Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide HIST 2020
Popular in Survey of United States History Since 1877
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Date Created: 12/02/15
History Final Exam Study Guide: Themes: New Deal: - Policies: o Progressivism o Foundation of Modern Welfare State: § Thought to most important factor of the New Deal § If economy isn’t sufficient there is a way to make money – especially for the elderly § GI Bill: largest form of welfare o Established permanently that Federal Government should Regulate Economy to Sustain Economic Health of the Country: § Great depression was an example of the problem with boom-bust cycles o Expanded Size of Federal Bureaucracy: WWII aids in the growth o Modern Presidency Created: § FDR creates it – modeled after Teddy Roosevelt’s administration • Judicial, Executive, and Legislative Offices § New Deal and FDR ended Political Domination by WASP Elites: • New Coalition in the Democratic Party • Organized Labor • Immigrant Groups o Encouraged a Wave of Successful Unionization in Large Industries: § Wagner Act: unionization of steel auto and railroad industries § Worker’s Right to Bargain Collectively § CIO: congress of industrial organizations o Indian Policy: § Reversal of Dawes Allotment Act § Collier Act: re-established tribal ownership of land - Experiences: o The New Deal overlooked, caused and worsened existing problems: § Didn’t End Economic Depression: • Unemployment continued • Under-compensation continued § Vietnam War: brings a recession in the 1970’s and 1980’s § Mobilization Kick Starts: Cost plus sharing; new market that was not there before § New Deal Did Not Respond if Demands Didn’t Come From an Organized Interest Group: • CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps • Racial Segregation and Discrimination: never changed • Domestic Workers: not covered by New Deal Programs • Agricultural Workers: left out of Social Security - Some Programs had Negative Consequences: o National Recovery Act: (NRA) § Try to get industries to cooperate and have codes that requires industries to agree on how much they produce § Includes: minimum wage laws, hours worked § Often fired black workers and hired white workers or reclassified skilled jobs as unskilled labor to avoid minimum wage laws o AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Act & Administration: § Pay farmers to take their land out of production – subsidies planters kept it and kicked off tenants and hired them as day laborers § Enriched elites and hurt the ones it was aimed to help o FHA: Federal Housing Administration o TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority - Outcomes: End of Great Depression due to 16 million people being taken out of the workforce and put into the armed forces - Bank Regulation: o Deficit Spending: borrowing to spend o FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; regulates banking industry up to a certain amount an individual’s money is insured o Unemployment Compensation: first time this was offered to help people until they could find a job o Bank Holiday: closed all banks and only allowed ones that were solvent to reopen – most successful New Deal Program o World’s Fair 1982: biggest series of bank failures since Great Depression - Regulation of Stock Market: o SEC: Securities Exchange Commission; regulates issuance of stock o Corporate Forms: overgrowth of stocks o Crop Commodities: no guarantee crops will be good – like buying air - Legacy: o The New Deal: was an unprecedented federal response to an awful crisis § Programs touched positively, millions of lives either directly or indirectly, if not everyone o Fundamental Programs: have been sustained and expanded by both democratic and republican administrations – but the democrats had more influence because the president was a democrat World War II: - Entry: o Open trade, free market, democratic ideology pointed to Germany and Japan as threats to American prosperity and security o Isolationism: eroded for good by outbreak of Second World War – do not return to isolationism up until this point in time o FDR: § Played an active role in managing American responses to lead to US entry into the European War § Played a huge/important role in the events leading up to and the entry of the US into the war - Home-front Impact: o 3 Groups of Division: § 2/3 is isolationists • Strong Majority: among policy makers and citizens are isolationists § Liberal Isolationists: merchants of death in WWI § Conservative Isolationists: if you mobilize it will grow the size of the scope of government – anti-New Deal – will cause higher taxes, too powerful executive branch § Internationalists: argue that we are past the point of isolationists – airplane – technology means you have to be involved and cannot stay isolated – most avid proponents of open trade, low tariffs, US should collaborate with other countries – a lot were CEOs of major corporations like IBM, standard oil – depended on stable world order – dependable, predictable and dependent on world trade Origins of the Cold War & Understanding the Cold War: Cement of the Cold War: - US Containment Policy: o Emerges as 1 of 4 possible choice of how to respond the soviets in the postwar – 1940’s o US demobilizes faster than intended: because the American troops were so tired of being overseas – some end up in China and Germany – fairly fresh troops that didn’t see combat during the war § Would have had to start WWIII to push back the Soviets o As soon as the nuclear weapons are detonated in Japan it is questioned if it should have been done o Engage them diplomatically and build a partnership with the Soviets: main thing driving soviet fear is the use of nuclear weapons by the US in Japan § Some people want to share nuclear information so everyone has access to it – not chosen – overtime it becomes more of a viable option § In the 1970’s there are so many bombs created that it puts human existence in danger § Containment allows the US to confront the Soviets in an indirect fashion and accept the pragmatic reality that they will not be pushed out of Eastern Europe: now the goal is to contain them and keep them only in Eastern Europe o Events among Grand Alliance/Big 3 (England, US, and Soviet