clients. Human Relations Theory It focuses on maximizing efficiency and effectiveness, and it endorses the interests of owners and managers. Managers must become leaders capable of securing the cooperation of workers, but they are still in control of the organization. Human relations theorists still assume that, with “leadership skills,” human interactions can be as rationally managed as structures and procedures. Systems Perspective on Organizations The systems perspective on organizations builds on the fundamental principle that the organization is in constant interaction with its multiple and must be able to adapt to environmental change. Organizations are composed of interrelated subsystems that must be integrated in order to achieve the organization’s goals and meet environmental demands. The systems perspective holds that there are many different ways to reach the same ends. Equifinality a system can attain its goals in a variety of ways. Political Economy Model The political economy model focuses on the dependence of organizations on their environments for necessary resources and on the impact of organizationenvironment interactions on the internal structure and processes of the organization. It focuses on two types of resources necessary to organizations: political resources (legitimacy and power) economic resources The political economy model is particularly potent for clarifying how social service organizations resolve such important issues as: which clients to serve which services to provide how to organize service provision how to define staff and client roles Learning Organization Theory The learning organization is one that can: Scan the environment, anticipate change, and detect “early warning” signs of trends and patterns Question, challenge, and change customary ways of operating Allow the appropriate strategic direction to emerge Evolve designs that support continuous learning Interpretive Perspective on Formal Organizations Organizations are creations of human consciousness and reflect the worldviews of the creators. They are social constructions of reality. The interpretive perspective focuses on: processes rather than goals emphasizes flexibility rather than control and reason is interested in a diversity of approaches rather than one right way The interpretive perspective emphasizes human agency in creating organizations and challenges the constraining influence of external forces. Social Action Model An approach to organizations that emphasizes the active role of individual organizational actors in creating the organization. Organizational Culture Model Views organizations as ongoing, interactive processes of reality construction, involving many organizational actors. Organizational culture is made up of language, slogans, symbols, rituals, stories, and ceremonies but also of mundane, routine, daytoday activities. Organizational culture is always evolving, and it is not always unitary. Criticisms of the organizational culture approach are twofold: Being biased in favor of management and potentially exploitative of employees. It fails to take account of the fact that some members have more power than others to influence the construction of culture. Managing Diversity Model The purpose in managing diversity is to maximize the advantages of diversity while minimizing its disadvantages. Critical Perspective on Formal Organizations Critical theories of organizations: organizations as instruments of exploitation and domination, where conflicting interests are decided in favor of the most powerful members. Organizations as Multiple Oppressions Social constructions that exclude and discriminate against some categories of people. Oppression happens through a variety of processes, including: domination and subordination degradation ignoring harassment invisibilizing silencing punishment discipline and violence marginalization Nonhierarchical Organizations summarize some of the special challenges, both internal and external. Internal challenges include: increased time needed for decision making increased emotional intensity due to the more personal style of relationships difficulty incorporating diversity External challenges are the constraints of social, economic, and political environments that value and reward hierarchy Community: Territorial and Relational Community is people bound either by geography or by webs of communication, sharing common ties, and interacting with one another. Communities can be distinguished from formal organizations in two ways: communities have less formal structures they are not organized around specific goals Sense of community the perception of similarity with others an acknowledged interdependence with others a willingness to maintain this interdependence by giving to or doing for others what one expects from them the feeling that one is part of a larger dependable and stable structure Major findings about the trends in social networks since 1985: There has been a smalltomodest drop in the number of people reporting that they have no one to talk to about important matters. The average size of people’s core discussion networks has declined, with a drop of about one confidant. The diversity of people’s core discussion network has markedly declined. People can have ties to both relational and territorial communities at the same time. Theoretical Approaches to Community Five theoretical approaches to community seem particularly relevant for social work: contrasting types approach spatial arrangements approach social systems approach social capital approach conflict approach The spatial arrangements approach, applies only to territorial communities, but the other four can be applied equally well to both relational and territorial communities. Contrasting Types Approach to Community Three contrasting types of communities: Community (1.) lost, (2.) saved, and (3.) liberated As societies change, community is not necessarily lost but becomes transformed, and new forms of community develop. Online communities are just another form of community. Four important elements of community: ﬁcontact ﬁrange ﬁlevel of intimacyﬁproportion of community membership composed of immediate kin versus friends Spatial Arrangements Approach to Community Interest in variations in human behavior related to the type of spatial community and how human health and wellbeing are related to physical features of the community: ﬁrural area ﬁsmall town ﬁsuburb ﬁcentral city How symbolic images of communities — the way people think about their communities — are related to spatial arrangements. A photovoice methodology, putting cameras in the hands of participants and asking them to use the cameras to tell a story about their community. Spatial Arrangements Approach to Community Community physical conditions are important because they carry symbolic meanings for the residents. Elements of environmental design that encourage social interaction as well as those that encourage a sense of control and the motivation to look out for the neighborhood: large spaces broken into smaller spaces personalized spaces spaces for both privacy and congregation Opportunities to visit nearby shared space and having views of nature from home are correlated with increased neighborhood satisfaction. Neighborhood physical environments that provide opportunity for physical activity are particularly valued by children . Geographic information system (GIS) computer technology, which can map the spatial distribution of a variety of social data. Social workers have used GIS to map: (1) the distribution of child care facilities in a geographic region. (2) prior residences of persons admitted to homeless shelters. (3) geographical distribution of rates of child physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. (4) geographical areas of greatest unmet service needs. Thinking about territorial communities as spatial arrangements can help social workers decide which territorial communities to target, for which problems, and with which methods. Comprehensive community initiatives (CCIs) Typical elements of CCIs are: ▯ education ▯ health care ▯ employment ▯ housing ▯ leadership development ▯ physical revitalization ▯ neighborhood security ▯ support networks ▯ recreation ▯ social services ▯ economic and commercial development Social Systems Approach to Community The social systems perspective social interaction rather than on the physical, spatial aspects of community. Social interaction in a community can be understood in two different ways: as culture as structure Community culture includes: pattern of meanings enduring patterns of communication symbols that guide thinking, feelings, and behaviors Community structure includes: patterns of interaction political factors Institutions economic factors Members of communities have two distinctive types of interactions.: horizontal linkage interactions with other members of the community. vertical linkage interaction with individuals and systems outside the community. Bonding social capital is inward looking and tends to mobilize solidarity and ingroup loyalty, and it leads to exclusive identities and homogenous communities. It may also lead to strong outgroup hostilities. Bridging social capital is outward looking and diverse, and it links community members to assets and information across community boundaries. Personal community is composed of ties with friends, relatives, neighbors, workmates, and so on. Another name for personal community is network, which has been defined as “the set of social relations or social ties among a set of actors”. Network theorists suggest that the new communication technologies, have played a large role in transforming community from solidary community, to networked individualism. Community is based more on relationships than territory. Social capital is community cohesion, which is thought to be based in: dense social networks high levels of civic engagement a sense of solidarity and equality among members norms of reciprocity trustworthiness Collective efficacy is “the capacity of community residents to achieve social control over the environment and to engage in collective action for the common good”. Psychological sense of community (PSOC) Four essential elements: 1. Membership is a sense of belonging, of being part of a collective, something bigger than oneself. 2. Influence is bidirectional. 3. Integration and fulfillment of needs refers to individual reinforcement or reward for membership. 4. Shared emotional connection is based on a shared history and identification with the community. In many areas of life, the mediator role is becoming more prominent for social workers. Restorative justice programs similar to the ones used in criminal justice could be used to heal friction and conflict within neighborhoods. Restorative justice gatherings would allow storytelling and dialog about social fractures and allow communities to move toward a more just future. Social Movements: A Definition Social movements — ongoing, largescale, collective efforts to bring about (or resist) social change. Offensive social movements seek to “try out new ways of cooperating and living together”. Defensive social movements seek to defend traditional values and social arrangements. Properties that distinguish social movements from other social collectivities: Are involved in conflictual relations with clearly identified opponents Are linked by dense informal networks Share a distinct collective identity Political Opportunities Perspective on Social Movements Political opportunities (PO) perspective begins with the assumption that social institutions benefit the more powerful members of society, often called elites, and disadvantage many. The political system itself may influence whether a social movement will emerge at a given time, as well as the form the movement will take. Influential dimensions of political openness of the political system stability of political alignments availability of elite allies international relations Stability of Political Alignments The routine transfer of political power from one group of incumbents to another opens opportunities for the development or reactivation of social movements. Availability of Elite Allies Participants in social movements often lack both power and resources for influencing the political process. They may be assisted by influential allies who play a variety of supportive roles. International Relations Since the 18th century, social movements have diffused rapidly across national boundaries, and the fate of national social movements has been influenced by international events. The recent revolution in communication technology, coupled with the globalization of market systems, is quickening the diffusion of collective action, as evidenced by peace and global social justice movements. Mobilizing Structures Perspective on Social Movements Mobilizing structures (MS) perspective Social movements have no influence without effective organization of various kinds of mobilizing structures — existing informal networks and formal organizations through which people mobilize and engage in collective action. Mobilizing structures are the collective building blocks of social movements. Informal and Formal Structures Resource mobilization theory focuses on the organization and coordination of movement activities through formal organizations called social movement organizations (SMOs). Transnational social movement organizations (TSMOS), or social movement organizations that operate in more than one nationstate. The network model focuses on everyday ties between people, in grassroots settings, as the basic structures for the communication and social solidarity necessary for mobilization . The Life Course of Social Movements Social movements are fluid in nature. The MS perspective asserts that mobilizing structures have a strong influence on the life course of a social movement. Movements typically have brief periods of intense activity and long latent periods when not much is happening. Computermediated Social Movement Communication Social movements are being mounted and maintained by use of computer technology. These methods are used to: provide information solicit funds recommend political action organize activities They provide easy entry into activism. Cultural Framing Perspective on Social Movements The cultural framing (CF) perspective a social movement can succeed only when participants develop shared understandings and definitions of the situation. shared meanings develop through a transactional process of consciousness raising, which social movement scholars call cultural framing. Cultural framing involves “conscious strategic efforts by groups of people to fashion shared understandings of the world and of themselves that legitimate and motivate collective action”. Frames for Understanding That a Problem Exists Social movements are actively involved in the “naming” of grievances and injustices. They do so in part by drawing on existing cultural symbols, but they also underscore, accentuate, and enlarge current understanding of the seriousness of a situation. Frames for Establishing Goals Goals are poorly articulated in the early stages of a movement but are clarified through ongoing negotiations about the desired changes. Frames for Identifying Pathways for Action Important framing efforts of a social movement involve tactical choices for accomplishing goals. Each society has a repertoire of forms of collective action that are familiar to social movement participants as well as the elites they challenge. Just as social movement goals fall on a continuum from reform to revolution, forms of collective action can be arranged along a continuum from conventional to violent. Action forms are: used to demonstrate numerical strength, used to bear witness to the substantive issues, and designed to do damage to the parties reputed to be at blame for an unfair situation Emerging Perspectives Social movement researchers need to look at the role of emotions in motivating people to participate in social movement activities. literature on resource mobilization has failed to consider the fundamental differences in the way that different members participate in social movements.
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