Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide French 41
Popular in French Cinema and Culture
Popular in French
This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to French 41 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Chirila in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see French Cinema and Culture in French at University of California - Los Angeles.
Reviews for Final Exam Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/01/15
French Cinema and Culture Final Study Guide Film Information: Le petit soldat Jean lucGodard The black sheep 1946:Studied at the Lycee Buffon in Paris, 1948: failed baccalaureate 1949:studies at Sorbonne, friend with Francois Truffaut, Jacques rivette Influence on European and American filmmakers, but also the emerging national cinemas of latin america, Africa, and Asia Controversial figure (exciting, but lack of emotion. Challenging but boring Post war Paris Jean Paul Sartre o Writer, advocate of existentialism, published novels plays, philosophical essays, literary criticism, and political commentary o Criticized citizen Kane for being too advanced, not moving the people toward social change Andre bazin Praised citizens Kane praised the film for its artistic richness, arguing that Welles o reek vented the art form with his use of deep focus technique to tell the story o Long takes and use of deep focus, as opposed to the use of editing and montage produced a better view of the world Maurice schérer o Cinema critic o Says cinema is not just s representation of reality, but becomes part of the reality itself Defense and illustration of Classical Découpage Shot reverse shot is crucial to concerning a characters mental point of view, their inner life A film technique where one character is shown looking at the other, then the other is shown looking at the first Breathless 1960 Combined high culture like Mozart and low culture like American Filming took place in 1959, camera man was Raoul Coutard o Handheld camera o Minimal lighting Goudard wanted to be flexible in where he could shoot his scenes and improvise without technical problems Only filmed for s couple hours s day, would often cancer the entire days of filming if he didn't have the necessary inspiration He discarded the screenplay he wrote and decided to just write liens day by day Initially 2.5 hours long Decided to cut within scenes, even within shots o Deliberate Juno cuts were unheard of, edits were normally designed to be as seamless as possible o By deliberately appearing amateurish, Godard drew attention to the conventions of classic cinema Success of the film o Opened in 4 cinemas around France, drew very large crowds o Highly praised Anna Karina Godard saw her in a few advertisements because she was a successful model She was offered a role in breathless, but didn't take it because she would have to take her clothes off and wasn't comfortable with that She got a part in le petit soldat Le petit soldat (1961) Protagonist, member of s pro French group is asked to kill someone who supports Algeria to test his loyalty. His desertion from the army and how he says he lacks political ideals makes it seem like he is a double agent He meets and falls in love with a girl who is involved with the FLN, He is captured by the FLN and tortured, then goes back to Veronica’s apart met He kills the guy and tries to get visas for his group and Veronica Veronica was captured by the French group and was tortured and killed At the end, he says he doesn't was too be bitter about it because it happened and it's done Left wing Opposed the anarchic style of new wave Hated the way the cashiers de cinema directors often seemed to prioritize style over substance Claude Chabrol "There is no such thing as a big theme or s little theme, because the smaller the theme is the more one can give it a big treatment, this truth is, truth is all that matters." The essence of the argument between left and right Bruno "thinks on the left in a right wing equation" Confusion and complexity Blurs lines between fiction and reality Godard says his films are all reports of the situation of his country from that time and are accurate He used actual French radio broadcasts, newspapers, posters, ads, rom that actual time period It is set in the past o We know this because Bruno is narrating the story Coup of 13 May 1958 The day of Algiers putsch or the coup of 13 May, s political crisis in French during the turmoil of the Algerian war of independence which led to the return of Charles de Gaulle to political responsibilities after a twelve year Adsense The lurch has as its aim to oppose the formation of w me for Christmas government and to impose a change of policies in favor of the right wing partisans of French Algeria The 4th republic was gone, the 5th was instilled Two time periods Supposed to be set in 1958 Some broadcasts follow this time frame Many Semaine de barricades Convinced that guakke had betrayed them, some units of European volunteers in Algiers staged an insurrection in the Algerian capital starting on January 24 1960. The insurrectionists had intended to revive the spirit of May '58 The film was supposed to be released during the trails of those who started the insurrection, but it was banned