Union) during WWII contributed to Cold War: § What happens in the Grand Alliance that contributes to the Cold War o Allies polarized between Soviet Union and US and England during WWII § Polarization: divide or cause to divide into two sharply contrasting groups or sets of opinions or beliefs. o Much of this wartime conflict centered on Eastern Europe and looking ahead to what will happen in the postwar world – how WWII is figured out in Europe: § Roots of Conflict with Russia now goes back to this time § Longest War the US has been engaged in – end of WWII – 1990 – possible that The War on Terror will pass this and become the longest war the US has been engaged in § How to structure thinking of the Cold War • Examples: Second-Front Controversy, Eastern Europe, and Yalta Policies: - US Containment Policy: o Emerges as 1 of 4 possible choice of how to respond the soviets in the postwar – 1940’s Arenas: - Two Sources of Conflict: o How to conduct the Allied War effort: Second-front controversy o What would the postwar settlement be: Eastern Europe o Conflicting Needs and Ambitions Undermined Wartime Unity: § Conflicting view of the war effort § Communism vs. Capitalism § Personalized Diplomacy: plants what will bloom into the Cold War § WWII pushes the US to ending isolationism – cold war ends it o Nuclear Weapons: pose a threat that becomes an existential threat § Existential Threat: threat to your very existence – capable of eradication – o Isolationism is over for the US: always debate of how we should be involved in other issues of the world o Liberal to conservative spectrum during cold war that militarily we have to be involved in the world Outcomes: - Abroad: United Nations Created - At Home: Recognition of China and Chiang as great power – do not want another communist state - The Impact of the Cold War on Popular Culture was: o The suffocation of liberty and the debasement of culture itself, fear of communism, talents were thwarted, creative possibilities were stifled, and the development of a more vital and various national culture was unrealized according to Stephen Whitfield – has a negative effect and weakens it Civil Rights Movement: Phases: Not listed: CRM dates back all the way to post civil war (when it really began) - 1. Constitutional Liberalism: o NAACP o Brown v. Board of Education o Noted for its leniency on the courts and the belief in the system o Not very successful? Little Rock Crisis - 2. Direct Action Liberalism: o CORE, SCLC o Martin Luther King o Not just system but let the people be involved o Put pressure on the system through sit-ins demonstrations and marches - 3. Radicalism: o SNCC, Panthers o Non violent cooperative methods not working Approaches: Takes many continuations of movements to have these things actually enforced – also depends on geographic location o Civil Rights Act of 1964 o Voting Rights Act of 1965 - Approach generated by the people: in the field of history in the 1960’s pushes toward a we the people perspective o Most people do not leave a lot of written records of day to day experiences – European, Military, Latin, Latin American all have different experiences and how they think about/perceive the human experience - Top - Down: An approach that puts the dynamic energy on the federal government, national organizations, national achievements (legislation from the supreme court) and nationally known leaders of the Civil Rights Movement o In this approach we would focus on people like: § Martin Luther King helped to start the SLCL • SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference § Rosa Parks: referred to as the mother of the movement – also part of a different approach § President Johnson: key federal official that signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 - JFK: on the heels of his assassination in 1963 Johnson pulls the impetus from congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that Kennedy had moved toward proposing - Bottom Up: approach that is more centered on smaller groups, but also the masses or grassroots (broader down on the ground, mass movement coming from ordinary people filtering up to the top) look more at the origins of movements o Emphasis on the grassroots/ citizens insurgency aspects of the movement as the most dynamic energy that motivates change - Charles Payne: takes this view and argues that without the grassroots nothing would have happened; 100 years after civil war 1965 when the Voting Rights Act was passed. Federal Government is important in shaping it by its resistance to do anything o Ex: like Eisenhower who said nothing about the Brown Decision § Integrate with deliberate speed – doesn’t take position § Eisenhower’s lack of enforcement shapes subsequent events because southern whites read it as permission to resist the Brown decision and form the White Citizens Council to resist the Brown Decision § Mass resistance generates the grassroots movement to have these things enforced § Have these things enforced - Another way the argument works: o The inaction at the federal level is what helps promote the violence in the movement o Because MLK and other activists and advisors learn that it takes great violence for the federal government to act and if they can encourage enough of a spectacle on public TV that they will get action from the federal government - Desegregation of Busses: busses will be burned, people are shot at, makes a public spectacle at a national level that the federal government steps in to stop the bus riots - Martin Luther King: o Uses nonviolence as a tactic but also know violence is an important mechanism at getting federal attention and actions o Less enamored with MLK – there was a movement before MLK he only emerged because of the movement that was there already - Rosa Parks: o Most respectable woman got tired on the bus of being pushed around and did not give up her seat, she was arrested and it led to a bus boycott o Bottom up view: her activism predated the Montgomery bus boycott since at least 1930 o An issue that animated her was the rape of black women by white men in the south and how they could just get away with it - She went to disobedient training – so well known in Montgomery that some bus drivers would not pick her up at a bus stop because