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What would the postwar settlement be?

What would the postwar settlement be?

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School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: Survey of United States History Since 1877
Professor: Jennifer brooks
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: i went through and defined all the terms that were listed! hope this helps!
Uploaded: 12/02/2015
57 Pages 53 Views 2 Unlocks
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History Final Exam Study Guide: 


What would the postwar settlement be?



Themes: 

New Deal: 

- Policies: 

o Progressivism

o Foundation of Modern Welfare State: 

▪ Thought to most important factor of the New Deal  

▪ If economy isn’t sufficient there is a way to make money –

especially for the elderly  

▪ GI Bill: largest form of welfare

o Established permanently that Federal Government should  We also discuss several other topics like What properties of water are important for life?

Regulate Economy to Sustain Economic Health of the Country: 

▪ Great depression was an example of the problem with  

boom-bust cycles


How to conduct the allied war effort?



o Expanded Size of Federal Bureaucracy: WWII aids in the growth o Modern Presidency Created: If you want to learn more check out While the american dream has made itself a part of american society, social scientists typically doubt its existence. why?

▪ FDR creates it – modeled after Teddy Roosevelt’s  

administration

• Judicial, Executive, and Legislative Offices

▪ New Deal and FDR ended Political Domination by WASP  If you want to learn more check out What is the most common treatment for adhd?

Elites: 

• New Coalition in the Democratic Party

• Organized Labor

• Immigrant Groups

o Encouraged a Wave of Successful Unionization in Large Industries: ▪ Wagner Act: unionization of steel auto and railroad  


What are the two paths of modern feminism?



industries

▪ Worker’s Right to Bargain Collectively

▪ CIO: congress of industrial organizations If you want to learn more check out Define art.

o Indian Policy: 

▪ Reversal of Dawes Allotment Act

▪ Collier Act: re-established tribal ownership of land

- Experiences: 

o The New Deal overlooked, caused and worsened existing 

problems: 

▪ Didn’t End Economic Depression: 

• Unemployment continued

• Under-compensation continued

▪ Vietnam War: brings a recession in the 1970’s and 1980’s

▪ Mobilization Kick Starts: Cost plus sharing; new market  

that was not there before

▪ New Deal Did Not Respond if Demands Didn’t Come From  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of a collective action problem?

an Organized Interest Group: 

• CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps

• Racial Segregation and Discrimination: never  

changed

• Domestic Workers:  not covered by New Deal  

Programs

• Agricultural Workers: left out of Social Security

- Some Programs had Negative Consequences: 

o National Recovery Act: (NRA) 

▪ Try to get industries to cooperate and have codes that  

requires industries to agree on how much they produce

▪ Includes: minimum wage laws, hours worked  

▪ Often fired black workers and hired white workers or  

reclassified skilled jobs as unskilled labor to avoid  

minimum wage laws  

o AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Act & Administration: 

▪ Pay farmers to take their land out of production – subsidies  planters kept it and kicked off tenants and hired them as  If you want to learn more check out Define marketing strategy.

day laborers  

▪ Enriched elites and hurt the ones it was aimed to help

o FHA: Federal Housing Administration

o TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority

- Outcomes: End of Great Depression due to 16 million people being taken  out of the workforce and put into the armed forces

- Bank Regulation: 

o Deficit Spending: borrowing to spend

o FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; regulates banking  industry up to a certain amount an individual’s money is insured o Unemployment Compensation: first time this was offered to help  people until they could find a job

o Bank Holiday: closed all banks and only allowed ones that were  solvent to reopen – most successful New Deal Program

o World’s Fair 1982: biggest series of bank failures since Great  Depression

- Regulation of Stock Market: 

o SEC: Securities Exchange Commission; regulates issuance of stock o Corporate Forms: overgrowth of stocks

o Crop Commodities: no guarantee crops will be good – like buying  air

- Legacy: 

o The New Deal: was an unprecedented federal response to an awful  crisis

▪ Programs touched positively, millions of lives either  

directly or indirectly, if not everyone

o Fundamental Programs: have been sustained and expanded by  both democratic and republican administrations – but the

democrats had more influence because the president was a  

democrat

World War II: 

- Entry: 

o Open trade, free market, democratic ideology pointed to Germany  and Japan as threats to American prosperity and security

o Isolationism: eroded for good by outbreak of Second World War – do not return to isolationism up until this point in time

o FDR: 

▪ Played an active role in managing American responses to  

lead to US entry into the European War

▪ Played a huge/important role in the events leading up to  

and the entry of the US into the war

- Home-front Impact: 

o 3 Groups of Division: 

▪ 2/3 is isolationists

• Strong Majority: among policy makers and citizens  

are isolationists

▪ Liberal Isolationists: merchants of death in WWI

▪ Conservative Isolationists: if you mobilize it will grow the  

size of the scope of government – anti-New Deal – will  

cause higher taxes, too powerful executive branch

▪ Internationalists: argue that we are past the point of  

isolationists – airplane – technology means you have to be  

involved and cannot stay isolated – most avid proponents  

of open trade, low tariffs, US should collaborate with other  

countries – a lot were CEOs of major corporations like IBM,  

standard oil – depended on stable world order –

dependable, predictable and dependent on world trade

Origins of the Cold War & Understanding the Cold War: 

Cement of the Cold War: 

- US Containment Policy: 

o Emerges as 1 of 4 possible choice of how to respond the soviets in  the postwar – 1940’s 

o US demobilizes faster than intended: because the American troops  were so tired of being overseas – some end up in China and  

Germany – fairly fresh troops that didn’t see combat during the  war  

▪ Would have had to start WWIII to push back the Soviets

o As soon as the nuclear weapons are detonated in Japan it is  questioned if it should have been done

o Engage them diplomatically and build a partnership with the  Soviets: main thing driving soviet fear is the use of nuclear  

weapons by the US in Japan

▪ Some people want to share nuclear information so  

everyone has access to it – not chosen – overtime it  

becomes more of a viable option  

▪ In the 1970’s there are so many bombs created that it puts  

human existence in danger

▪ Containment allows the US to confront the Soviets in an 

indirect fashion and accept the pragmatic reality that they  

will not be pushed out of Eastern Europe: now the goal is to  

contain them and keep them only in Eastern Europe

o Events among Grand Alliance/Big 3 (England, US, and Soviet  Union) during WWII contributed to Cold War: 

▪ What happens in the Grand Alliance that contributes to the  

Cold War

o Allies polarized between Soviet Union and US and England during  WWII 

▪ Polarization: divide or cause to divide into two sharply  

contrasting groups or sets of opinions or beliefs.

o Much of this wartime conflict centered on Eastern Europe and  looking ahead to what will happen in the postwar world – how 

WWII is figured out in Europe: 

▪ Roots of Conflict with Russia now goes back to this time

▪ Longest War the US has been engaged in – end of WWII  

– 1990 – possible that The War on Terror will pass this and  

become the longest war the US has been engaged in  

▪ How to structure thinking of the Cold War  

• Examples: Second-Front Controversy, Eastern  

Europe, and Yalta

Policies: 

- US Containment Policy: 

o Emerges as 1 of 4 possible choice of how to respond the soviets in  the postwar – 1940’s 

Arenas: 

- Two Sources of Conflict: 

o How to conduct the Allied War effort: Second-front controversy o What would the postwar settlement be: Eastern Europe

o Conflicting Needs and Ambitions Undermined Wartime Unity: ▪ Conflicting view of the war effort

▪ Communism vs. Capitalism  

▪ Personalized Diplomacy: plants what will bloom into the  

Cold War  

▪ WWII pushes the US to ending isolationism – cold war ends  

it

o Nuclear Weapons: pose a threat that becomes an existential threat  ▪ Existential Threat: threat to your very existence – capable  

of eradication –

o Isolationism is over for the US: always debate of how we should be  involved in other issues of the world

o Liberal to conservative spectrum during cold war that  

militarily we have to be involved in the world

Outcomes: 

- Abroad: United Nations Created

- At Home: Recognition of China and Chiang as great power – do not want  another communist state

- The Impact of the Cold War on Popular Culture was: 

o The suffocation of liberty and the debasement of culture itself, fear  of communism, talents were thwarted, creative possibilities were  stifled, and the development of a more vital and various national  culture was unrealized according to Stephen Whitfield – has a  

negative effect and weakens it

Civil Rights Movement: 

Phases: 

Not listed: CRM dates back all the way to post civil war (when it really began) - 1. Constitutional Liberalism: 

o NAACP  

o Brown v. Board of Education  

o Noted for its leniency on the courts and the belief in the system  o Not very successful? Little Rock Crisis  

- 2. Direct Action Liberalism: 

o CORE, SCLC  

o Martin Luther King  

o Not just system but let the people be involved  

o Put pressure on the system through sit-ins demonstrations and marches  

- 3. Radicalism: 

o SNCC, Panthers  

o Non violent cooperative methods not working

Approaches: Takes many continuations of movements to have these things actually  enforced – also depends on geographic location

o Civil Rights Act of 1964

o Voting Rights Act of 1965

- Approach generated by the people: in the field of history in the 1960’s pushes toward a we the people perspective  

o Most people do not leave a lot of written records of day to day  experiences – European, Military, Latin, Latin American all have  different experiences and how they think about/perceive the  

human experience

- Top - Down: An approach that puts the dynamic energy on the federal  government, national organizations, national achievements (legislation  from the supreme court) and nationally known leaders of the Civil Rights  Movement

o In this approach we would focus on people like:

▪ Martin Luther King helped to start the SLCL  

• SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference

▪ Rosa Parks: referred to as the mother of the movement – also part of a different approach

▪ President Johnson: key federal official that signs the Civil  Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 

- JFK: on the heels of his assassination in 1963 Johnson pulls the impetus  from congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that Kennedy had  moved toward proposing

- Bottom Up: approach that is more centered on smaller groups, but also  the masses or grassroots (broader down on the ground, mass movement  coming from ordinary people filtering up to the top) look more at the  origins of movements  

o Emphasis on the grassroots/ citizens insurgency aspects of the  movement as the most dynamic energy that motivates change - Charles Payne: takes this view and argues that without the grassroots  nothing would have happened; 100 years after civil war 1965 when the  Voting Rights Act was passed. Federal Government is important in  shaping it by its resistance to do anything  

o Ex: like Eisenhower who said nothing about the Brown Decision   ▪ Integrate with deliberate speed – doesn’t take position  ▪ Eisenhower’s lack of enforcement shapes subsequent  

events because southern whites read it as permission to  

resist the Brown decision and form the White Citizens  

Council to resist the Brown Decision  

▪ Mass resistance generates the grassroots movement to  have these things enforced

▪ Have these things enforced

- Another way the argument works: 

o The inaction at the federal level is what helps promote the  violence in the movement  

o Because MLK and other activists and advisors learn that it takes  great violence for the federal government to act and if they can  encourage enough of a spectacle on public TV that they will get  action from the federal government

- Desegregation of Busses: busses will be burned, people are shot at, makes  a public spectacle at a national level that the federal government steps in  to stop the bus riots

- Martin Luther King: 

o Uses nonviolence as a tactic but also know violence is an  important mechanism at getting federal attention and actions o Less enamored with MLK – there was a movement before MLK he  only emerged because of the movement that was there already - Rosa Parks:

o Most respectable woman got tired on the bus of being pushed  around and did not give up her seat, she was arrested and it led to  a bus boycott  

o Bottom up view: her activism predated the Montgomery bus  boycott since at least 1930   

o An issue that animated her was the rape of black women by white  men in the south and how they could just get away with it

- She went to disobedient training – so well known in Montgomery that  some bus drivers would not pick her up at a bus stop because there was a  good chance she would refuse to move seats – involved in the movement  way before she was arrested for not moving to the back of the bus - Focuses a lot on men: 

o A lot of leaders were males and preachers from southern  

protestant churches most SCLC and NAACP leaders are men

o Majority of activists that showed up on a day to day basis that  put their lives on the line were black women

▪ Also had a lot of women leaders but were at more of a local  

level with this background Rosa Parks seems more like a  

typical case

Outcomes: 

- Alabama context of Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Mississippi around Voting  Right act of 1965 

- Black disenfranchisement ???? political citizenship

- Brown Decision: 

- Important in both narratives: 

o Not only important because the Civil Rights Movement started  with the decision  

o Federal infrastructure culminating in this decision – came from a  series of cases brought from the NAACP about segregation of  

public schools – dates back to Plessy vs. Ferguson: separate but  

equal

▪ The unanimous decision is that the idea of separate but  

equal is unconstitutional is inherently unequal  

▪ Creates inferiority and unequal facilities and the sense of  

inequality that damages children  

▪ Case the NAACP made argued by Thurgood Marshall who  

became the first black justice of the supreme court

o Eisenhower doesn’t speak of the decision and makes white feel  that he isn’t going to push for it to happen – so when you get black  families test this and send their children into an all white school there is massive resistance ???? leads to more direct action 101st 

airborne, nationalizes the guard

- In Virginia and Arkansas: they shut down the whole public school system  for a year to fight integration – white citizens council and KKK chapters  pop up to fight his

- More actions taken to enforce this: no southern town that did not have  some aspect of the Civil Rights Movement

o After 1965 it moves out of the south and into other parts of the  country (had been the whole time but was more apparent now) o Some of the hardest fought battles were in LA, NYC, Chicago

- Attack biggest barriers to equal citizenship: political and legal obstacles o Equal protection under the bill of rights, under the law, political  equality ???? civil rights

o MLK embodies the spirit of the ideology of the movement and  becomes more radical  

▪ After 1965 pushes more and focuses on poverty – class  

issue not just racial  

▪ Connect what is happening in the united states and around  

the world  

▪ Criticizes on the Vietnam War that causes President  

Johnson to cut off working with him assassinated in  

Memphis while trying to help the sanitation workers strike

- After these achievements in 1964 and 1965 the movement doesn’t end  but the goals change: more into economic equality.