for 2 years and when it was released, it wasn't as current and wasn't as influential as it could have been La main rouge Semi mythical agency created by the French secret services to take the blame for government sponsored terrorist actions Names Jacques Aurelien mercier o Points us towards la main rouge who's supposed head of operations was colonel Bruno Caught between two political organizations Conflicted about many things Feels trapped because he can't escape either Hors la loi (outside the law) by Rachid Bouchareb Very conventional aesthetically Tone more like the godfather War movie Deploys the filmic language and narrative conventions of two popular cinematic genres historical epic and gangster film Intertextuality archetypes of the mother, land, blood Boucharebs most controversial film to date Criticized by the right wing deputy Lionel Luca, saying it was anti French Said that there were a lot of historical inaccuracies that negatively portray the French People protested outside the film festival venue Said to be proFLN The "little children from the suburb would have been subjected to the same bad history lesson they would have endured had they remained in Algeria" o Inaccurate because these children were second generation immigrants, and only knew France and were French citizens "Firsts" in outside the law Tackles the colonial French rule in Algeria and the bloody battle for independence that ended in 1962 with French defeat Argues that the origin of the war was the Algerian people becoming tired of being abused and suppressed by being a French colony First sequence o Genesis of the Algerian war is shown to be the dispossession of Algerian peasants as part of French colonization o Use of a long shot makes Messaoud appear dwarfed by the immensity of the blighted landscape o The issue of colonization isn't black and white, even though the People are dressed in those colors Color scheme o Algeria: overexposed, sand toned. Accents desert like conditions and aridity. Shows too much sun o France: winter, night or in dark, accentuates the coldness of France Setif, Algeria 1945 o We see the crowd coming in to the sort of town square from the street, then the French getting ready to shoot. The young boy wrapped in an Algerian flag is shot by the police o Inaccurate version of events "Does not show the other side of the story, the mass killing of French citizens by the Algerians during these events" The French say that the Algerians were all armed and started shooting first, but the Algerians say that's not true We don't know if this is an accurate depiction of what happened This was shown as one sided by Bouchareb because he wanted to highlight the colonial aspect of Algerian life and the unfair circumstances that the Algerians had to go through o Real beginning of the Algerian war Before, very few historians in France thought that this was the beginning of the war Dien Bien Phu, 1945 o Connects the Algerian war and the French war in indo china o Anti colonial propaganda is constantly being played through the PA system, urging the colonial troops to join the Vietnamese in their struggle o "The colonial France is not invincible" Metaphor of a house divided o Algerians aren't all United Brothers go different ways o Highlights how FLN Used violence to eliminate other Algerian nationalist political parties such as the MNA o Yessir Omani, a harki who served on the French side in Indochina, now works for the French police, has a French wife, and is trying got pass off as being French o Two French men who met as resistance fighters during WWII meet again as one is working for the French communist party and the other spreads support for Algerian independence and provides false papers for the FLN members o A double civil war No one could agree on the best path Not simply pro French vs. Pro FLN Challenges to FLN propaganda o Main action of FLN propaganda is in "metropole" France o In the official Algerian history, the FLN was the organization that brought independence to Algeria Said that they were always good Fought against corrupt French o Most of the violence is perpetrated by the FLN on other Algerians o Does not linger inordinately on French violence Torture by French isn't depicted, French violence is de personalized, The massacre scene is shot using slight overexposure that understated the presence of red blood on white sand, off white clothing, and white stone. It doesn't focus on the goriness of the event o 17 October 1961 The last scene of the film In a train station, police arrested the mass crowd of protestors and out them on busses where they were taken to detention centers in Paris. The protest was meant to be peaceful, but many were killed, devastating the community. French violence: the car blows up and Helene is killed. The camera remains still and at a distance from the car. The explosion and subsequent engulfing flames, a spectacle common in Hollywood films, in which we do not see the charred body or any gore like that. The use of large scale violence is generally represented informally classical ways that distance the viewer from the violence being done by turning it into an aesthetic spectacle In contrast, the use of violence by the brothers in their search for national liberation