there was a good chance she would refuse to move seats – involved in the movement way before she was arrested for not moving to the back of the bus - Focuses a lot on men: o A lot of leaders were males and preachers from southern protestant churches most SCLC and NAACP leaders are men o Majority of activists that showed up on a day to day basis that put their lives on the line were black women § Also had a lot of women leaders but were at more of a local level with this background Rosa Parks seems more like a typical case Outcomes: - Alabama context of Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Mississippi around Voting Right act of 1965 - Black disenfranchisement à political citizenship - Brown Decision: - Important in both narratives: o Not only important because the Civil Rights Movement started with the decision o Federal infrastructure culminating in this decision – came from a series of cases brought from the NAACP about segregation of public schools – dates back to Plessy vs. Ferguson: separate but equal § The unanimous decision is that the idea of separate but equal is unconstitutional is inherently unequal § Creates inferiority and unequal facilities and the sense of inequality that damages children § Case the NAACP made argued by Thurgood Marshall who became the first black justice of the supreme court o Eisenhower doesn’t speak of the decision and makes white feel that he isn’t going to push for it to happen – so when you get black families test this and send their children into an all white school there is massive resistance à leads to more direct action 101 st airborne, nationalizes the guard - In Virginia and Arkansas: they shut down the whole public school system for a year to fight integration – white citizens council and KKK chapters pop up to fight his - More actions taken to enforce this: no southern town that did not have some aspect of the Civil Rights Movement o After 1965 it moves out of the south and into other parts of the country (had been the whole time but was more apparent now) o Some of the hardest fought battles were in LA, NYC, Chicago - Attack biggest barriers to equal citizenship: political and legal obstacles o Equal protection under the bill of rights, under the law, political equality à civil rights o MLK embodies the spirit of the ideology of the movement and becomes more radical § After 1965 pushes more and focuses on poverty – class issue not just racial § Connect what is happening in the united states and around the world § Criticizes on the Vietnam War that causes President Johnson to cut off working with him assassinated in Memphis while trying to help the sanitation workers strike - After these achievements in 1964 and 1965 the movement doesn’t end but the goals change: more into economic equality. § 1964 that Kennedy had moved toward proposing - National Achievements: o Brown Vs. Board of Education decision o Civil Rights Act of 1964 o Voting Rights Act of 1965 Women’s Movement: Phases: o Phase I: § 1830s – 1930s/50s § Focused on: • Education • Suffrage and the suffragettes • Equality of work • Political equality • The liberal perspective • Inadequacies of Marxism • Links with other social movements § Civil rights is the biggest challenge following WWII – morphs into and helps others like the Anti-War groups and Women’s Movement • 1906: when NAACP is formed traditional start is Brown v. Board of Education in 1950 o Phase II “Second Wave Feminism”: § 1960s/70s - 1990s § Radical demands: • Equal pay • Wages for housework • Control over reproduction • Abortion • Opposition to domestic violence • Issues of ‘difference’ and ‘identity’ • Radical feminism Approaches: Issue of Women’s Suffrage: put on the backburner for other issues in the US – use energy for abolition - If slavery is abolished: African Americans will be given civil equality and women will be included - 14 , 15th, and 16 Amendments: more momentum for women to organize themselves No federal focus on Women since 1920 Gender-based discrimination permeated American society, economy, politics, and culture Not all Women’s issues are the same: Middle class and working class women would have different issues Ethnic diversity: - Between whites th - Early 18 century difference in identities at play Industrial Revolution: diversification of occupations and more women working in public occupations over time Important wars in 20 Century: ability of women to work in formerly male jobs lends to more political significance as a citizen Main accomplishment of WWI: - Women’s right to vote 19 Amendment in 1920 - When women get the vote there is a mix of identity – no unified women’s votes Political impact of women: is diffused because of their other identities - Issues of equality do not really change - Leave workforce either willingly or unwillingly when men return from WWI - Return to women’s work from a high paying job to something like a maid, cook, or teacher WWII: Even bigger increases of women moving into male occupations and more stay in the workforce when the men return - By law the men’s job status is protected either your same job or one close to what it was - Women shift out of the workforce into gender-typed occupations Numbers: in WWII the number of women workers doesn’t decline like it did after WWI - More married women working after WWII Contradiction: - Encountering more discrimination and inequality in wages and treatment at work - More face to face with gender discrimination - Popular culture is saying women should stay at home Not reality: shifting towards dual income families – ideal in popular culture is different Movement about Women and Inequality in the 1960’s and 1970’s when they gained the Vote in 1920 In 1960 when JFK took office it was still an issue on the backburner and no legislation had been in-acted towards women since 1920 - Popular language: had no sexist terms in 1960 and before - Ms. (product of second wave feminism – Ms. Magazine) Had not been used before it was either Miss or Mrs. – defined by either being married or unmarried - No rape crisis shelters, no women’s studies, no domestic violence programs - More than 10,000 women died due to back alley illegal abortions - All changed by 1975 shorter period of time for a significant number of achievements (15 