▪ 1964 that Kennedy had moved toward proposing

- National Achievements: 

o Brown Vs. Board of Education decision  

o Civil Rights Act of 1964 

o Voting Rights Act of 1965

Women’s Movement: 

Phases: 

o Phase I: 

▪ 1830s – 1930s/50s 

▪ Focused on: 

• Education

• Suffrage and the suffragettes

• Equality of work

• Political equality

• The liberal perspective

• Inadequacies of Marxism

• Links with other social movements

▪ Civil rights is the biggest challenge following WWII –

morphs into and helps others like the Anti-War groups and  

Women’s Movement

• 1906: when NAACP is formed traditional start is  

Brown v. Board of Education in 1950 

o Phase II “Second Wave Feminism”: 

▪ 1960s/70s - 1990s 

▪ Radical demands: 

• Equal pay

• Wages for housework

• Control over reproduction

• Abortion

• Opposition to domestic violence

• Issues of ‘difference’ and ‘identity’

• Radical feminism

Approaches: 

Issue of Women’s Suffrage:  put on the backburner for other issues in the US – use  energy for abolition

- If slavery is abolished: African Americans will be given civil equality and  women will be included

- 14th, 15th, and 16th Amendments: more momentum for women to  organize themselves

No federal focus on Women since 1920

Gender-based discrimination permeated American society, economy, politics, and  culture

Not all Women’s issues are the same: Middle class and working class women would  have different issues

Ethnic diversity: 

- Between whites

- Early 18th century difference in identities at play

Industrial Revolution: diversification of occupations and more women working in  public occupations over time

Important wars in 20th Century: ability of women to work in formerly male jobs  lends to more political significance as a citizen

Main accomplishment of WWI: 

- Women’s right to vote 19th Amendment in 1920 

- When women get the vote there is a mix of identity – no unified women’s  votes  

Political impact of women: is diffused because of their other identities - Issues of equality do not really change

- Leave workforce either willingly or unwillingly when men return from  WWI  

- Return to women’s work from a high paying job to something like a maid,  cook, or teacher

WWII: Even bigger increases of women moving into male occupations and more  stay in the workforce when the men return

- By law the men’s job status is protected either your same job or one close  to what it was

- Women shift out of the workforce into gender-typed occupations Numbers: in WWII the number of women workers doesn’t decline like it did after  WWI

- More married women working after WWII

Contradiction:

- Encountering more discrimination and inequality in wages and treatment  at work  

- More face to face with gender discrimination  

- Popular culture is saying women should stay at home

Not reality: shifting towards dual income families – ideal in popular culture is  different

Movement about Women and Inequality in the 1960’s and 1970’s when they  gained the Vote in 1920

In 1960 when JFK took office it was still an issue on the backburner and no  legislation had been in-acted towards women since 1920 

- Popular language: had no sexist terms in 1960 and before  

- Ms. (product of second wave feminism – Ms. Magazine) Had not been  used before it was either Miss or Mrs. – defined by either being married  or unmarried

- No rape crisis shelters, no women’s studies, no domestic violence  programs

- More than 10,000 women died due to back alley illegal abortions  - All changed by 1975 shorter period of time for a significant number of  achievements (15 years)  

o Building on the precedent of the Civil rights movement

Roots of Change: 

Demographics by/in 1960’s: 

- Birthrate declining, and fewer children

o 1900: married by 22 and would have 3-4 kids  

▪ Many women had more children than that

o Life expectancy: 60 -62 years of age  

▪ Most adult life was spent rearing children

o 1960: marrying around 22 and would have 1-2 kids  

▪ Birthrate declined after the baby boom

▪ Peak of postwar baby boom: 25 births per thousand  

women, then 21

o Life expectancy: was moved up to 80  

▪ More adult years not rearing children at home

• 40 years of adult life spent not raising children  

• Accounts for the rise of women in the workforce  

• No such thing as public subsidized child care  

o Comes from the great society and feminist  

movement  

▪ Either family helped out with taking care of the kids or  

the women stayed out of the workforce

Increase in female workers: more women entered the workforce due to WWI and  WWII

Increase in # of college-educated women: 

- 1960: women were 30% of the public education and became the majority  like it is today

Increase in rates of divorce: 

- Instability of marriage; steadily increased since

- Now its over ½ of marriages end in divorce

o 1900: 8 out of every 100 marriages would end in divorce  

o 1980: 52 out of 100 marriages would end in divorce

- Marriage was no longer assumed to be the pivotal event in a  woman’s life

- When there are not laws that protect women

- Ever-Married Women: women who were married and their status of that  marriage effects their status in one way or another for the rest of their  live

- Hard to track in a census: either women are single or married  o Results in: structural gender discrimination

Increase in # of female-headed households in poverty: 

- No laws that protect alimony or Child support payments  

- A man could divorce his wife with no legal obligation to support his  family before second wave feminism

Economic well being of Men vs. Women: 

- Homeward bound author said that:  

o Men: got divorced and their financial well being increased by 40% o Women: got divorced and their financial well being decreased by  75% 

Loosening restrictions of the 1960s: 

- Thought of as the sexual revolution because there is nothing to do away  with structural inequalities

- Do not have child care centers: if there is no family to help out the women  would have to pay for it and there are no laws forcing the ex-husband to  pay child support 

- Leaves women without a way to get a job: women did not think about the  chance of divorce and thought they would be a stay at home mom Massive gender discrimination: limited occupations where employers would hire  women

Women: held jobs in the service sectors in restaurants stores, as maids  - Paid a lot less than the jobs that were given to men – a lot of the time  were part time work

JFK: in 1960 he is elected to office

- 1961: JFK’s first domestic efforts establishes his place on the status of  women

Two paths of modern feminism: 

- NOW: 

o Formed in 1966 

o National Organization for Women – civil rights organization  ▪ 25% of members are men

o Civil rights focus: civil and political inequality is the focus

o Dedicates itself to bring women into mainstream society and have  equal rights and opportunities as men

o Still around and is the largest Feminist organization

o Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan important and influential  

members

o 1848-1865: same reaction and issues of gender inequality are not  as important as racial issues

o Stokely Carmichael: president of SNCC  

▪ When women raise an issue about gender he says: “the  

best place for women is on their back”

▪ They should be here to service the male activists

o Women get education from these movements: how to organize,  network, civil disobedience  

o People with experience who start to work together and move to  form their own group dedicated to gender issues

- Liberationists: 

o Transforming society and culture

o Focused on broader more comprehensive issues in society

▪ Transform the way we live together

o Popular media is the image of liberationists

o More public protests and rally that were more provocative:   ▪ Bra burners: like anti war burning cards

▪ Protest at beauty pageants

▪ Captures more public attention

Two streams converging in early 1970’s: – converge into one movement Sometimes they come together sometimes they are in conflict

- Outcomes: 

o Time Magazine: deemed 1975 the “Year of the Women”

o Newsweek Magazine: ran a story on the exploding field of  

women’s history

o Most Important Consequence of the Women’s Movement: interest  that was stimulated in uncovering women’s past

▪ A person’s view of the past is shaped by the way people  

think about the present

• As women started to think differently about their  

status in contemporary society they also began to  

think differently about their place in the past

• Women were mostly excluded from history, a  

reflection of their subordinate position in American  

society

• Like African Americans, women began to recapture  

their past when they began to fight for equality

o The Women’s Movement: 

▪ Greatly stimulated the study of women’s history

▪ Is now history itself

o Women’s historians’ main goal is to bring women into the  mainstream if the American past

▪ They seek to understand how the women’s experience  

influenced and in turn was influenced by American society  

and culture

▪ To understand the motivations of feminists, moreover,  

those influences can not be considered without the  

ideology that supports it

▪ By making connections between the public and private  

sphere of family and everyday life – the women’s  

movement is an example of why historians must be  

interested in more than the activities of statesmen and  

generals

o The Modern Women’s Movement: illustrates the importance of  historian’s motivations

▪ Although history may be written to serve the purpose of  

defending or attacking contemporary policies

▪ Historians do not turn to the past merely to do so

Vietnam War: 

- Entry: 

- How and why did the US get involved in the Vietnam War? 

o The Us wanted to prevent areas of the world from falling into  Communist influence

o The Cold War was well underway when the French reached out to  the US for aid in the 1940’s and 1950’s 

o The US saw Vietnam as another Korea

- Approaches: 

- US presidents and Vietnam: A way to frame the understanding of the  Vietnam War is by presidential administrations

o Truman: sent $$ to the French 1945 – 1952 

o Ike: money to south Vietnam ???? domino 1954-1959 ???? why we  needed to support them

o John F Kennedy: sent $$ + military “advisors” to South Vietnam  1960-1963 

▪ Advisors: troops but are called advisors to avoid having to  

get approval to be involved in the war effort

o Lyndon B Johnson: sent $$ + US ground troops 1965-1968  

▪ Becomes a direct involvement and the dramatic bombing  

on North Vietnam  

▪ Brings down his administration wanted grand domestic  

legacy to match FDR’s New Deal  

▪ Pushes programs in the Great Society but Vietnam War  

hurts those programs and his administration that ends due  

to political spending in the war

• Great Society: set of domestic programs launched by  

President Johnson in 1964 and 1965 focused on  

eliminating poverty and racial injustice in America

o Nixon:

▪ “Vietnamization”

▪ Bombing Cambodia: 1968-1975 

• Extends war to Cambodia because of Viet Cong roots

there  

• Creates major political instability and genocide in  

Cambodia  

• Regime rises up in Cambodia

• Destabilized whole area but ended American  

involvement

▪ Campaigns to end the War and turn it over to the South  Vietnamese army

▪ Ends the American involvement

- Experiences: 

- Bombing the North and Setting up Bases in the South: 

o The Vietcong with the support of the Viet Minh can hide  themselves in the jungle and come out at night and pick off the  soldiers and attack and then disappear into the jungle – very hard  to find  

- Search and Destroy Missions: 

o Main Problem: what does success look like in this war – hard to be  able to tell if you are making gains  

o Send Caputo and others on these missions

- In WWII: 

o You knew you succeeded if you gained land

o Invasion of France takes a while but the troops are gaining  territory and moving towards Berlin

o Were able to bomb places and destroy them and they would have  an impact in the country

- War of Attrition: wearing down the enemy

o Trying to dramatically increase the human cost of continuing the  war effort

o How do we do that?  

o Cant bomb factories, towns, or that sort of thing because they do  not exist in large number

- US Quantifies Success by: the number of enemy dead and measure it  against their own dead

- Strategy of the American Effort: 

o Body count of dead Vietnamese

o Fighting an enemy that is doesn’t look like the South Vietnamese  Army – wear clearly distinctive military uniforms

- Vietcong: 

- Guerilla Army: look like civilians do not wear a military uniform wear  usually black pajama looking pants and shirt with flip flops  o What most Vietnamese peasants wear  

o Makes it hard to distinguish Vietcong from civilians and are under  pressure to kill and gain a high body count

- Overtime as the fight gets uglier and even more stressful it becomes the  intent to kill anyone who looks like civilians

o Start to attack civilians and Vietcong

- Vietcong has their own agenda

o Need popular support

o Make sure peasants are not giving aid and support to South  Vietnamese and the US

- Pressure is ugly: 

o Often force civilians to support them and will attack collaborators  and there is cost to be paid for supporting either side

o If you support Vietcong you could be retaliated against by the  South Vietnamese and US

o If you support the US and South Vietnamese the Vietcong will  retaliate against you

▪ Its an either or situation in which either way you will be  retaliated against by one side or the other

- If its dead and it Vietnamese it’s a Vietcong  

o How the US troops thought and the mindset they had when  fighting

o They did not pay attention to if they were really Vietcong or  civilians their mission was to search and destroy

- General Westmoreland: 

o Was able t report to President Johnson that they are being  successful and killing a large amount of people  

▪ High kill rate, making advances, victory is around the  

corner and Lyndon B Johnson tells the US citizens this  

- Johnson had no overall strategy for how to win the war and was a  micromanager – almost too involved but not involved enough in  conceptualizing a way to end the war

- House of Cards:  prior to 1968 the general public believed the story they  heard from the administration

o Journalists accepted what Johnson said at face value  

- Media coverage today is not the same as it was then: very strong media  coverage and censorship in Wars today because of the media coverage  during the Vietnam War

- Images shown during Vietnam War: 

o American Troops being killed shown on TV from what it looked  like after a fight, coffins ???? not seen today

o More glaring shock when there is a transition about media  coverage

- 1968: General Westmoreland is talking about victory being around the  Corner the TET Offensive occurs

- Outcome:  

o What were the legacies of this war for the US?