is shown to affect individuals in ways this the viewer seethe violence French monopoly of history Bouchareb is accused of being s mouthpiece for the Algerian government o Most of the funding for the film came from the Algerian govt Porteurs de valise (bag bearers) o Transporters of money for the independence movement o Bad connotation because of the French memories of the war Porteurs de memoire (bearers of memory) o Protestors say that memory doesn't accurately depict the war o Say that historical documents should be consulted rather than reply on people to recount their experience Hyphens Horslaloi outlaw Hors la loi outside the law Debate over which translation is correct The given name doesn't contain hyphens, so it is translated to outside the law Milou en Mai (1990) Louie Malle Context After the war in 45, the economy begins to grow Lower class was given housing and food was pretty cheap Production increased by 50% in about 10 years Working class worked for over 45 hours per week on average People in charge of the factories needed to go to a certain university. The way it was set up, upper class people had the access to the education early on that was needed to obtain admission into the university 2.5 million work accidents per year Not a lot of unemployment because there was so much to do Unions weren't very strong at first, but eventually started strikes and fighting for better workplace environments Origins March 22, 1968 Protests took place because students at s university were unhappy with how the traditional ideals wolf the country were affecting their lives, also were against capitalism and consumerism Police tried to stop protests, but more and more people were coming to them, eventually included about 20% of the population The radio causes people to be make engaged in the revolutionary spirit Police violence and brutality o Tear gas into ambulances and houses What does the grandma represent? Marionmother of France De Gaulle French government Original screenplay Acton happens in French countryside Oblique, ironic, and distanced perception of the events of May 1968 Dialogue and not action is central, contradicts the new wave Two people who were part of the revolution, come back 20 years later and make a movie that is traditional in style o Veiled parallel to the failed revolution About the end of an era o Not a huge change all throughout France, because people outside of Paris tended to keep living as their families had for years and years prior o Everything went back to normal after s few weeks Light hearted portrait of dramatic and tragic events Microcosm of society, reflecting a larger historical crisis Deep focus shots like Renoir Music established that she and tone of the film Malles character Some say Malle is presented by millou Others say the young girl is Malle Milou en Mai Addresses the events in a comedic manner then switches to tragic Allusions to renoirs rules of the game o Malle says that he purposely referenced renoirs work to show the changes in the nature of postwar French society o Paulette dubost is now the matriarch not the soubrette Madamme Viezac is ever present in the film o Seems to haunt the characters o Makes two appearances as a ghost The last appearance is sort of sentimental Breakdown of an established order once the matriarch dies o Euphoria of fee love and freedom is overcome by fear o The old order is back in place once the threats are gone o "The house is saved" Millou says this as he goes into his house However, as he goes in all the furniture is stacked and sectioned off into numbered lots The stream was poisoned by some neighbors It seems like the regular order will never trill be returned Apres Mai by Oliver Assayas Challenges the dominant generalizations about May '68 The most obvious differences: generational chronology, and geographical scope Many events that happened after may 68, but are talked about in the same time period in this movie The Lycée student movement of 1971 Ignited by the imprisonment of Gilles Guiot, a student at Lycee Chaptal, and disfigurement of Richard Deshayes Political activism in the movie Portrays minigeneration gaps (Gilles vs. member of Parti Socialiste Unife) Dehomogenizes activism Vice la revolution, break away from Gauche Proletarienne o Mao's ideas were that revolutions were only successful from using violence and by replacing all the old with something new. These ideas were abandoned Gilles sells the countercultural paper Tout La Lingue Communiste o Closer to traditional Marxism General attitudes Timeless general attitudes were brutality and leniency of the Brigades Speciales o The presumption of impunity of the officers on,y pushes the protestors into further retaliation Parents absent from the lives of their offspring o We on,y see a parent once, showing that the parents didn't really care what their kids were doing and think it was just a phase Narcissistic irresponsibility o They don't really care about their actions but want to get their point across Autobiography Gilles o the directors alter ego o is flawed, self doubting, idealistic, self centered, but likeable o Art comes before his family, girlfriend, and political ideals Jean Pierre o Activist, member of Ligue Communiste, then member if Gauche