years) o Building on the precedent of the Civil rights movement Roots of Change: Demographics by/in 1960’s: - Birthrate declining, and fewer children o 1900: married by 22 and would have 3-4 kids § Many women had more children than that o Life expectancy: 60 -62 years of age § Most adult life was spent rearing children o 1960: marrying around 22 and would have 1-2 kids § Birthrate declined after the baby boom § Peak of postwar baby boom: 25 births per thousand women, then 21 o Life expectancy: was moved up to 80 § More adult years not rearing children at home • 40 years of adult life spent not raising children • Accounts for the rise of women in the workforce • No such thing as public subsidized child care o Comes from the great society and feminist movement § Either family helped out with taking care of the kids or the women stayed out of the workforce Increase in female workers: more women entered the workforce due to WWI and WWII Increase in # of college-educated women: - 1960: women were 30% of the public education and became the majority like it is today Increase in rates of divorce: - Instability of marriage; steadily increased since - Now its over ½ of marriages end in divorce o 1900: 8 out of every 100 marriages would end in divorce o 1980: 52 out of 100 marriages would end in divorce - Marriage was no longer assumed to be the pivotal event in a woman’s life - When there are not laws that protect women - Ever-Married Women: women who were married and their status of that marriage effects their status in one way or another for the rest of their live - Hard to track in a census: either women are single or married o Results in: structural gender discrimination Increase in # of female-headed households in poverty: - No laws that protect alimony or Child support payments - A man could divorce his wife with no legal obligation to support his family before second wave feminism Economic well being of Men vs. Women: - Homeward bound author said that: o Men: got divorced and their financial well being increased by 40% o Women: got divorced and their financial well being decreased by 75% Loosening restrictions of the 1960s: - Thought of as the sexual revolution because there is nothing to do away with structural inequalities - Do not have child care centers: if there is no family to help out the women would have to pay for it and there are no laws forcing the ex-husband to pay child support - Leaves women without a way to get a job: women did not think about the chance of divorce and thought they would be a stay at home mom Massive gender discrimination: limited occupations where employers would hire women Women: held jobs in the service sectors in restaurants stores, as maids - Paid a lot less than the jobs that were given to men – a lot of the time were part time work JFK: in 1960 he is elected to office - 1961: JFK’s first domestic efforts establishes his place on the status of women Two paths of modern feminism: - NOW: o Formed in 1966 o National Organization for Women – civil rights organization § 25% of members are men o Civil rights focus: civil and political inequality is the focus o Dedicates itself to bring women into mainstream society and have equal rights and opportunities as men o Still around and is the largest Feminist organization o Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan important and influential members o 1848-1865: same reaction and issues of gender inequality are not as important as racial issues o Stokely Carmichael: president of SNCC § When women raise an issue about gender he says: “the best place for women is on their back” § They should be here to service the male activists o Women get education from these movements: how to organize, network, civil disobedience o People with experience who start to work together and move to form their own group dedicated to gender issues - Liberationists: o Transforming society and culture o Focused on broader more comprehensive issues in society § Transform the way we live together o Popular media is the image of liberationists o More public protests and rally that were more provocative: § Bra burners: like anti war burning cards § Protest at beauty pageants § Captures more public attention Two streams converging in early 1970’s: – converge into one movement Sometimes they come together sometimes they are in conflict - Outcomes: o Time Magazine: deemed 1975 the “Year of the Women” o Newsweek Magazine: ran a story on the exploding field of women’s history o Most Important Consequence of the Women’s Movement: interest that was stimulated in uncovering women’s past § A person’s view of the past is shaped by the way people think about the present • As women started to think differently about their status in contemporary society they also began to think differently about their place in the past • Women were mostly excluded from history, a reflection of their subordinate position in American society • Like African Americans, women began to recapture their past when they began to fight for equality o The Women’s Movement: § Greatly stimulated the study of women’s history § Is now history itself o Women’s historians’ main goal is to bring women into the mainstream if the American past § They seek to understand how the women’s experience influenced and in turn was influenced by American society and culture § To understand the motivations of feminists, moreover, those influences can not be considered without the ideology that supports it § By making connections between the public and private sphere of family and everyday life – the women’s movement is an example of why historians must be interested in more than the activities of statesmen and generals o The Modern Women’s Movement: illustrates the importance of historian’s motivations § Although history may be written to serve the purpose of defending or attacking contemporary policies § Historians do not turn to the past merely to do so Vietnam War: - Entry: - How and why did the US get involved in the Vietnam War? o The Us wanted to prevent areas of the world from falling into Communist influence o The Cold War was well underway when the French reached out to the US for aid in the 1940’s and 1950’s o The US saw Vietnam as another Korea - Approaches: - US presidents and Vietnam: A way to frame the understanding of the Vietnam War is by presidential administrations o Truman: sent $$ to the French 1945 – 1952 o Ike: money to south Vietnam à domino 1954-1959 à why we needed to support them o John F Kennedy: sent $$ + military “advisors” to South Vietnam 1960-1963 § Advisors: troops but are called advisors to avoid having to get approval to be involved in the war effort o Lyndon B Johnson: sent $$ + US ground troops 1965-1968 § Becomes a direct involvement and the dramatic bombing on North Vietnam § Brings down his administration wanted grand domestic legacy to match FDR’s New Deal § Pushes programs in the Great Society but Vietnam War hurts those programs and his administration that ends due to political spending in the war • Great Society: set of domestic programs launched by President Johnson in 1964 and 1965 focused on eliminating poverty and racial injustice in America o Nixon: § “Vietnamization” § Bombing Cambodia: 1968-1975 • Extends war to Cambodia because of Viet Cong roots there • Creates major political instability and genocide in Cambodia • Regime rises up in Cambodia • Destabilized whole area but ended American involvement § Campaigns to end the War and turn it over to the South Vietnamese army § Ends the American involvement - Experiences: - Bombing the North and Setting up Bases in the South: o The Vietcong with the support of the Viet Minh can hide themselves in the jungle and come out at night and pick off the soldiers and attack and then disappear into the jungle – very hard to find - Search and Destroy Missions: o Main Problem: what does success look like in this war – hard to be able to tell if you are making gains o Send Caputo and others on these missions - In WWII: o You knew you succeeded if you gained land o Invasion of France takes a while but the troops are gaining territory and moving towards Berlin o Were able to bomb places and destroy them and they would have an impact in the country - War of Attrition: wearing down the enemy o Trying to dramatically increase the human cost of continuing the war effort o How do we do that? o Cant bomb factories, towns, or that sort of thing because they do not exist in large number - US Quantifies Success by: the number of enemy dead and measure it against their own dead - Strategy of the American Effort: o Body count of dead Vietnamese o Fighting an enemy that is doesn’t look like the South Vietnamese Army – wear clearly distinctive military uniforms - Vietcong: - Guerilla Army: look like civilians do not wear a military uniform wear usually black pajama looking pants and shirt with flip flops o What most Vietnamese peasants wear o Makes it hard to distinguish Vietcong from civilians and are under pressure to kill and gain a high body count - Overtime as the fight gets uglier and even more stressful it becomes the intent to kill anyone who looks like civilians o Start to attack civilians and Vietcong - Vietcong has their own agenda o Need popular support o Make sure peasants are not giving aid and support to South Vietnamese and the US - Pressure is ugly: o Often force civilians to support them and will attack collaborators and there is cost to be paid for supporting either side o If you support Vietcong you could be retaliated against by the South Vietnamese and US o If you support the US and South Vietnamese the Vietcong will retaliate against you § Its an either or situation in which either way you will be retaliated against by one side or the other - If its dead and it Vietnamese it’s a Vietcong o How the US troops thought and the mindset they had when fighting o They did not pay attention to if they were really Vietcong or civilians their mission was to search and destroy - General Westmoreland: o Was able t report to President Johnson that they are being successful and killing a large amount of people § High kill rate, making advances, victory is around the corner and Lyndon B Johnson tells the US citizens this - Johnson had no overall strategy for how to win the war and was a micromanager – almost too involved but not involved enough in conceptualizing a way to end the war - House of Cards: prior to 1968 the general public believed the story they heard from the administration o Journalists accepted what Johnson said at face value - Media coverage today is not the same as it was then: very strong media coverage and censorship in Wars today because of the media coverage during the Vietnam War - Images shown during Vietnam War: o American Troops being killed shown on TV from what it looked like after a fight, coffins ß not seen today o More glaring shock when there is a transition about media coverage - 1968: General Westmoreland is talking about victory being around the Corner the TET Offensive occurs - Outcome: o What were the legacies of this war for the US? § Cast a shadow that the US is still under today § Event is powerful for the US but extremely powerful effects and exponentially greater in Vietnam, Louse, and Indochina § No long end for this conflict Policies of Post-1965: - Watergate: - Watergate reform to presidential power: o FDR the power of the president is growing and constitutional amendment that prohibits more than 2 terms being served - Nixon and his Downfall: congress reasserts power and shifts it to more of a balance o War Powers Act: 1973 and amended repeatedly – report use of military to congress within 48 hours (expanded to 30 days) and have t cease within 60 days unless war is declared – congress has to vote for the funding o Freedom of Information Act: 1974 citizens must have access to files compiled by federal government unless branch of government makes a compelling case that there is a compelling case of national security – especially files on you § Been expanded and amended – historians today use this all the time - During Watergate: the federal government (Johnson and others before) had kept files on American citizens The Oval Office Challenge: - President Gerald Ford: 1974-1976 o Seen as honest, moderate, republican – gets fallout of where things were at that point o Watergate: pardons Richard Nixon and a lot of people cannot forgive that § Nixon would never be held accountable for any crime he committed during his presidency - Comes in when US is coming into problems