▪ Cast a shadow that the US is still under today

▪ Event is powerful for the US but extremely powerful effects  

and exponentially greater in Vietnam, Louse, and Indochina

▪ No long end for this conflict

Policies of Post-1965: 

- Watergate: 

- Watergate reform to presidential power: 

o FDR the power of the president is growing and constitutional  amendment that prohibits more than 2 terms being served

- Nixon and his Downfall: congress reasserts power and shifts it to more of  a balance

o War Powers Act: 1973 and amended repeatedly – report use of  military to congress within 48 hours  (expanded to 30 days) and  have t cease within 60 days unless war is declared – congress has  to vote for the funding

o Freedom of Information Act: 1974 citizens must have access to  files compiled by federal government unless branch of  

government makes a compelling case that there is a compelling  case of national security – especially files on you

▪ Been expanded and amended – historians today use this all  

the time

- During Watergate: the federal government (Johnson and others before) had kept files on American citizens

The Oval Office Challenge: 

- President Gerald Ford: 1974-1976 

o Seen as honest, moderate, republican – gets fallout of where things  were at that point  

o Watergate: pardons Richard Nixon and a lot of people cannot  forgive that  

▪ Nixon would never be held accountable for any crime he  

committed during his presidency

- Comes in when US is coming into problems in the economy – broader  international context little control

- 1980’s and 1990’s: 

- President Jimmy Carter: 1976-1980 

o Context leads to election of Jimmy Carter in 1976 as president:  man from Georgia Campaigns as an outsider – honest down to  

earth moderate

o “You deserve a government as good as you are”

o Themes: born again Christian, honest – very different from Nixon  and where they had been up to that point

o Major Economic Agenda: not able to consistently come up with a  way to do this

o As an outsider: Carter sees Washington/Congress as the problem – ambitious agenda but eliminates his own constituency – doesn’t

back expansions of welfare – doesn’t back full employment bill – physical conservative

o Phone Industry: used to be a public utility and breaks it up into  private companies

o Doesn’t back wage and price controls

o Achieves: energy policy - Oil, Coal, and Nuclear energy (biggest  percentage of consumption in 1970’s ???? Oil

▪ Where was the US getting it? Middle-east also Mexico,  

Venezuela, and rarely in the US (Tulsa in 1920’s)  

- Oil: 

o Started consuming great amounts produced in the Middle-East – huge sector of the economy – access to oil/ cheap energy drives  the economic wellbeing in US

o Conflict between Israel and middle eastern neighbors – access to  oil becomes thorny for US – and Cold War context leads the US to  back certain powers in the Middle-East that are not particularly  progressive regimes very far from democratic (Saudi Arabia,  Egypt, and Iran) Backs Saddam Hussein

▪ Saddam Hussein: Cold War partner and partner due to oil – becomes problematic

- Iran in 1970’s: conflict between Israel and Egypt – the Arabic speaking  neighbors has an impact on US access to oil

o US fully backing Israel in the conflicts

o No experience working with congress – important to a lot of  Americans

o Increasing world competition

o Trade Deficit

o Oil Embargo/OPEC: Oil and Petroleum Exporting Countries ???? see  Israel as imperialistic and limit their production f oil and raise the  price  

▪ US cant control price and access the way they want and it  causes serious economic issues at home – concrete  

consequences for Americans

- Running out of gas at gas stations, companies pass cost onto consumers  by price increases – end up with difficult situation of inflation - Inflation: usually occurs when economy is heating up – more money in  peoples pockets

- US Occupational Transformation: industrial ???? service =  deindustrialization

- Stagflation: how do you solve this? Nothing works well - Example of Big Symbolic Way of Limit to Power Abroad: o Iran dictator becomes ill and basically faces insurgent rebellious  nationalistic campaign against his power and deposes him  ▪ The US lets him come to US for cancer treatment – Carter  does this particularly militant faction and gains control in  Iran and gains control of dissention movement and attack

the US embassy and take Iranian hostages – dramatic in  

1979 – draft was in question – thought it was WWIII

Engaged in fight with Islamic militants that do not pose a threat to US - Brings Carter administration down – soviets face same thing o Invade Afghanistan in 1979 

▪ Us funds Bin Laden and the Taliban to fight the Soviets

▪ Afghanistan is the Soviet’s Vietnam

Materials: 

Textbook: Chapters 10-14

Hollitz: Chapters 9-12

Kennedy “What the New Deal Did”: David M. Kennedy revisits the New Deal’s  relevance to our own time. He concludes that the stubborn persistence of the Great  Depression through the decade of the 1930s opened the political space for the New  Deal’s greatest accomplishments, all of which were aimed at reducing risk in key  sectors of the economy and imparting a measure of security to American life for  generations thereafter

Brooks “Winning the Peace”: The most important thing to understand about  the impact of WWII on the postwar South is:

- The political legacy of the war: as disruptive and contradictory for  Georgia and the south.  

- They destabilized conservative democratic hegemony made racial reform  and economic development key issues of the postwar era  

- Determined that the politics of growth would prevail over the politics of  progressive racial reform.  

- The war generated considerable political and racial turmoil

- Agriculture boomed during the war

- During the war a lot of African Americans went to work in the absence of  white male workers due to being part of the war –

o When the war ended the white males who survived, veterans,  people who move into the cities, military encampments returned  to see that the black people had taken over their jobs

- Dissatisfaction: with archaic political leadership in the South  - Impact of going to war and seeing Europe then coming back to the US: o Drink (booze) flows freely in Europe – legacy in south of having  blue states and laws –

o Lifestyle in Europe is a lot freer than what they experience at  home, People saw things during the war that were much better  

conditions than where they lived

Coming of Age in Mississippi: 

Anne Moody: bottom up approach because:  

- She represents an ordinary person who was very poor

- Did not have much to gain by federal action  

- Acts on what she has experienced – doesn’t realize the racial aspects until  after she heard whispers at Mrs. Burkes (how she found out about  racism)

Rumor of War: 

Main Focus: How and why did US involvement in the Vietnam War escalate in the  1960’s?

Atomic Café: Documentary was put together at the peak of the anti nuclear time in  America – during the Reagan administration narrative that uses archived material  and historical footage

The Murder of Emmett Till: 

Emmett Till: 

- He was born in 1943 to Louis and Mamie Till

- His father died when he was only 4  

- Developed a stutter as a result of having polio as a child

- His cousin, Wheeler Parker described him as “a natural born leader” - When he had just turned 14 years old, his Uncle, Mose Wright, who was  64, invited him and his cousin to live with him in Mississippi in June of  1955 

o In June 1955: 

▪ Rock and roll was popular in Chicago

▪ The schools were no longer segregated in the area of  

Chicago he was living in

- Emmett’s mother warned him about how different Mississippi was than  Chicago and that he needed to be very careful

o She told him stories of things that had happened and often  

exaggerated them so that he would truly understand how  

dangerous it could be to live there

- A story she told him was about how to black men who were members of  the NAACP had been lynched for registering black men to be able to vote - Before Emmett boarded the Illinois Central Train to Mississippi on August  19, 1955 his mother gave him his father’s signet ring she had received  when he died – Emmett gave her his watch to remind her of him while he  was gone

Murder of Emmett and what caused it: 

- Emmett’s uncle lived on the outskirts of Money, Mississippi

o Money was a one street town with 5 or 6 shops

- The most popular shop was Bryant’s Grocery  

o Roy Bryant and his wife Carolyn, who had two children, owned it. o They lived in close quarters behind the store.

- The store was one of the most popular spots for Emmett and other  workers to go to get a drink and a snack after working all day

- One Wednesday Emmett and his friends jumped in the car and headed for  the store – when they got there:  

o Roy was out of town and only Carolyn was working  

o They went in 2 by 2

- Emmett purchased 2 cents worth of bubble gum and when he was  walking out the door he whistled at Carolyn – this made her angry and  she ran out back

o Emmett and his friends quickly jumped in the car and drove away

- Early in the morning of the following Sunday – J.W Milam and Roy went to  Mose’s house with a gun and a flashlight and took Emmett from the house  with him  

o Mose begged them to just give him a whipping and not to kill him  - but they threatened him and said if he said anything he wouldn’t  make it to see his 65th birthday

o Willie Reed, one of Emmett’s friends who was a sharecropper,  could hear them beating him in the shed behind Milam’s house

- The next day, one of the black women who worked for Milam saw Too  Tight Collins, who also worked for Milam cleaning out the back of Mr.  Milam’s truck.

o The truck bed was filled with blood, Collins told her what had  happened and even had one of Till’s shoes still in the back of the  truck

- Emmett’s body was found in the Tallahatchie River, when Clarence  Strider Jr. (son of the sheriff) saw his leg poking out of the water. - He found a boat to ride out and get the body out of the water, when he  pulled the body up there was a 75 pound gin fan tied around his neck - Till was beaten so bad the only way they were able to identify him was from his father’s signet ring he had received from his mother when he left  Chicago around 2 weeks before he was found.

Eyes on the Prize – Bridge to Freedom: 

Bridge to Freedom, 1965: 

- Malcolm X: Black Americans would have to take the necessary steps to  protect themselves

- Martin Luther King: symbolized the success of non violence and won the  Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway in December of 1964 

o SNCC: student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in Dallas  County

o At the end of 1964 the SNCC was exhausted and had to look to Dr.  King and the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) for  help

o Dr. King re-opened the rivalry between the leaders of these  two organizations – the differences in leadership lead to  

challenges.

o Announced that the business men, mayor, and white power  

structure must take responsibility for the actions of Sheriff Jim  

Clark and if nothing was done in response to his actions the  

movement would be forced to take more drastic measures

- The differences were put aside on January 18, 1965 and the two  organizations held a movement together

- Sheriff Jim Clark: 

o The organizations expected him to draw media attention, which  would ultimately gain the attention of the white house and  

congress

o In mid-January he arrested a black teacher which led to many  protests at the courthouse and were held by teachers in the area  even though by doing so they risked losing their jobs

o Said that the protestors were making a mockery of the courthouse - When teachers who protested at the courthouse attempted to enter the  building they were hit by the police and pushed back down off of the steps – but they were not arrested like they had hoped to be – so they  went to join a rally at a nearby church

- The Teachers March was the first middle class march in Selma - The teachers in the area had a huge impact on the others in the  community

- Joseph Smitherman: 

o Mayor of Selma  

o Said that the city was subjected to hardships, accidentally called  MLK Martin Luther Coon on TV

- Wilson Baker: succeeded Clark in 1966 and became the Sheriff - Half of the citizens in Selma, AL were black, but almost none of them were  registered to vote.

- When Negroes even tried to register to vote very few were granted  registration

- President Johnson: wanted to eliminate every remaining obstacle they  Negroes faced when registering to vote and though 1965 was the perfect  opportunity to do so

- Sheyenne Webb and Rachel West: took park in these marches o Sheyenne was 8, Rachel was 9

o During the march on the Edmond Bridge Hozel Williams picked  her up while they were running from the cops, but he was not fast  enough so she had him put her down and she ran for her life

- C.T. Vivian:  called Sheriff Clark a Nazi and accused him of being as big of a  racist as Hitler was  

o Told the sheriff that it was not a local problem it was a national  problem and in response Clark lost his temper and began to hit  

Vivian – he hit him so hard he ended up fracturing one of his  

fingers

o Movement was encountering all the evil that was destroying the  Black Americans

Identifications: 

2 Specific Legacies of the New Deal’s Impact: 

- 1. New established Welfare State like social security and the Tennessee  valley authority

- 2. Balance of power between congress and the presidency shifted wit the  presidency gaining significant power

NRA-National Recovery Act: 

- Try to get industries to cooperate and have codes that requires industries  to agree on how much they produce

- Includes: minimum wage laws, hours worked  

- Often fired black workers and hired white workers or reclassified skilled  jobs as unskilled labor to avoid minimum wage laws

AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Act & Administration: 

- Pay farmers to take their land out of production – subsidies planters kept  it and kicked off tenants and hired them as day laborers  

- Enriched elites and hurt the ones it was aimed to help

Women and the New Deal: 

- Women’s roles in the 1930s were typically relegated to those of  housewife and mother

- So many of the New Deal programs were not initially directed at them  o Although Eleanor Roosevelt did her best to change this

- Most of the women were employed through the Works Progress  Administration (WPA).  

o In its peak year only 13.5 percent of those in the WPA program  were women.