aproletarienne (armed wing: Nouvelle Resistance Populaire) Assayas is influenced by his parents antiStalinism Global south in Apres Mai Action mostly set outside of parents Assayas went to school in the countryside o Revels dependent on trains scooters, hitchhiking to participate in the revolution o This is a more accurate depiction of those involved in the revolution, rather than the popular idea that they Allende centered in the heart of Paris Public transport is shown not just to show how Gilles gets places, but to give him time to read the magazines that fueled his political ideas and actions Characters travel to Midi and Italy The hippie trail to Afghanistan alludes to other conflicts but from the French late teens view AngloAmerican pop culture The presence of pop culture is present French pop music is absent. 1971 was the year that the Rolling Stones recorded Exile in Main Street while living in tax exile in VillefranchesurMer and the year after thousands of French hippies descended on the isle of wright festival to hear Jimi Hendrix This soundtrack uses the British progressive rock Laure moves to London. Her stepfather is a roadie for Soft Machine, who's why are we sleeping? Is one of the soundtracks most memorable parts Gilles moves to London to train at pinewood studios on a film about nazis, dinosaurs, and scantily clad cavewomen Social representation Very conformist in terms of social representation o Viewpoint of white male heterosexual youth of bourgeois origin and in post compulsory education o Contradicts with the revolutionary aspirations o The people of Assayas' school had no money, yet spend what they have on books and newspapers and coffee o These young people had the opportunity to go to some of the best universities in France, had summer houses, and always ended up in very posh rooms No mention of homosexuals or women o Females are allowed some voice in the film, yet less than that of their male counterpoints o Gilles choice of girlfriends exposes the dilemma between the festive and sensual may, and the Marxist, party and class may o There are sexual aspects, but they don't overwhelm the political ideas o Many autobiographical accounts admit to ulterior motives at times o Christine, while unpacking the food, overheard her male comrades having a self important discussion about strategy and revolution while consigning her to merely technical support as an afterthought Yale Film Studies Analysis Guide Basic Terms: Auteur: French for author, used to indicate the director or other person whose personality influenced the film. It allowed critics to evaluate American genre cinema. Diegesis: objects, events, spaces and the characters that inhabit them, including things actions and attitudes not explicitly presented in the film but expressed by the audience. Editing: the joining together of clips of film into a single filmstrip. Flashback Flashforward: A jump back or forwards in diegetic time. Results in the order of events in the plot no longer matching the order of events in the story. Focus: The degree to which light rays coming from any particular part of an object pass through the lens and reconverge at the same point in the frame of the film negative, creating sharp outlines and distinct textures that match the original object. It creates variations in depth because you can have shallow, deep, or raking focus. Genres: Types of film recognized by audiences and/or producers. Distinguished by narrative or stylistic conventions. Miseenscene: Everything “put in the scene”, meaning the setting, décor, lighting, costumes, and acting. Story/plot: all the audience infers about the events that occur in the diegesis on the basis of what they are shown by the plot, which is the events directly presented in the film. The story is usually more complex than the plot. Scenesequence: A scene is a segment of a narrative film that usually takes place in a single time and place, often with the same characters. Sequence usually refers to a longer segment of film that doesn’t follow the rules of space and time of a single scene, such as a montage. Shot: A single stream of images, uninterrupted by editing. Mise En Scene: Decor: the objects contained in and the setting of a scene. It can be used to amplify character emotion of the dominant mood of a film. Rear Projection: used to combine foreground action with a background shot earlier. For example, most car rides are shot using this method due to restrictions of shooting in a studio and safety. Three Point Lighting: standard lighting scheme for classical narrative cinema. Includes a backlight to pick out the subject from the background, a bright key light that highlights the object, and a fill light from the opposite side to reduce shadows. Most common lighting. High Key Lighting: a lighting scheme in whih the fill light is raised to the same level as the key light, that then produces very bright images with few shadows. Used a lot in comedies. Low Key Lighting: a lighting scheme that uses very little fill light to create strong contrasts and shadows. Often used in suspense genres Deep space: when significant items of an image are placed near to and distant from the camera. Used to integrate characters in their natural surroundings, and to show