in the economy – broader international context little control - 1980’s and 1990’s: - President Jimmy Carter: 1976-1980 o Context leads to election of Jimmy Carter in 1976 as president: man from Georgia Campaigns as an outsider – honest down to earth moderate o “You deserve a government as good as you are” o Themes: born again Christian, honest – very different from Nixon and where they had been up to that point o Major Economic Agenda: not able to consistently come up with a way to do this o As an outsider: Carter sees Washington/Congress as the problem – ambitious agenda but eliminates his own constituency – doesn’t back expansions of welfare – doesn’t back full employment bill – physical conservative o Phone Industry: used to be a public utility and breaks it up into private companies o Doesn’t back wage and price controls o Achieves: energy policy - Oil, Coal, and Nuclear energy (biggest percentage of consumption in 1970’s à Oil § Where was the US getting it? Middle-east also Mexico, Venezuela, and rarely in the US (Tulsa in 1920’s) - Oil: o Started consuming great amounts produced in the Middle-East – huge sector of the economy – access to oil/ cheap energy drives the economic wellbeing in US o Conflict between Israel and middle eastern neighbors – access to oil becomes thorny for US – and Cold War context leads the US to back certain powers in the Middle-East that are not particularly progressive regimes very far from democratic (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Iran) Backs Saddam Hussein § Saddam Hussein: Cold War partner and partner due to oil – becomes problematic - Iran in 1970’s: conflict between Israel and Egypt – the Arabic speaking neighbors has an impact on US access to oil o US fully backing Israel in the conflicts o No experience working with congress – important to a lot of Americans o Increasing world competition o Trade Deficit o Oil Embargo/OPEC: Oil and Petroleum Exporting Countries à see Israel as imperialistic and limit their production f oil and raise the price § US cant control price and access the way they want and it causes serious economic issues at home – concrete consequences for Americans - Running out of gas at gas stations, companies pass cost onto consumers by price increases – end up with difficult situation of inflation - Inflation: usually occurs when economy is heating up – more money in peoples pockets - US Occupational Transformation: industrial à service = deindustrialization - Stagflation: how do you solve this? Nothing works well - Example of Big Symbolic Way of Limit to Power Abroad: o Iran dictator becomes ill and basically faces insurgent rebellious nationalistic campaign against his power and deposes him § The US lets him come to US for cancer treatment – Carter does this particularly militant faction and gains control in Iran and gains control of dissention movement and attack the US embassy and take Iranian hostages – dramatic in 1979 – draft was in question – thought it was WWIII Engaged in fight with Islamic militants that do not pose a threat to US - Brings Carter administration down – soviets face same thing o Invade Afghanistan in 1979 § Us funds Bin Laden and the Taliban to fight the Soviets § Afghanistan is the Soviet’s Vietnam Materials: Textbook: Chapters 10-14 Hollitz: Chapters 9-12 Kennedy “What the New Deal Did”: David M. Kennedy revisits the New Deal’s relevance to our own time. He concludes that the stubborn persistence of the Great Depression through the decade of the 1930s opened the political space for the New Deal’s greatest accomplishments, all of which were aimed at reducing risk in key sectors of the economy and imparting a measure of security to American life for generations thereafter Brooks “Winning the Peace”: The most important thing to understand about the impact of WWII on the postwar South is: - The political legacy of the war: as disruptive and contradictory for Georgia and the south. - They destabilized conservative democratic hegemony made racial reform and economic development key issues of the postwar era - Determined that the politics of growth would prevail over the politics of progressive racial reform. - The war generated considerable political and racial turmoil - Agriculture boomed during the war - During the war a lot of African Americans went to work in the absence of white male workers due to being part of the war – o When the war ended the white males who survived, veterans, people who move into the cities, military encampments returned to see that the black people had taken over their jobs - Dissatisfaction: with archaic political leadership in the South - Impact of going to war and seeing Europe then coming back to the US: o Drink (booze) flows freely in Europe – legacy in south of having blue states and laws – o Lifestyle in Europe is a lot freer than what they experience at home, People saw things during the war that were much better conditions than where they lived Coming of Age in Mississippi: Anne Moody: bottom up approach because: - She represents an ordinary person who was very poor - Did not have much to gain by federal action - Acts on what she has experienced – doesn’t realize the racial aspects until after she heard whispers at Mrs. Burkes (how she found out about racism) Rumor of War: Main Focus: How and why did US involvement in the Vietnam War escalate in the 1960’s? Atomic Café: Documentary was put together at the peak of the anti nuclear time in America – during the Reagan administration narrative that uses archived material and historical footage The Murder of Emmett Till: Emmett Till: - He was born in 1943 to Louis and Mamie Till - His father died when he was only 4 - Developed a stutter as a result of having polio as a child - His cousin, Wheeler Parker described him as “a natural born leader” - When he had just turned 14 years old, his Uncle, Mose Wright, who was 64, invited him and his cousin to live with him in Mississippi in June of 1955 o In June 1955: § Rock and roll was popular in Chicago § The schools were no longer segregated in the area of Chicago he was living in - Emmett’s mother warned him about how different Mississippi was than Chicago and that he needed to be very careful o She told him stories of things that had happened and often