- The National Youth Administration (NYA), provided opportunities for  young girls. NYA offered educational opportunities, work training, and  financial aid for youth between ages sixteen and twenty-five

Japan’s Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere: 

East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere: invade a country and turn citizens into slaves for  the Japanese Empire and to help the war effort in China

- US preoccupied with the war in Europe and the Philippines – but don’t  want too many resources in the pacific theater  

o Do not do much about Japan in Southeast Asia and instead send a  lot of aid and $ to help other countries fight against the Japanese Isolationists v. Internationalists: 

Isolationism: A state of mind denying the existence of any American political or  military interests outside the Western Hemisphere

Internatioinalism: The commitment to build among nations the means necessary to  preserve order and provide non-violent ways for resolving disputes - Basic difference between internationalism and isolationism: Isolationists  limited the nation's concerns to matters at home and at best in the  Americas, and internationalists asserted that American concerns were  universal, i.e., wherever mankind might be oppressed or in danger of  aggression

- Similarities between internationalism and isolationism?:Both denied the  US had a vital interest (as opposed to concern) in any specific political  and/or military confrontation outside the Western Hemisphere.   No  more than the isolationists would the internationalists accept the  obligation that the country employ its military power to enforce even  those arrangements in world politics that reflected its basic interests  (every internationalist scheme of the 1920s emphasized not specific  commitments abroad but agreements and declarations that would  confront any would-be aggressor not with enforcement provisions, but

rather with a combination of international law, signed promises, and  world opinion

Neutrality Acts: 

- 1935 and 1937 

- Ways to respond to things in Europe while keeping what happened in  WWI in mind

- Neutrality Act of 1935: Act that prohibits arms sales to either side after  the president announces a state of belligerency, Forbids loans to either  side – amended in 1937 as events worsen in Europe, Hitler’s power  grows

- Neutrality Act of 1937: allows belligerents to pay goods that were not  arms and had to pay in cash and carry it on your own ships  

Quarantine Speech: The Quarantine Speech was given by U.S. President Franklin  D. Roosevelt on October 5, 1937 in Chicago, calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American  neutrality and non-intervention that was prevalent at the time.

Atlantic Charter: 

- The Atlantic Charter was a joint declaration released by U.S. President  Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on  August 14, 1941 following a meeting of the two heads of state in  Newfoundland

- Atlantic Charter, August 1941: meets with Winston Churchill – going to  war just matters on when – decide what we are fighting for

o Protect self-government of all

o Freedom of seas

o Postwar general security system – United Nations

o Fair economic system, equal access to world wealth

o FDR adds 4 things to help explain to the US citizens why the US is  fighting  

Four Freedoms: 

- The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President  Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the  Four Freedoms speech (technically the 1941 State of the Union address),  he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the  world" ought to enjoy: Freedom of speech.

- FDR’s addition to the Atlantic Charter in 1942: “4 Freedoms” o Freedom of Religion

o Freedom of Speech

o Freedom from Fear  

o Freedom from Want

Grand Alliance of WWII: 

- US, Great Britain, And Soviet Union: 

o US and Great Britain are Allies at the outset of WWII  - even though  the US was technically neutral and isolated

o USSR was part of a “pact” with Hitler for Poland: 

▪ Both Germany and the Soviet Union said they would not  

attack each other in order to split Poland in half  

▪ Hitler breaks the pact and the USSR switches to allies with  

the US and Great Britain – brings great distrust the Grand  

Alliance because they are a communist country (USSR was  

the first communist state when they were taken over by the  

Bolsheviks)

o Loss of Soviet Lives: 

▪ WWI: USSR lost 4-5 millions civilians in the war

▪ Stalin’s Purges and Famines (1920’s) killed about 20  

million people

▪ WWII: they lose another 10 million people  

- Because of the turmoil of 2 World wars and Stalin’s regime they have a  need for security  

- Need for Security: plays into the way they see events with the Grand  Alliance  

- FDR: was the first to recognize their existence as a legitimate state until  1930 because he saw the need of the Allies to have them on their side – reassured them that the US was committed to defeating Germany and  Japan and that they were in it for the long haul

- FDR, Churchill, and Stalin: FDR was one of the few leaders in the west  who got along with Stalin ???? looking toward the postwar world by 1944 they are certain the Soviet Union will prevail it will be important to have  unity and build a foundation for international peace

o Chance to carve a new future between the Soviets and the  

Capitalist Powers of the West

o Prior to USSR joining the Allies: Great Britain was the only country  fighting against Germany in Eastern Europe

o US Similarity with Soviet Union:  the rest of the world is an  

opportunity to bring the rest of the world on their side

o Divided view of the world: Us vs. Them– you’re either with us or  with them

o 1970’s and later you see states in the world try to carve a path  ▪ Non-Alliance Nations Movement: Countries like India who  

works with both sides when they can

- Unity during the war important precursor for the postwar world: it was a  worldwide conflict that involved every major power in the world – created the balance of power that built the framework for the Cold War

- Conflicting needs and ambitions undermined wartime unity: because  different countries wanted different things out of the war it made  unifying for the war difficult

Pacific Theater: 

- Where the Battle of Midway was fought – it was a crucial and decisive  naval battle in World War II - June 3-7,1942 

- The Pacific Ocean theater, during World War II, was a major theater of the  war between the Allies and Japan.

o It was defined by the Allied powers' Pacific Ocean Area command,  which included most of the Pacific Ocean and its islands, while  

mainland Asia was excluded, as were the Philippines, the Dutch  East Indies, Borneo, Australia, most of the Territory of New Guinea and the western part of the Solomon Islands.

o Japanese naval aircraft prepare to take off from an aircraft carrier. o The Western Allies' command structure in the Pacific.

Second Front Controversy 

- How the Grand Alliance contributed to the Cold War

- Soviet participation in the Grand Alliance: premised on the opening of a  Second-Front

- Soviets needed a second front opened to divide German Military: o Normandy Invasion: (1944) opening of the Second-Front ???? 2  years after it was promised  

o Well into WWII and the Soviets fighting virtually alone against the  Germans  

o A second-front will draw German troops away from the German  front and relive soviets of the German War Machine

- US-Great Britain delay fueled Soviet suspicions: because of the delay of  the promised second-front the Soviets were suspicious and unsure of  their decision to enter the Grand Alliance

- England has its hand full with aerial bombing

- German Blitzkrieg is moving quickly towards Stalingrad – don’t invade  Russia unless you can get in and out before winter

o Soft Underbelly of Europe: 

▪ Stalin believed FDR and Churchill when they say they will  

open a second front to split Germany and relive some  

pressure on the Soviet Union –

▪ The US is not prepared because of the Great Depression -

needs time to mobilize and train troops – don’t want to  

enter too early and expend resources uselessly –

o FDR and Churchill develop a strategy behind the scenes: afraid US  will expend their resources and wont be able to help the British – ▪ Start in Northern Africa and come up the Italian Peninsula  

and taking Mussolini out and then taking time to move up  

and then open the second front. ???? This plan takes a long  

time – around 2 years to move up to German borders –

then they open the Second-Front in 1944 

o FDR promised Stalin they would open the second front in 1942 ▪ Churchill is worried if the US doesn’t intervene with

strength it will turn into stalemate like WWI

o Siege of Stalingrad: – horrific siege in Southern Europe led by Nazi  Germany

▪ Stalin wonders when they second front will open like he  

promised in 1942

▪ Fears the History of Communism and Capitalism: worried  

that US and Great Britain are sitting back to let the Nazis  

and USSR fight each other and become weak so they can  

come in and take over

o Hitler elevated his faction in Germany and the Nazi party by: 

murdering the Socialists through a series of political  

assassinations  

o Fascism and Communism are natural enemies

o Soviets start to defeat the Nazi War Machine on their own: 

conditions got so bad that the Soviets had to resort to cannibalism  in Stalingrad which allows them to survive it and start to push the  Nazis out on their own –

▪ Creates new worry for US and Great Britain: whoever got to  

Berlin first would hold the trump card at the post war  

settlement because they were who would actually defeat  

the Germans and Japanese  

▪ Pushes FDR and Churchill to open the second front –

launched in Normandy/ Omaha Beach/D-Day in 1944 –

because we waited so long it cost a big percentage of the  

Soviets population  

▪ Extremely violent warfare in WWII: Eastern Europe gets it  

from both sides - Germany???? Russia, Russia???? Germany

o Stalin was upset because he was promised a second front in 1942 but did not receive it for two years  

o Race between the Grand Alliance to get to Berlin

Yalta: 

Conflicting Aims at Yalta, 1945 

- England: 

o A place for France in the postwar occupation of Germany

o Curb on Soviet power in Poland

o Protection for the vulnerable British Empire

- Soviet Union: 

o Secure western border

o Permanently weakened Germany (reparations)

o Possessions in Asia – Manchuria

o Influence in Poland – influence means something different to the  Soviets than the rest of the world  

- United States: 

o Creation of United Nations

o Soviet Declaration of war against Japan

o Recognition of Gina and Chiang as great power – do not want  another communist state

o Post war cooperation

Some Yalta Basics: (see textbook for more detail)

- USSR recognized as a major power in Eastern Europe

- Soviets agree to some limitations on their power in Poland (Free  Elections to determine its government)

- Declaration of a Liberated Europe: to recognize national self determination

- Soviets agree to declare war on Japan

Problems with Yalta: (see textbook for more detail)

- Vague Wording: what did “free unfettered elections held sometime in the  future really mean?  

o US figured it would be within the next few years, but Soviet’s did  not have the same way of thinking

- FDR’s Personal Diplomacy: 

o FDR suddenly dies in Warm Springs, Georgia on April 12, 1945 before war is over – leaving Vice President Truman in charge and  the one to carry out what FDR had started

o Truman not privy to FDR’s thoughts or views on history with the  soviets or Stalin  

o Truman was virtually ignorant with anything have to do with  negotiations  

Eastern European Controversy: 

- Soviets start to win the war against Germany on their own – headed for  Berlin: poses a threat to the US and Great Britain – because if USSR got to  Berlin first they would be in charge of the post war settlement

- Whoever accepted German Surrender would determine the post war  settlement: fear of the US and Great Britain – did not want Soviet’s to get  there before they did

- Great Britain and US: did not want Soviets to have the advantage of the  Nazis/German Surrender – but they did anyway

- Battle of the Bulge: major German offensive campaign on the Western  Front in 1944 

- Hitler put all of his resources into one last effort to stop the invasion  of Germany coming from Northern France –

o Germany breaks down: in winter there’s a lot of snow  

▪ American Forces are delayed in reaching Berlin: USSR get  

within 50 miles, while the US is stuck ~250 miles out

- Whether we like it or not the Soviets have the post war trump card o US stops and lets the USSR take the surrender which results in  both countries occupying Berlin

- Berlin is divided it into 4 zones: 

o Four Zones for Four Countries: Great Britain, US, USSR, France ▪ France gets a zone – even though they collaborated with  

Hitler during the war – but US wants France included to  

have another force against Russia

- Berlin Wall: a wall was built to divide the city into two zones ???? East and  West Berlin

- Looking ahead – What is the post war settlement going to be? - US is also fighting in the pacific: ???? basically 2 wars going on

o War in pacific and war in Europe  

▪ US thinking of Soviets in regards to the pacific war  

- How can the Soviets help the US in the Pacific? 

o Have Stalin declare war on Japan and help end the Pacific War as  fast as possible  

▪ US gets this in return for letting the Soviets take the  

surrender of Berlin and Nazi Germany.

FDR is open to Stalin’s concerns about Eastern Europe: 

- Eastern Europe: from Bulgaria all the way up to Finland  

- Stalin is concerned because there is no natural border between Eastern  Europe and the Soviet Union –

o Soviet Union invaded 3 times from that side – (twice in the 20th century) –

o Stalin wants a buffer and a way to exert control on these  western states

- Soviet Satellite State: puppet Regimes of the Soviet Union – cant get to  Russia without going through them first

- Pacific is difficult fighting: harder than expected fighting against the  Japanese – very well reinforced  

o Battle of Midway: a crucial and decisive naval battle in the Pacific  Theater of World War II - June 3-7,1942 

o Battle of Okinawa: largest amphibious assault of the pacific war – April 1, 1945 

- Anti-Communists in the West: Poland has a whole government in exile  during the war that are very anti-communist

What did Soviet advance into Germany mean for the postwar settlement? - No one power would alone dictate the terms of peace in Europe o Will all have to cooperate and work together

o US and FDR: try to balance what we want and what the Soviets and  Great Britain want –  

▪ US had been pressuring the British to give up colonial  

possessions in Asia –

▪ Believed they contributed to the outbreak of two World  

Wars  

• US wanted more trade policies: 

o Open Markets: an unrestricted market with  

free access by and competition of buyers and  

sellers

o Self- Determination (of colonial peoples): the  

process by which a country determines its  

own statehood and forms its own allegiances  

and government.