distance more accurately. Frontality: staging of elements, often humans, so that they face the camera. Often avoided because it breaks the viewers illusion of looking into a different world. Matte Shot: a process shot in which two images are combined into a single image using an optical printer. They can be used to add elements to a realistic scene or to create fantasy spaces. It is a common technique for studio films because of safety or cost of shooting in the actual location Offscreen space: space that exists in the diegesis but isn’t visible in the frame. It’s significant when there is an event happening in offscreen space that the viewer can’t see. Shallow Space: when images are staged with very little depth. Often loses realistic appeal, but enhances pictorial qualities. Costume: refers to the clothes characters wear, can signify a character or make clear distinctions between characters Acting Typage: the selection of actors on the basis that their facial or bodily features readily convey the truth of the character the actor plays Cinematography Color: used to create aesthetic patterns and to establish character or emotion in narrative cinema. Contrast: The ratio of dark to light in an image. If the difference between the light and dark areas is large, the image is said to be "high contrast". If the difference is small, it is referred to as "low contrast" Deep Focus: involves staging an event on film such that significant elements occupy widely separated planes in the image. Unlike deep space, deep focus requires that elements at very different depths of the image both be in focus. Shallow Focus: A restricted depth of field, which keeps only one plane in sharp focus; the opposite of deep focus. Used to direct the viewer's attention to one element of a scene. Shallow focus is very common in closeup Depth of Field: The distance through which elements in an image are in sharp focus. Exposure: A camera lens has an aperture that controls how much light passes through the lens and onto the film. If the aperture is widened, more light comes through and the resultant image will become more exposed. If an image is so pale that the detail begins to disappear, it can be described as "overexposed". Conversely, a narrow aperture that allows through less light will produce a darker image than normal, known as "underexposed". Exposure can be manipulated to guide an audience's response to a scene. Racking Focus: the practice of changing the focus of a lens such that an element in one plane of the image goes out of focus and an element at another plane in the image comes into focus. Racking focus is usually done quite quickly; in a way, the technique tries to mimick a brief, fleeting glance that can be used to quicken the tempo or increase suspense. Rate: A typical sound film is shot at a frame rate of 24 frames per second. If the number of frames exposed in each second is increased, the action will seem to move more slowly than normal when it is played back. Conversely, the fewer the number of frames exposed each second, the more rapid the resulting action appears to be. Telephoto Shot: An image shot with an extremely long lens. The effect of using a long lens is to compress the apparent depth of an image, so that elements that are relatively close or far away from the camera seem to lie at approximately the same distance. Zoom Shot: uses a lens with several elements that allows the filmmaker to change the focal length of the lens while the shot is in progress. Angle of Framing: can be used to indicate the relation between a character and the camera's point of view. Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the horizontal to the vertical sides of an image Level of Framing: used to signify sympathy for characters who occupy particular levels in the image, or just to create pleasurable compositions. Camera level is obviously used to a greater advantage when the difference in height bewteen objects or characters is greater. Canted Framing: a view in which the frame is not level; either the right or left side is lower than the other, causing objects in the scene to appear slanted out of an upright positon.Canted framings are used to create an impression of chaos and instability. Following Shot: A shot with framing that shifts to keep a moving figure onscreen. A following shot combines a camera movement, like panning, tracking, tilting or craning, with the specific function of directing our attention to a character or object as he/she/it moves inside the frame. Reframing: Short panning or tilting movements to adjust for the figures' movements, keeping them onscreen or centered. Pointofview Shot: A shot taken with the camera placed approximately where the character's eyes would be, showing what the character would see; usually cut in before or after a shot of the character looking. Wide Angle Lens: A lens of short focal length that affects a scene's perspective by distorting straight lines near the edges of the frame and by exaggerating the distance between foreground and background planes. Crane Shot: change in framing rendered by having the camera above the ground and moving through the air in any direction Handheld camera/steady cam: The use of the camera operator's body as a camera