exaggerated them so that he would truly understand how dangerous it could be to live there - A story she told him was about how to black men who were members of the NAACP had been lynched for registering black men to be able to vote - Before Emmett boarded the Illinois Central Train to Mississippi on August 19, 1955 his mother gave him his father’s signet ring she had received when he died – Emmett gave her his watch to remind her of him while he was gone Murder of Emmett and what caused it: - Emmett’s uncle lived on the outskirts of Money, Mississippi o Money was a one street town with 5 or 6 shops - The most popular shop was Bryant’s Grocery o Roy Bryant and his wife Carolyn, who had two children, owned it. o They lived in close quarters behind the store. - The store was one of the most popular spots for Emmett and other workers to go to get a drink and a snack after working all day - One Wednesday Emmett and his friends jumped in the car and headed for the store – when they got there: o Roy was out of town and only Carolyn was working o They went in 2 by 2 - Emmett purchased 2 cents worth of bubble gum and when he was walking out the door he whistled at Carolyn – this made her angry and she ran out back o Emmett and his friends quickly jumped in the car and drove away - Early in the morning of the following Sunday – J.W Milam and Roy went to Mose’s house with a gun and a flashlight and took Emmett from the house with him o Mose begged them to just give him a whipping and not to kill him - but they threatened him and said if he said anything he wouldn’t make it to see his 65 birthday o Willie Reed, one of Emmett’s friends who was a sharecropper, could hear them beating him in the shed behind Milam’s house - The next day, one of the black women who worked for Milam saw Too Tight Collins, who also worked for Milam cleaning out the back of Mr. Milam’s truck. o The truck bed was filled with blood, Collins told her what had happened and even had one of Till’s shoes still in the back of the truck - Emmett’s body was found in the Tallahatchie River, when Clarence Strider Jr. (son of the sheriff) saw his leg poking out of the water. - He found a boat to ride out and get the body out of the water, when he pulled the body up there was a 75 pound gin fan tied around his neck - Till was beaten so bad the only way they were able to identify him was from his father’s signet ring he had received from his mother when he left Chicago around 2 weeks before he was found. Eyes on the Prize – Bridge to Freedom: Bridge to Freedom, 1965: - Malcolm X: Black Americans would have to take the necessary steps to protect themselves - Martin Luther King: symbolized the success of non violence and won the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway in December of 1964 o SNCC: student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in Dallas County o At the end of 1964 the SNCC was exhausted and had to look to Dr. King and the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) for help o Dr. King re-opened the rivalry between the leaders of these two organizations – the differences in leadership lead to challenges. o Announced that the business men, mayor, and white power structure must take responsibility for the actions of Sheriff Jim Clark and if nothing was done in response to his actions the movement would be forced to take more drastic measures - The differences were put aside on January 18, 1965 and the two organizations held a movement together - Sheriff Jim Clark: o The organizations expected him to draw media attention, which would ultimately gain the attention of the white house and congress o In mid-January he arrested a black teacher which led to many protests at the courthouse and were held by teachers in the area even though by doing so they risked losing their jobs o Said that the protestors were making a mockery of the courthouse - When teachers who protested at the courthouse attempted to enter the building they were hit by the police and pushed back down off of the steps – but they were not arrested like they had hoped to be – so they went to join a rally at a nearby church - The Teachers March was the first middle class march in Selma - The teachers in the area had a huge impact on the others in the community - Joseph Smitherman: o Mayor of Selma o Said that the city was subjected to hardships, accidentally called MLK Martin Luther Coon on TV - Wilson Baker: succeeded Clark in 1966 and became the Sheriff - Half of the citizens in Selma, AL were black, but almost none of them were registered to vote. - When Negroes even tried to register to vote very few were granted registration - President Johnson: wanted to eliminate every remaining obstacle they Negroes faced when registering to vote and though 1965 was the perfect opportunity to do so - Sheyenne Webb and Rachel West: took park in these marches o Sheyenne was 8, Rachel was 9 o During the march on the Edmond Bridge Hozel Williams picked her up while they were running from the cops, but he was not fast enough so she had him put her down and she ran for her life - C.T. Vivian: called Sheriff Clark a Nazi and accused him of being as big of a racist as Hitler was o Told the sheriff that it was not a local problem it was a national problem and in response Clark lost his temper and began to hit Vivian – he hit him so hard he ended up fracturing one of his fingers o Movement was encountering all the evil that was destroying the Black Americans Identifications: 2 Specific Legacies of the New Deal’s Impact: - 1. New established Welfare State like social security and the Tennessee valley authority - 2. Balance of power between congress and the presidency shifted wit the presidency gaining significant power NRA-National Recovery Act: - Try to get industries to cooperate and have codes that requires industries to agree on how much they produce - Includes: minimum wage laws, hours worked - Often fired black workers and hired white workers or reclassified skilled jobs as unskilled labor to avoid minimum wage laws AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Act & Administration: - Pay farmers to take their land out of production – subsidies planters kept it and kicked off tenants and hired them as day laborers - Enriched elites and hurt