▪ US makes a deal with Soviet’s: US would throw Great  

Britain under the bus to get cooperation

o Great Britain: saw colonies as ways to rebuild after WWII and  don’t want to give them up

▪ Plays into France and its refusal to give up colonies in Indo

China and Africa

o Churchill and Stalin: October 1944 - Churchill cuts a secret deal  with Stalin

▪ Soviet Union should have 90 percent influence in Romania

and 75 percent in Bulgaria

▪ Great Britain should have 90 percent in Greece

▪ They should have 50 percent each in Hungary and  

Yugoslavia.  

▪ Revised to where the percentages of Soviet influence in  

Bulgaria and, more significantly, Hungary were amended to  

80 percent

o First major postwar settlement conference at Yalta: clear that  Hitler will lose – countries come in with different understandings ▪ Great Britain: want Soviet power in Poland curved, and  

want protection for the British Empire and its possessions

- USSR, GB, US aims for the postwar settlement would create conflict - Eastern Europe is the pawn in the postwar settlement: 

o Particularly Poland

o Until war is over small countries in Eastern Europe have no say in  what happens and are occupied by the Red Army –

o If they did say anything it would require that particular  

country and the US and Great Britain going to war with the  

Soviets

8 Points of American Understanding of the Cold War: 

Beliefs of the US: in some ways the Soviets feel the same way

- 1. Communism is the same everywhere: monolithic, no difference in  communism in Russia, later in China, and later in Cuba  

o This means that as communism develops differently in each state  and might sound very similar it is ultimately the product of the  

differences in the state

- 2. Communism everywhere is directed by the Soviets: in practice – in the  US mind wherever communism appeared in the world the Soviets were  behind it.  

o A nationalist insurgency in Africa that had a Marxist ideology that  condemned imperialists and the soviets were somehow involved - 3. Communism is infinitely expansive: nowhere it cannot go – even in the  US.  

o Reasons: there is a communist international – organization to  which communist states belong lead by Stalin and the Soviets ???? after WWII there is a time of decolonization

- 4. Communism is an economic threat to the US: wherever communism  goes American trade cannot go –

o Communists refused to trade with imperialists – huge impediment  to Free World Trade (fundamental to US economic health) – pre  1930 – present –

o Now we know that is not true because our biggest creditor is  China, learned a lot about how this works but at the time believed  it was a strong threat to the US

- 5. Communism is a threat to Democratic Institutions: a lot of evidence to  support this  

o Soviet Constitution would be remarkably similar to one from a  Western Country – states that become communist often have a  very repressive history  

o Russia was under the rule of the Czar before the Bolshevik  Revolution – China had a repressive history as well – communism  is very much shaped by these histories.  

o A lot of Americans were enamored with the Bolshevik Revolution  and went to Russia after WWI to see where it all took place and  become extremely disillusioned and return home –

o During the 1920’s there is the shift from Lenin to Stalin who tries  to force industrialization and creates a genocide in the Ukraine – Americans report this back to the US – shapes the perception that  communism cant be practiced in any other way that forced  obedience from its members

- 6. Communism was Inherently Evil: couldn’t imagine communism being  practiced in any other way that it was in Russia –

o Either capitalism or communism would have to go they both could  not exist  

o Saw soviet union’s anti-religious policies and part of Marxism that  saw Christianity as a way the West controlled others –

o Smuggled out book about the prison camps in the Soviet Union – in  Siberia – adds to view of communism being evil  

- 7. World is Divided into Two Camps: Us or them – if you are not with us  you are automatically with them  

o No room for neutrals  

o No conflict in the world that is not ultimately important to the US because it will ultimately will mean that the place of conflict will  either be with them or with us –

o Every conflict in Africa has US involvement in some way – same  with the Soviets

- 8. Firm conviction the US can accomplish anything at once anywhere and  anytime: Not challenged until the late 1960’s and the Vietnam War   o US comes out of WWII the strongest military power in the world (Americans refer to the WWII as the Good War – brings it out of  depression, saves economy, and makes US closer to becoming a  middle class society)  

o The rest of the world goes through a lot of destruction – while US  only has to deal with the loss of the soldiers who fought.  

o End the Pacific war with the only use of Atomic Weapons in  history – nothing shakes these convictions until we lose the  Vietnam War

▪ These 8 points: shape how we understand the events of the  

cold war.

Truman Doctrine of 1947: 

- Becomes our expression of containment policy

- Each president to follow will adjust it to apply to what they are doing  - Obligates us to meet any evidence of soviet expansionism and to meet it  and fight against it

o “It must be the policy of the US to support the free peoples who  are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or  

outside pressures”

o US cannot return to isolationism because of the development  of Nuclear Warfare

A-Bomb: 

- Atom bomb appears in Russia: August 1949 

- US takes precaution for atomic bomb – creates suits to protect from the  radiation of the bomb

- Atomic City: Midway

- $2 million spent ???? US locking door on nuclear weapons

Consumerism as the American Way of Life: 

Post WWII Social and Economic Developments 

- Agriculture changes ???? technology: 

o East TN tobacco subsidy – farmers there had an allotment for the  crop  

▪ Allotments were a way to support the price of tobacco

o Continued as agricultural policy after WWII

o Foreign competition from Egypt

o Farmers could trade and lease their allotments

o Decrease of farmers – larger plots of land

o Impact of technology revolutionizes farming after WWII

o Mechanization: iconic image of tractors in the Southeast is gained o 1950’s and 1960’s research going into creating an efficient cotton  picker

o Improved seeds/ scientific fertilization/Pesticides

o Farm more land with less labor and less effort

- Industry ???? Automation: 

o Shift toward even more mechanization

o Eventually creates robotic technology for the factory process ▪ Ex: auto factories form 1936 – tons of people in the  

industry in Flint, Michigan but are non-unionized and can  

shut down production that forces Ford and GM to allow  

them to unionize ???? first sit down strike but today in West  

Point, GA at the KIA Factory people are assisting the robots  

in making the cars

o Turkey: in 2003 there were no people in a textile factory  

▪ One of the most important exports in turkey – completely  

automated towel making

o Make more product with less people

- Labor ???? Growth then decline 

o Grows because of New Deal and WWII ???? growth of sunbelt  o Sun Belt Region: most non-unionized part of the country o Foreign competition and other countries start building better cars - Taft-Hartley Act: 1974 

o Aimed at overturning key aspects of the New Deal/Wagner Act  and collective bargaining  

▪ Congress passed it over the presidents veto

o 1930’s and 1940’s organized labor peaks quickly and begins this  decline

o Textile Industry, now Auto Industry ???? see them moving out of the  Steel Belt and moving into the Southeast and Southwest where you  do not have to pay workers as much – Capital Flight

o Capital Flight: leaving one place to go to another where labor is  cheaper  

▪ Same dynamic go to Mexico, Indonesia, Bangladesh in a  decade

o Wages better than they were  

▪ Long term: still sectors that are not doing well and people  that are not prospering

o A lot if instability still

- Corporations ???? oligopolies (beer) 

o Corporations gain organization

o Get a lot of benefits for war mobilization ???? certain profit for  participating

o A lot of money into universities for new marketing techniques o Consolidation of smaller businesses into fewer and larger  corporations.

o Beer: always very profitable, at the end of WWII there were 450  breweries with their own distinctive brand of beer that was made  with local resources

▪ NYC at the end of WWII had over 12 NYC made beers most  owned by family owned business ???? changes in early 

1950’s with wave of corporate consolidation  

• Decline in the number of individual breweries  

▪ Beer Market is a recession proof industry and there are a  lot of profits to be made

▪ Veterans who go and drink really good beer in Germany for  example who come home and use what they learned there  – have money to spend after being at war

o Postwar Beer Corporation: Anheuser Busch become one of the  biggest beer producing companies when Wisconsin is seen as the  heart of the beer industry in the US

▪ Develop a beer that can be manufactured anywhere in the  

country – always the same taste no matter where it is  

brewed

▪ 1946 – seven leading breweries that hold 7%

▪ Not much diversity among the beer

▪ Past 15-20 years development of neo-local breweries and  

pub – a lot more imports

o Same dynamic a lot of the individual brews that seem unique are  still being made by just a few large corporations

o Diversity and family owned turning into large oligopolies

o Headed towards development of Multi-National Corporations: ▪ IBM, Apple, Microsoft

- Cities ???? suburbanization ???? inner city decline: 

o Impact of suburbanization: growth of these areas around inner  city cores

o Fueled by the GI Bill and housing subsidies

o Dramatic shift of tax revenue that is transferred out into the  suburbs ???? jobs leave inner cities and go to the suburbs

o Inner city schools decline, fewer stores

o 2 ways of looking at suburbanization: 

▪ On one hand some people see suburbanization as the  

American way of life ???? prosperous

▪ Flip side: transferal of wealth from one city to the suburbs  

around the cities

o Decline for inner city neighborhoods

Tools of the Containment Policy: 

- Military aid

- Economic aid

- Developing alliances

NATO: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic  Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic  Treaty, which was signed on 4 April 1949 

Affluent Society v. the “Other” America: 

Post WWII Social and Economic Developments 

- Agriculture changes ???? technology: 

o East TN tobacco subsidy – farmers there had an allotment for the  crop  

▪ Allotments were a way to support the price of tobacco

o Continued as agricultural policy after WWII

o Foreign competition from Egypt

o Farmers could trade and lease their allotments

o Decrease of farmers – larger plots of land

o Impact of technology revolutionizes farming after WWII

o Mechanization: iconic image of tractors in the Southeast is gained o 1950’s and 1960’s research going into creating an efficient cotton  picker

o Improved seeds/ scientific fertilization/Pesticides

o Farm more land with less labor and less effort

- Industry ???? Automation: 

o Shift toward even more mechanization

o Eventually creates robotic technology for the factory process ▪ Ex: auto factories form 1936 – tons of people in the  

industry in Flint, Michigan but are non-unionized and can  

shut down production that forces Ford and GM to allow  

them to unionize ???? first sit down strike but today in West  Point, GA at the KIA Factory people are assisting the robots  in making the cars

o Turkey: in 2003 there were no people in a textile factory  ▪ One of the most important exports in turkey – completely  automated towel making

o Make more product with less people

- Labor ???? Growth then decline 

o Grows because of New Deal and WWII ???? growth of sunbelt  o Sun Belt Region: most non-unionized part of the country o Foreign competition and other countries start building better cars - Taft-Hartley Act: 1974 

o Aimed at overturning key aspects of the New Deal/Wagner Act  and collective bargaining  

▪ Congress passed it over the presidents veto

o 1930’s and 1940’s organized labor peaks quickly and begins this  decline

o Textile Industry, now Auto Industry ???? see them moving out of the  Steel Belt and moving into the Southeast and Southwest where you  do not have to pay workers as much – Capital Flight

o Capital Flight: leaving one place to go to another where labor is  cheaper  

▪ Same dynamic go to Mexico, Indonesia, Bangladesh in a  decade

o Wages better than they were  

▪ Long term: still sectors that are not doing well and people  that are not prospering

o A lot if instability still

- Corporations ???? oligopolies (beer) 

o Corporations gain organization

o Get a lot of benefits for war mobilization ???? certain profit for  participating

o A lot of money into universities for new marketing techniques o Consolidation of smaller businesses into fewer and larger  corporations.

o Beer: always very profitable, at the end of WWII there were 450  breweries with their own distinctive brand of beer that was made  with local resources

▪ NYC at the end of WWII had over 12 NYC made beers most  owned by family owned business ???? changes in early 

1950’s with wave of corporate consolidation  

• Decline in the number of individual breweries  

▪ Beer Market is a recession proof industry and there are a  lot of profits to be made

▪ Veterans who go and drink really good beer in Germany for  example who come home and use what they learned there  – have money to spend after being at war

o Postwar Beer Corporation: Anheuser Busch become one of the  biggest beer producing companies when Wisconsin is seen as the  heart of the beer industry in the US

▪ Develop a beer that can be manufactured anywhere in the  country – always the same taste no matter where it is  

brewed

▪ 1946 – seven leading breweries that hold 7%

▪ Not much diversity among the beer

▪ Past 15-20 years development of neo-local breweries and  pub – a lot more imports

o Same dynamic a lot of the individual brews that seem unique are  still being made by just a few large corporations

o Diversity and family owned turning into large oligopolies o Headed towards development of Multi-National Corporations: ▪ IBM, Apple, Microsoft