support, either holding it by hand or using a gyroscopic stabilizer and a harness. Pan: A camera movement with the camera body turning to the right or left. On the screen, it produces a mobile framing which scans the space horizontally. A pan directly and immediately connects two places or characters, thus making us aware of their proximity. Tilt: A camera movement with the camera body swiveling upward or downward on a stationary support. It produces a mobile framing that scans the space vertically Tracking shot: mobile framing that travels through space forward, backward, or laterally. Whip pan: An extremely fast movement of the camera from side to side, which briefly causes the image to blur into a set of indistinct horizontal streaks Extreme longshot: framing in which the scale of the object shown is very small; a building, landscape, or crowd of people will fill the screen. Usually the first or last shots of a sequence, that can also function as establishing shots. Longshot: framing in which the scale of the object shown is small. It makes for a relatively stable shot that can accommodate movement without reframing Medium longshot: Framing such than an object four or five feet high would fill most of the screen vertically. Medium closeup: A framing in which the scale of the object shown is fairly large; a human figure seen from the chest up would fill most of the screen. Closeup: framing in which the scale of the object shown is relatively large. In a closeup a person's head, or some other similarly sized object, would fill the frame Extreme closeup: framing in which the scale of the object shown is very large; most commonly, a small object or a part of the body usually shot with a zoom lens. Editing Cheat cut. In the continuity editing system, a cut which purports to show continuous time and space from shot to shot but which actually mismatches the position of figures or objects in the scene. CROSSCUTTING, aka PARALLEL EDITING: Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneously. CUTIN, CUT AWAY: An instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer view of some portion of the same space, and vice versa Dissolve: transition between two shots during which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears; for a moment the two images blend in superimposition. Iris:round, moving mask that can close down to end a scene (iris-out) or emphasize a detail, or it can open to begin a scene (iris-in) or to reveal more space around a detail. Jump Cut: elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot. Either the figures seem to change instantly against a constant background, or the background changes instantly while the figures remain constant Establishing Shot: A shot, usually involving a distant framing, that shows the spatial relations among the important figures, objects, and setting in a scene. Usually, the first few shots in a scene are establishing shots, as they introduces us to a location and the space relationships inside it. Shot/reverse shot: two or more shots edited together that alternate characters, typically in a conversation situation Superimposition: The exposure of more than one image on the same film strip. Unlike a dissolve, a superimposition does not signify a transition from one scene to another. Wipe: A transition betwen shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating the first shot as it goes and replacing it with the next one. A very dynamic and noticeable transition, it is usually employed in action or adventure films Eyeline Match: A cut obeying the axis of action principle, in which the first shot shows a person off in one direction and the second shows a nearby space containing what he or she sees Graphic Match: Two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements (e.g., color, shape). Used in trasparent continuity styles to smooth the transition between two shots Match on Action: A cut which splices two different views of the same action together at the same moment in the movement, making it seem to continue uninterrupted. Long Take: A shot that continues for an unusually lengthy time before the transition to the next shot. Overlapping editing: Cuts that repeat part or all of an action, thus expanding its viewing time and plot duration. Rhythm: The perceived rate and regularity of sounds, series of shots, and movements within the shots. Rhythmic factors include beat (or pulse), accent (or stress), and tempo (or pace). Rhythm is one of the essential features of a film, for it decisively contributes to its mood and overall impression on the spectator. Continuity Editing: system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action. Continuity editing relies upon matching screen direction, position, and temporal relations from shot to shot. Montage: 1. A synonym for editing. 2. An approach to editing developed by the Soviet filmmakers of the 1920s such as Pudovkin, Vertov and Eisenstein; it emphasizes dynamic, often discontinuous, relationships between shots and the juxtaposition of images to create ideas not present in either shot by itself Elliptical Editing: Shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing an ellipses in plot and story duration. Sound
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'