the ones it was aimed to help Women and the New Deal: - Women’s roles in the 1930s were typically relegated to those of housewife and mother - So many of the New Deal programs were not initially directed at them o Although Eleanor Roosevelt did her best to change this - Most of the women were employed through the Works Progress Administration (WPA). o In its peak year only 13.5 percent of those in the WPA program were women . - The National Youth Administration (NYA), provided opportunities for young girls. NYA offered educational opportunities, work training, and financial aid for youth between ages sixteen and twenty-five Japan’s Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere: East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere: invade a country and turn citizens into slaves for the Japanese Empire and to help the war effort in China - US preoccupied with the war in Europe and the Philippines – but don’t want too many resources in the pacific theater o Do not do much about Japan in Southeast Asia and instead send a lot of aid and $ to help other countries fight against the Japanese Isolationists v. Internationalists: Isolationism: A state of mind denying the existence of any American political or military interests outside the Western Hemisphere Internatioinalism: The commitment to build among nations the means necessary to preserve order and provide non-violent ways for resolving disputes - Basic difference between internationalism and isolationism: Isolationists limited the nation's concerns to matters at home and at best in the Americas, and internationalists asserted that American concerns were universal, i.e., wherever mankind might be oppressed or in danger of aggression - Similarities between internationalism and isolationism?:Both denied the US had a vital interest (as opposed to concern) in any specific political and/or military confrontation outside the Western Hemisphere. No more than the isolationists would the internationalists accept the obligation that the country employ its military power to enforce even those arrangements in world politics that reflected its basic interests (every internationalist scheme of the 1920s emphasized not specific commitments abroad but agreements and declarations that would confront any would-be aggressor not with enforcement provisions, but rather with a combination of international law, signed promises, and world opinion Neutrality Acts: - 1935 and 1937 - Ways to respond to things in Europe while keeping what happened in WWI in mind - Neutrality Act of 1935: Act that prohibits arms sales to either side after the president announces a state of belligerency, Forbids loans to either side – amended in 1937 as events worsen in Europe, Hitler’s power grows - Neutrality Act of 1937: allows belligerents to pay goods that were not arms and had to pay in cash and carry it on your own ships Quarantine Speech: The Quarantine Speech was given by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt on October 5, 1937 in Chicago, calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and non-intervention that was prevalent at the time. Atlantic Charter: - The Atlantic Charter was a joint declaration released by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on August 14, 1941 following a meeting of the two heads of state in Newfoundland - Atlantic Charter, August 1941: meets with Winston Churchill – going to war just matters on when – decide what we are fighting for o Protect self-government of all o Freedom of seas o Postwar general security system – United Nations o Fair economic system, equal access to world wealth o FDR adds 4 things to help explain to the US citizens why the US is fighting Four Freedoms: - The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech (technically the 1941 State of the Union address), he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy: Freedom of speech. - FDR’s addition to the Atlantic Charter in 1942: “4 Freedoms” o Freedom of Religion o Freedom of Speech o Freedom from Fear o Freedom from Want Grand Alliance of WWII: - US, Great Britain, And Soviet Union: o US and Great Britain are Allies at the outset of WWII - even though the US was technically neutral and isolated o USSR was part of a “pact” with Hitler for Poland: § Both Germany and the Soviet Union said they would not attack each other in order to split Poland in half § Hitler breaks the pact and the USSR switches to allies with the US and Great Britain – brings great distrust the Grand Alliance because they are a communist country (USSR was the first communist state when they were taken over by the Bolsheviks) o Loss of Soviet Lives: § WWI: USSR lost 4-5 millions civilians in the war § Stalin’s Purges and Famines (1920’s) killed about 20 million people § WWII: they lose another 10 million people - Because of the turmoil of 2 World wars and Stalin’s regime they have a need for security - Need for Security: plays into the way they see events with the Grand Alliance - FDR: was the first to recognize their existence as a legitimate state until 1930 because he saw the need of the Allies to have them on their side – reassured them that the US was committed to defeating Germany and Japan and that they were in it for the long haul - FDR, Churchill, and Stalin: FDR was one of the few leaders in the west who got along with Stalin à looking toward the postwar world by 1944 they are certain the Soviet Union will prevail it will be important to have unity and build a foundation for international peace o Chance to carve a new future between the Soviets and the Capitalist Powers of the West o Prior to USSR joining the Allies: Great Britain was the only country fighting against Germany in Eastern Europe o US Similarity with Soviet Union: the rest of the world is an opportunity to bring the rest of the world on their side o Divided view of the world: Us vs. Them– you’re either with us or with them o 1970’s and later you see states in the world try to carve a path § Non-Alliance Nations Movement: Countries like India who works with both sides when they can - Unity during the war important precursor for the postwar world: it was a worldwide conflict that involved every major power in the world –
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