- Cities ???? suburbanization ???? inner city decline: 

o Impact of suburbanization: growth of these areas around inner  city cores

o Fueled by the GI Bill and housing subsidies

o Dramatic shift of tax revenue that is transferred out into the  suburbs ???? jobs leave inner cities and go to the suburbs

o Inner city schools decline, fewer stores

o 2 ways of looking at suburbanization: 

▪ On one hand some people see suburbanization as the  

American way of life ???? prosperous

▪ Flip side: transferal of wealth from one city to the suburbs  around the cities

o Decline for inner city neighborhoods

- Summary: 

o Economy prospers, but not all Americans 

o People who gain the most: middle and upper class whites in the US ▪ Especially middle and upper class white men

o Women continue to face gender disparities and equal pay even  though they are half the population

o Minorities: especially African Americans gain the least, continue to  face legal segregation disenfranchisement  

▪ Suburbs after WWII: white suburbs

• Have documents that prohibit African Americans  

from buying houses there

- Levittown – sample of mass market building  

o Cookie cutter houses: houses are all the same, yards are the same – built for the veterans

o Paid for the GI Bill  

o Specifically has a racially discriminant clause

o GI Bill program to get mortgages requires them even if a veteran  to go to a loan and show their credit score

o Red-lining black districts and black citizens

- Income, legal racial, gender, class disparities

- Affluent Society: image marketed as part of the Cold War to the world at  large

o If you do this you will be prosperous

- Kitchen Debate: in the 1950’s with Vice President Nixon and Nikita  Khrushchev debating communism vs. capitalism and which makes a more  advanced society at a world fair or expo

o Display of the American Kitchen with the modern appliances – big  media moment

o Nixon argument: says they take care of women with the appliances  and we have all these things that are better and make people  

happier

o Khrushchev: started debate about status of American women and  how they are equal in the Soviet Union

- WWII creates the Affluent Society

- Challenges grow: some people who question the meaning of this all along o Is consumption of commodities the real meaning of democracy? - The Other America: Politicians talk about this concept  

o People who for whatever reason – structural inequalities - cannot  participate in the affluent society

- Some of the contradictions are evident a lot earlier and are  continuous, but during WWII you see more dramatic problems Civil Rights Movement: Brown v. Board of Education is NOT the beginning of  the Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights: 

- Several phases of Civil Rights Movement: 

o Last 10 years – long Civil Rights Movement

o Traditionally see start in 1950’s Brown vs. Board of Education  o Timeline goes further back and further ahead  

▪ From slavery there are African Americans challenging their  

freedom

▪ Some in 1930’s and 1940’s all the way to after 1965 

o NAACP formed in 1906 

- Grassroots pressure + violent reactions +national TV = federal action:

o Takes coming together of a massive movement and then federal  action to create change – either by themselves would not have  

accomplished

o Key supreme court decisions

▪ Predate brown decision

▪ Brown v. Board of Education is the most important of these  

decisions

- Landmark legislation: 

o Civil Rights Act 1964 

o Voting rights Act 1965 

▪ Takes many continuations of movements to have these  

things actually be enforced – also depends on where you  

are

3 Approaches to interpreting the Civil Rights Movement: 

- 1. The Judicial Arena: In the early years of the civil rights movement in  the 1930s and 40s, the Supreme Court provided most of the successes,  especially in voting rights and desegregation.

o Challenging “separate but equal” in education: 

▪ The National Association for the Advancement of Colored  

People (NAACP) decided to fight segregation by pointing  

out the various ways in which states kept blacks out of all

white law schools. In 1950, Texas created a separate law  

school for blacks, which was not equal to the schools for  

whites. Even though both types of schools had the same  

number of faculty, books, and so on, the court ruled that  

this was not good enough. Intangible aspects of the quality  

of law existed that made the school for blacks inferior. The  

Court stopped just short of striking down “separate but  

equal.”

▪ In a landmark decision, the application of the 14th  

Amendment was expanded in Brown v. Board of Education  

(1954), which required all public schools in the United  

States to desegregate.

o The push to desegregate schools 

▪ In 1955, Brown v. Board of Education II addressed the  

implementation of desegregation and required the states to  

“desegregate with all deliberate speed.”

▪ Eight years after Brown I, little had changed in the Deep  

South. In 1971, the Court shifted its focus from de jure  

segregation—segregation mandated by law—to de facto  

segregation—segregation that existed because of housing  

patterns—and approved school busing as a tool to  

integrate schools.

o Expanding civil rights 

▪ Other central cases during the civil rights era ruled  

Congress had the power to eliminate segregation in public

places, such as restaurants and hotels, under the commerce  clause of the Constitution.

▪ In 1971, the Court ruled that employment tests not related  to job performance and tests that discriminate against  blacks violate the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

▪ Many cases upheld the disparate impact standard; the idea  that discrimination exists if a practice has a negative effect  on a specific group, whether or not this effect was  

intentional.

o The color-blind Court and judicial activism 

▪ The Roberts and Rehnquist Courts of the past two decades  have been gradually imposing a “color-blind jurisprudence”  over a broad range of issues. For example, in 1992, districts  were specifically drawn to help elect African Americans and  Latinos. But, under Roberts and Rehnquist, the legislative  redistricting process had to avoid discriminatory results rather than being concerned only with discriminatory  intent. Thus, if race is the predominant factor in drawing  district lines, the districts are unconstitutional because they  violate the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.

▪ The Supreme Court is increasingly active in civil rights. The  Court is unwilling to defer to any other part of government  if that branch disagrees with its view of discrimination and  equal protection.

o Women’s rights 

▪ At one time discrimination between men and women was  identified using the reasonable basis test, the use of  

evidence to suggest that differences in the behavior of two  groups can rationalize unequal treatment of these groups. ▪ In 1976 the Court established a new intermediate scrutiny  test, the middle level of scrutiny the courts use when  determining whether unequal treatment is justified by the  effect of a law; this is the standard used for gender-based  discrimination cases and for many cases based on sexual  orientation.

▪ The strict scrutiny test is the highest level of scrutiny the  courts use when determining whether unequal treatment is  justified by the effects of a law. It is applied in all cases  involving race. Laws rarely pass the strict scrutiny  

standard; a law that discriminates based on race must be  shown to serve some “compelling state interest” in order to  be upheld.

▪ Two other areas where the Supreme Court helped advance  women’s rights were affirmative action and protection  against sexual harassment.

- 2. The Legislative Arena: The bedrock of equal protection that exists  today stems from landmark legislation passed by Congress in the 1960s. o The Civil Rights Act barred discrimination in employment based  on race, sex, religion, or national origin; banned segregation in  

public places; and set up the Equal Employment Opportunity  

Commission as the enforcement agency for the legislation.

o The Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA) eliminated direct obstacles to  minority voting in the South, such as discriminatory literacy tests  and other voter registration tests, and also provided means to  

enforce the law. Several amendments proved very important to  

civil rights progress:

• 1975: Coverage was extended to language  

minorities.

• 1982: Certain provisions of the law were extended  

for twenty-five years and it was made easier to bring  

a lawsuit under the act.

• 1991: A new Civil Rights Act was passed which  

increased the cost to employers for intentional,  

illegal discrimination. Furthermore, if an employee  

sues for discrimination, the burden of proof is on the  

employer to show that the practice is “job related for  

the position in question and consistent with  

business necessity.”

o The Fair Housing Act of 1968 barred discrimination in the rental  or sale of a house.

o Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which barred discrimination based  on gender, began to be enforced in 1970.

o In 1972, Title IX of the Higher Education Act prohibited sex  

discrimination in institutions that receive federal funds. In 1994,  the Violence Against Women Act allowed women who were the  

victims of physical abuse and violence to sue in federal court.

o The 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act provided strong federal  protections for the 45 million disabled Americans.

- 3. The Executive Arena: 

o The office of the President has often been a strong proponent for  the expansion of civil rights, particularly through unilateral action. ▪ President Truman integrated the armed forces in 1948 by  

executive order.

▪ President Eisenhower used the National Guard to enforce a  

court order to integrate Central High School in Little Rock,  

Arkansas, in 1957. 

▪ Executive orders by Kennedy and Johnson in 1961 and  

1965, respectively, established affirmative action.

Civil Rights Movement in Alabama: 

Alabama: had the most extreme cases of violence in these states

- Challenge of Non-Violence: keeping to it when such violence is thrust  upon you.

o Medgar Evers wife is a good example

Problems with this tactic: unfair fight – so outnumbered and the police had better  and more weapons – if you fought back it was a suicide mission.

Demographical aspect: African Americans are the minority in America - alternative People did not believe this tactic and there were some who refused to follow it When people did follow it, they did so for practical reasons not because they  believed in it.

Diversity within black communities in this time period

Sort of a cast system: internalize similar aspects and ranking of color in these black  communities because that’s how the white people determined power. Emmett Till: 

Murder of Emmett and what caused it: 

- Emmett’s uncle lived on the outskirts of Money, Mississippi

o Money was a one street town with 5 or 6 shops

- The most popular shop was Bryant’s Grocery

o It was owned by Roy Bryant and his wife Carolyn, who had two  children.

o They lived in close quarters behind the store.

- The store was one of the most popular spots for Emmett and other  workers to go to get a drink and a snack after working all day

- One Wednesday Emmett and his friends jumped in the car and headed for  the store – when they got there:  

o Roy was out of town and only Carolyn was working  

o They went in 2 by 2

- Emmett purchased 2 cents worth of bubble gum and when he was  walking out the door he whistled at Carolyn – this made her angry and  she ran out back

o Emmett and his friends quickly jumped in the car and drove away - Early in the morning of the following Sunday – J.W Milam and Roy went to  Mose’s house with a gun and a flashlight and took Emmett from the house  with him

o Mose begged them to just give him a whipping and not to kill him  - but they threatened him and said if he said anything he wouldn’t  make it to see his 65th birthday

o Willie Reed, one of Emmett’s friends who was a sharecropper,  could hear them beating him in the shed behind Milam’s house

- The next day, one of the black women who worked for Milam saw Too  Tight Collins, who also worked for Milam cleaning out the back of Mr.  Milam’s truck.

o The truck bed was filled with blood, Collins told her what had  happened and even had one of Till’s shoes still in the back of the  truck

- Emmett’s body was found in the Tallahatchie River, when Clarence  Strider Jr. (son of the sheriff) saw his leg poking out of the water.

- He found a boat to ride out and get the body out of the water, when he  pulled the body up there was a 75 pound gin fan tied around his neck - Till was beaten so bad the only way they were able to identify him was  from his father’s signet ring he had received from his mother when he left  Chicago around 2 weeks before he was found.

How people reacted to this murder: 

- Emmett’s mother contacted her local newspaper and when she was  informed she began to cry and realized she was alone

- The last time she saw her son was when he left Chicago 2 weeks before he  was killed

- When his casket arrived in Chicago, she demanded that she be able to see  him

o The man who was in charge told her that he couldn’t open the  casket because he had signed a contract saying that he wouldn’t

o So she argued that because she had not signed anything she would  open it instead of him.

- When She saw Emmett his body was already deteriorating, his tongue  was gone, nose was broken in many places, and there was a hole in his  chest from where he had been shot

- Mamie wanted everyone to see him and know what happened to him – so  she had a glass covering put on the casket and had a viewing for people to  come and view him

- It looked like nearly all of Chicago showed up in total 50,000 people viewed his body  

- When people saw him many of them fainted and everyone was touched  by the event – sparked civil rights

- Emmett’s death was a touchstone for the generation

- White America: stunned by what had happened – they did not think this  was going on  

o They related this type of event as something that would happen  during the civil war times

- The news/story of Emmett Till’s death became an international event  o It spread as far as Copenhagen and Tokyo

Mose Wright: Emmett Till’s Uncle – Emmett lived with him and he was there when  Emmett was taken  

Civil Rights Act of 1964: This act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on  July 2, 1964, prohibited discrimination in public places, provided for the integration  of schools and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal.  This document was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. Voting Rights Act of 1965: This act was signed into law on August 6, 1965, by  President Lyndon Johnson. It outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted  in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests as a prerequisite  to voting.

French and Vietnam: 

Colonialism: French acquire Indo-China in the late 19th century

Containment Policy

Why the US comes to be involved has to do with the more recent development of French Imperialism: 

- Indochina ???? French colony late 1800’s 

- 1954 shifts to Catholicism from Buddhism

- Elites of Vietnamese society would go to Europe (France) to be educated  and then return to Vietnam to rule as elites

- Mass of Vietnamese people were poor Buddhist peasants

Vietnamese Foreign Occupation: 

- Well before the French colonies Vietnam was threatened with foreign  occupation

- Ongoing battle with Chinese over occupation of Vietnam on and off times  of occupation by the Chinese

- Long period of hostility between china and Vietnam – US did not know  this

- The US didn’t realize the resentment that the Vietnamese had towards  foreign powers occupying the country

- Rubber and agricultural products cause France to decide they cannot  afford to lose their colonial outposts  

- France becomes involved in multiple wars to hold on to Algeria and  Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh: educated in France, wanted an independent and free Vietnam not  allowed to attend discussions at the Treaty of Versailles, goes to soviets at one point  Vietminh: followers of Ho Chi Minh who want an independent nationalist state  Nationalists: fighting Japanese with the idea of getting a foreign occupier out of  Vietnam as well as aiding the US ???? us sends $$ because they are basically fighting  the US’s battles in Vietnam

American Support of Ho Chi Minh: 

December 2, 1945: 

- Ho Chi Minh and the NSA/CIA origins: worked closely together against  the Japanese and set up a press conference where Ho Chi Minh has a basic  statement about the future of Vietnam  

o OSS officers around him in support while American war planes fly  over head and a band plays the star spangled banner  

- His statement about the Vietnamese Independence that is almost  entirely taken from the Declaration of Independence US supports  cause because they believe he is a nationalist

American Response to Dien Bien Phu: 

1954: Diem Bien Fu ???? French lose Vietnam War

- Vietminh aid US in defeat of Japanese in WWII – US ally

- Truman was sending $$ into South Vietnam because of the US history  with Vietnam

- Japan fighting in Manchuria resulted in the US imposing trade sanctions increased their need to have access to rubber and tin and other resources East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere: invade a country and turn citizens into slaves for  the Japanese Empire and to help the war effort in China

- US preoccupied with the war in Europe and the Philippines – but don’t  want too many resources in the pacific theater  

Do not do much about Japan in Southeast Asia and instead send a lot of aid and $ to  help other countries fight against the Japanese

Containment interrupts alliance: 

- Containment in Action: 

o Policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of  

communism abroad

o A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a  series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist  

influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, and Vietnam

o It represented a middle-ground position between détente and  rollback.

- Domino Theory: 

o Prominent from the 1950s to the 1980s  

o Speculated that if one country in a region came under the  

influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would  follow in a domino effect

- Rise of China: 

- Independence of China’s foreign policy from the 1960s through the 1970s did not reflect expansion of China's own strength as a nation

- China was during this time still suffering the aftereffects of the Great Leap  Forward of the 1950s, the subsequent Great Famine, and the widespread  chaos stemming from the self-destructive Cultural Revolution that began  in the mid-1960s 

- China under Mao Zedong sought rapprochement with the US for no other  reason than a very keen awareness of the threat posed by the Soviet  Union in light of the domestic disorder in China

- The Chinese threat perception of the Soviet Union and the US Asian  Strategy seeking an "honorable withdrawal" from Vietnam coincided  well, leading to the Sino-US rapprochement in 1971.

- French resistance: 

o First Indochina War

o Fought between French and Viet Minh

o Viet Minh Victory when US wouldn’t come to the aid of France in  the bottom of a valley while surrounded by armed Viet Minh  

soldiers

Dien Bien Phu, 1954: 

- The French are sort of trapped, the commander decides to fight a decisive  battle    

- French garrison at the bottom of a valley surrounded by hills - French don’t believe the Vietnamese are able to get weapons to this area  - Surprised when the Vietnamese are carrying the artillery on their backs  while hiking up the hill and then reassemble it at the top of the hill –

o Commander calls Eisenhower and asks for him to come to their  rescue because he doesn’t want to escalate the war anymore than  it already was

- However the US does not step away after this point

Geneva Accords: 

Geneva Accords: Supposed to settle the war

- Cease-fire agreement between French and Vietminh

- Country divided temporarily along the 17th parallel

- No military alliances or foreign bases in the North or South – prevent  pulling in of Soviets or Chinese in North and French or US in South - General elections on the question of reunification to be held in 1956 –

o Referendum on whether Vietnam wants to stay divided or unify  into one

- US refuses to sign the Accords but promises to abide by them o Did not want to sign a document that conceded half the continent  to Communism

2 year under Accords: 

- Majority of the outcomes are dependent on the South Vietnam  government ???? require South Vietnamese Army that is capable of being  independent

- Main focus: the political regime

Tonkin Gulf: 

- Incident: 

- August 4: 

- 9 torpedoes were thought to have been fired and all were believed to  have missed their targets

- Weather was an influence  

- Pure confusion

- It was later discovered that there had not been an attack

- Resolution: 

- Result: even though there was no real attack congress still granted the  president the power to make any decision he saw fit regarding the  Vietnam War

- Tonkin Gulf Resolution: 

o 1st key turning point for US involvement in Vietnam: proceeded  congress approving the US getting involved

o Moment where it is justified that it is the US’s war too

o US broke the Geneva Accord: by assisting in sabotage attacks  against North Vietnam

President Johnson and the Vietnam War: 

Strategy and Doubt: 

- Escalation under President Johnson: 

o Rolling Thunder + troop increases: Bombings of the Ho Chi Minh  Trail

▪ 9 people died on Ho Chi Minh trail in 1965

▪ This basically began an uninterrupted bombing campaign  

that would last until 1972 

▪ Trying to make it impossible for them to move things along  

the Ho Chi Minh trail  

• Move to Cambodia because the US tries to avoid that  

but end up bombing it later on and brings a whole  

other country into the conflict

- Starts pattern of if we bomb them enough and reek enough destruction it  will force the North Vietnamese to end the war but it proves in WWII  combined

- Bombing was very ineffective – bomb some more ineffective mostly rural  peasant farmers

- Not many places that if bombed will cause a large impacts ???? ultimately  bombing was ineffective because it’s a completely rural country very little  development  

- Search and destroy missions ???? napalm etc.

Doubts creeping in: 

- Nothing stems the flow of Vietcong or their will to endure Vietnam isn’t  damaging their efforts of fighting and are very skilled at fighting  Guerilla Warfare first against Chinese then the French

- Massive use of artillery doesn’t damage their will to keep the fight going - Danag: need to protect the bases so they send in more troops  How do you fight more effectively in South Vietnam: send marines into the jungle to  find the Vietcong and attack them and then bring the Air Force in to bomb the jungle Protests at home against the war: 

- By the end of 1967 there are almost 500,000 US troops in Vietnam - Vietnam is a United Nations effort to some degree – not like Korea but  there is some degree of involvement

TET: 

TET:   1965 

- Turning Point: 

o Victory no longer “just around the corner”  

▪ Maybe it never was

- Supposed to be a temporary cease fire for the Vietnamese holiday - Clear the something is very wrong

- Vietcong attacks every US base and the US embassy compound in Saigon o Hand to hand combat takes place

o Covered by the media

- Westmoreland: calls it a Vietcong defeat/victory  

o Calls it a victory due to the number of Vietnamese people killed  o Vietcong lose all the land that they gained pretty quickly

o Huge risk for Vietcong that didn’t pay off physically but is a  huge mental attack and shows the US that the US troops are  not on the brink of victory

o Diversionary

TET was a Major Cause of Media coverage in US: media and journalists start to ask  harder questions

- Newline Massacre: 

o Massacre of about 400 men women and children

o Cover-up of this event and when it is exposed it is a major deal on  international news  

▪ Lots of American journalists in Vietnam

- Credibility Gap: Cronkite

o Walter Cronkite: most popular TV journalist of the age

▪ Most trusted man in America

▪ News Anchor on either ABC or CBS

• Pre-cable TV; not many channels

o TET: 

▪ Event raised serious questions in his mind and he went to  

South Vietnam and spent time interviewing officials and  

troops asked what is going on and how do we end this

▪ Found what he learned disturbing and voices publically  

what he thinks of the war and speaks of how the US  

involvement in the war should end with negotiation as  

people who did the best they could to defend democracy

▪ News Anchor making the case to get out, without losing  

honor and face internationally

- Credibility Gap: gap between what the administration is saying and what  the people believe to be true

o No one knew how to win this war – we need to pull out

▪ Cronkite coins this term  

- George Jacobson: Head of the Pacification Program in Vietnam  o During the TET invasion on the US Embassy he had a Vietcong in  his house

o The Vietcong put gas into his house  

Virtually impossible to hold onto land

Bombing caused: 

- Vietnamese to build tunnels in order avoid the bombing  

o In these tunnels the Vietcong keep their supplies and  

people/soldiers in the tunnels to hide and remain safe from the  bombings

Wisemen: 

- Made up of people who had served in various capacities since the Truman  Administration and privately advised Johnson throughout his terms and  even before he became president

- Clark Clifford: Johnson sends him to interview about where are they and  what they need to do to win the war

- Response: disturbing to them, basically conclude that a classic victory  was not possible

- Dean Atchison: Cold War Warrior interviews a US General who says the  classic military victory isn’t possible and explodes asking what the hell  are 500,000 troops doing in Vietnam

o End up meeting with Johnson: Atchison as spokes person and says  he has been mislead by his military and civilian advisors

▪ No one knows how to end/ win the conflict and the war is  

not going well for the US

Mounting protest against the war in the US:  Causes Johnson to be seen as a political  liability to any effort to end the war and maintain domestic harmony   - Johnson decides not to run for re-election starts negotiating with North  Vietnam  

- Ultimately leads to division of the Democrats between Hubert Humphrey  and McCarthy

o Due to the division Nixon and Republicans win the election in  1968 

“Credibility Gap”: 

- Credibility Gap: Cronkite

o Walter Cronkite: most popular TV journalist of the age

▪ Most trusted man in America

▪ News Anchor on either ABC or CBS

• Pre-cable TV; not many channels

o TET: 

▪ Event raised serious questions in his mind and he went to  

South Vietnam and spent time interviewing officials and  

troops asked what is going on and how do we end this

▪ Found what he learned disturbing and voices publically  

what he thinks of the war and speaks of how the US  

involvement in the war should end with negotiation as  

people who did the best they could to defend democracy

▪ News Anchor making the case to get out, without losing  

honor and face internationally

- Credibility Gap: gap between what the administration is saying and what  the people believe to be true

o No one knew how to win this war – we need to pull out

▪ Cronkite coins this term  

President Nixon and the Vietnam War: 

Nixon: 

- Campaigns and says he has a secret plan to end the war

o In reality he only has a plan for a plan to end the war

- Vietnamization: increase bombing of north and increase the SV ability to  start fighting alone

o Backfires and bombs Cambodia but brings an end to American  involvement

o Vietnamization is Nixon’s “secret plan” he campaigned about to  end the war

Watergate Scandal: 

Lots of myths about the impact of the Vietnam War at home: 

- Everyone who fought for the US came home and were horribly  mistreated: 

o Some people had this experience but it was not universal –

actually very rare to find a case like this

o With the troops in Vietnam they didn’t come home all at once  there were tours of about a year and then they returned home as  individuals with no support group

- What contributed to the treatment of how they were treated upon  returning home: 

o No real evident ending of the war

o Unpopular war with a very vocal minority people who were  supportive throughout the war had a lot of doubts by the time of  the Watergate scandal

o Made it difficult for the troops to share their experiences and feel a  sense of isolation

o Educational, mortgage support and then coming back as a veteran  left in isolation and without support is common, even for some  

WWII veterans

▪ Veteran’s administration

o Support depends on who you are, where you are, and what war  you served in

o Vast majority of veterans do not come home and then become the  stereotypical veteran that suffers from PTSD

o Veterans committing suicide  

President Richard Nixon: 

- Structure of war and growing unpopularity of the war added to a  context to Nixon that made his paranoia greater

- Very isolated individual

- Difficult to be president during the war – what brings his administration  down

Scandal is such a major part of US politics

Watergate was the first and only scandal that brought down a presidential  administration that ended in resignation

Much more significant in the crimes committed compared to any other scandals: - Not saying there aren’t any other presidents who violated the  constitution, but Nixon got caught

- Greenville, Tennessee: hometown of President Johnson – sign at the  museum that says only president to be impeached until Bill Clinton and  his sex scandal  

o Nixon resigned to escape that fate by resigning office – though he  deserved to be impeached

Where does Watergate fit into our narrative? 

- Second administration to be brought down by the Cold War – after  Johnson was impeached

- Truman was almost brought down by the Cold War – but wasn’t due to  African Americans living outside the south

Main point: political and domestic fall-out of the Cold War

- Legacy of Vietnam War

- Media become more critical, and frames media on looking for scandals in  politics – cable news does this as well

- Complete and utter cynicism of the media

- Searching for things to go wrong

Timeline of Key Events: 

- Discovery of break-in at Watergate Hotel and connection to Nixon re election committee

- Appointment by President of Special Investigator

- Dean Testimony: president involved

- Butterfield Testimony: 

o Tapes could prove it because every conversation in the Oval Office  was recorded

o Whether Nixon knew about the breaking and tried to cover it up o Battle over tapes: Nixon loses support among his own  

constituency in the GOP

o Impeachment proceedings in House begin

o Leading Republicans notify President he will be impeached

o Nixon was re-elected in 1972 before the impeachment process  began/ he resigned

- Nixon Resigns: first and only President to resign from office Creators of CREEPS “black ops”: 

- CREEP: committee  

- G. Gordon Liddy: 

o Involved in security operations and proposes activities to protect  Nixon’s political interests and is part of the PLUMBERS – chief  

operative; had a wild imagination

o During Watergate he proposed as a way to draw attention away  from the scandal a plan in which he would be assassinated on a  street corner

o Most ideas rejected: but one to break into a psychiatrists office to  look for information to leak to the press and clear Daniel Ellsberg  o Pentagon Papers: 

▪ Daniel Ellsberg: 

• Was alarmed about Vietnam and felt that the  

Johnson Administration was a false account  

• Analyst who stole copies of classified documents  

and began leaking them over time to create a  

different idea of what was going on in Vietnam

- Operation Gem Stone: 

- Asked John Mitchell the Attorney General at the time for one million  dollars to do black ops against Nixon’s enemies got $250,000 and decided

to break in and bug the democratic office phones in the Watergate Hotel  so they could listen to conversations about the campaign and would be  able to be one step ahead

- Plumbers: stop leaks of information that would hurt Nixon’s chances at  being re-elected

- James McCord: Liddy recruits him to help him with Watergate o Wire tap Larry Obrien

o 1972 bugs are put into the phones and listen to around 200 phone  calls they learn 2 things  

- Vietnam Veterans Against the War: 

- One of the most vocal components group of veterans who were against  what was happening in Vietnam and formed this group  

o John Kerry: secretary of state was a member of this group o Bob Kerry: former senator was a member as well  

o Thorn in the side of the Nixon Administration

- One of the bugs that had been placed was broken and needed to be  replaced

o Decided to go back in and fix the malfunctioning bug and replace it  with a new one in hopes of getting more information

o Frank Wills: June 17th, 1972 security guard at the Watergate Hotel  notices a door with a lock was open and there is duct tape over the  lock and thinks it the janitorial staff who did it so that they can  clean and takes it off and shuts the door

o Returns an hour later to find the duct tape back on the lock and  calls the police and says that someone broke into the Watergate  Complex

- Police come and catch 5 men: Bernard Barker, Virgilio Gonzales, Eugenio  Martinez James McCord, and Frank Sturgis

o Virgilio Gonzales and Eugenio Martinez were used to try to  assassinate Castro and bay of pigs

- One man upon arrest empties pockets and has his address book in his  pocket with all the names and numbers of everyone involved in this - Howard Hunt: 

o Name was in the address book

o Worked in the Nixon Administration – connected the burglars to  the Nixon Administration

o Comes out gradually due to Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein work for Washington Post – have a secret investigator due to Deep  Throat from a porn film from the 1970’s not discovered until  decades later who he really was

- Bernstein, Woodward and Deep Throat meet secretly and write up stories  about the Watergate break in and what deep throat learns  o Deep Throat: W. Mark Felt

▪ Around 10 years ago Deep Throat’s identity was revealed  by his daughter when he had Alzheimer’s and died shortly  after and she knew that it would not put him in danger

- Every morning there is a story in the Washington Post having to do with  Nixon and Watergate – becoming a more major liability

- Leak tells Woodward that Senior Aids to Nixon paid the burglars money  to keep quiet and had been paid to break into the office to get information  on Nixon’s opponents

o Suggesting crimes were committed that violated the constitution  by Nixon and his Aids – and if the President had tried to cover it up o Cant use CIA to investigate American citizens at this time o Congress becomes involved

- Senator Sam Ervin: Democrat from North Carolina, Senate Investigating  Committee

- Begins to subpoena White House Staff: 

o Watergate made the journalistic careers for Woodward and  Bernstein

o Nixon has to ask for the resignation of John Haldeman and John  Ehrlichman because it appeared they had involvement in the  cover-up  

▪ Caught paying hush money to the burglar’s families

▪ They were the only ones he talked to – chief of staff – as  well as Henry Kissinger who was his National Security  

Adviser

- John Dean: perjured himself and once fired he becomes the key witness  against Nixon and his administration

- Archibald Cox: who Nixon appoints to be the Special Independent Counsel  to get to the bottom of the issue

- Elliott Richardson: Appointed as Attorney General Chose Cox for the  Special Independent Counsel

- Not many people talked directly to Nixon

- ABC, Fox, and NBC: 

o As long as the hearings are in session it is being shown on TV by  one of these stations  

o Takes the scandal to the American people and they are far more  informed about what is going on in the scandal more than any  other scandal before or after Watergate

o They could watch it as it occurred and it tends to damage Nixon’s  political reputation

- Howard Baker: Republican from Tennessee and Fred Thompson (who  died last week, actor on Law and Order) cut his political teeth because  Howard Baker was a key member of the senate committee hearing the  Watergate Scandal

- Question: what did the president know and when did he know it? Asked  every witness this question to keep the focus on the presidents  involvement  

o Did he participate in the break in and the cover-up?

- Alexander Butterfield: Deputy Assistant to the president

o Told the senate committee about the taping system in the Oval  Office  

o Wasn’t shared with the press that the taping system was there  mostly because all presidents have a public persona and a private  reality of who they really are Transforms the scandal and hearings  o Will prove who is telling the truth Nixon or John Dean

- Nixon refuses to do this: 

o Justification for not turning the tapes over was National Security  and Executive Privilege sets up constitutional challenge  

o Supreme court gets involved constitutional challenge because of  the tapes

- Saturday Night Massacre: find someone to fire Cox

- Robert Bork: acting Attorney General (Solicitor General) to fire Cox and  he agrees in 1973 – painful lesson because it prevents his nomination to  be a Supreme Court Justice

Johnson and Nixon: 

- Exceedingly profane men had less than positive things to say about the  American people and did not want people having access to it  

- Wanted a historical record to be able to refer to  

- Tapes are now declassified and are available to listen to at the Miller  center

- Thompson spoke to the aids during the hearings and learned there  was a taping system in the Oval office and relayed this message to  the senate committee

- Why is Nixon so certain he can’t let the tapes go? 

o Ends up turning the tapes over, however one tape has a key  

moment missing 18.5 minutes that are missing as well as a key 5  minutes

o Nixon throws his secretary under the bus

▪ Rose Mary Woods: Nixon’s secretary, shows how she  

accidentally deleted the parts of the tape when trying to  

answer the phone and held her foot on the pedal for 18.5  

minutes

• Forensics proved she erased it 12 times so that  

nothing could be picked up off the tape

Articles of Impeachment passed in the House: July 7, 1974 

- Obstruction of Justice  

- Abuse of Power

- Defiance OF Subpoenas

Senator Barry Goldwater: Messenger and friend of Nixon given the task of telling  Nixon he needed to resign

- Everything Nixon did in his life was to groom himself to become  President

Gerald Ford: VP of Nixon who becomes President after he resigns - Pardons Nixon as his first act of office when he becomes President - Sends many people to prison that were involved in the scandal

- Watergate: Reveals a lot about who Nixon was as a politician – big gap  between who he portrayed himself as to the public and who he really was o Why the word gate follows scandals

▪ Clinton: Zipper gate

Legacy of Watergate and Presidential Power: 

Articles of Impeachment passed in the House: July 7, 1974 

- Obstruction of Justice  

- Abuse of Power

- Defiance OF Subpoenas

Equal Rights Amendment: 

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United  States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women. The ERA was  originally written by Alice Paul and Crystal Eastman. In 1923, it was introduced in  the Congress for the first time.

Phyllis Schafly and the Eagle Forum: 

- Feminism meets the Eagle Forum: 

o Phyllis Schafley: political conservative activist – finds place in  opposition to women’s movement against Equal Rights Act –

radical anti-feminist movement starts to label goals of economic  justice as being reverse discrimination

- 1. The Greatest Achievement of Women’s Rights: Women have the good  fortune to live in a civilization that respects the family as the basic unit of  society – which is part and parcel of American laws and customs. It is  based on the fact of life – which cannot be erased by legislation or  agitation. Its simple: women are able to have children and men are not.  The greatest achievement of women’s rights is family. Family assures a  woman the most precious and important right – the rights to keep her  own baby and be supported and protected in the joy of watching her baby  develop and grow. A man can search for decades for a feeling of  accomplishment in his profession, while a woman can simply have a baby  and feel a great sense of accomplishment – even at a young age. Women  are fortunate enough to have the great legacy of the 10 commandments:  “Honor your father and mother so that your days may be long.” A  woman’s best social security are her children – they guarantee her  benefits such as: old age, pension, unemployment compensation,  worker’s compensation, and sick leave. A woman with a family has  physical, financial, and emotional security that will last her for the rest of  her life.

- 2. The Financial Benefits of Chivalry: Women are privileged because they  are the beneficiaries of a tradition of special respect for women dating  back to the Christian Age of Chivalry. Good manners as well as more  tangible things like money are evidence of this respect towards women.

- 3. The Real Liberation of Women: American women are so well off due to  the American free enterprise system that has produced remarkable  inventors who have lifted the backbreaking women’s work form their  shoulders. In other countries and times in history it was said that “other

women have labored every waking hour – preparing food on wood  burning stoves, making flour, baking bread in stone ovens, spinning yarn,  making clothes, making soap. Doing the laundry by hand, heating irons,  making candles for light and fires for warmth, and trying to nurse their  babies through illness without medical care.” The real heroes of the  liberation of women from the backbreaking work were not the women on  TV but rather Thomas Edison, Elias Howe, Clarence Birdseye, and Henry  Ford. Edison who invented electricity to give light to their homes and  Howe who created the sewing machine, Birdseye who invented the  process of freezing foods, and Ford who mass-produced cars – making  them affordable for every American male or female.

- 4. The Fraud of the Equal Rights Amendment: a movement for Women’s  rights was suddenly everywhere and were talking about how women  were afflicted and seen as inferior to men.  The women’s movement  leaders even went as far as to call marriage a form of slavery – saying that  housework was menial and degrading and that women were  

discriminated against. The author wanted to set the record straight – it is  the fraud of the century to claim that women are unfairly treated and  downtrodden. The truth, according to her, is that American women have  never had it so good – why should they lower themselves to “equal rights”  when they already have a status of special privilege? The problem with  the equal rights amendment is that it will make women subject to the  draft as well as abolish a woman’s right to child support and alimony.  Under the then present laws a man is always required to support his wife  and each child he caused to be brought into the world.

- 5. Women’s Libbers do NOT Speak for Us: the women’s liberation is not  an honest effort to secure better jobs for women who want or need to  work outside the home according to the author. Its just superficial “sweet  talk” to win support for their radical “movement”. The women in the  movement have the goal of making wives and mothers unhappy with  their career and to make them feel like second class citizens and “abject  slaves”. The libbers are promoting free sex instead of the type of slavery  that is marriage, federal daycare centers instead of homes, and abortions  instead of families. Why would a woman trade her special privileges and  honored status for the ability to work in an office or an assembly line?  The libbers according to the author do not speak for the majority of  women in the US – American women do not want to be liberated from  their husbands and children nor do they wish to trade in their birthright  of the special privilege given to American women.

Limits of the 1970’s: 

- Social Movements: 

o Kent State Massacre

o “The Silent Majority”

- Environmentalism: 

o First earth day was held on April 22nd 1970

- Black Nationalist Movement:

o Grew out due to frustrations with the non- violent approach taken  by Civil Right’s Activists

- Women’s Movement: 

o To end discriminations due to gender

- Culture: 

o Rise of Music: many diverse forms of popular rock music including  jazz rock arose

o Rise of Gay Culture: celebrities like Andy Warhol “came out”

▪ Harvey Milk: advocate for anti-gay discrimination  

legislation

o Television: reflects American Life

▪ HBO launched on November 8th 1972

▪ Sesame Street, SNL, The Family, Mary Tyler Moore, Roots,  

and many other famous shows were launched in the 1970’s

o Fashion

o Sports

o Political and economical: 

▪ Domestic policy:

• Stagflation: Stagnant economy + high inflation

▪ Foreign Policy: 

▪ OPEC

▪ Watergate Scandal

Ronald Reagan: Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician and actor, who  served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989 Domestic Agenda: 

Less government, stronger defense – promise to restore America’s greatness - Reagan: 

o So unhappy people didn’t believe in themselves and that America  was in decline  

▪ He believed he could recreate what the people needed to  

have their own American dream

o Rescuing from self doubt, loss of direction, loss of belief, and  Jimmy Carter’s America

- Jersey City: where Reagan kicked off his campaign

- Recovery: will happen when Jimmy Carter loses his place as president - Inflation and Interest Rates Increasing: 

o Couldn’t buy gas during this time, hostage crisis in Iran – people  getting worried

▪ 52 American diplomats held Hostage in Iran for a year

o “Thank you because if the trend continues we may very well  control one house of congress for the first time in a long time” o Reagan carried 44 states – great win for him and conservative  movement

- Economic Crisis and escalating Cold War during 1981: how would a  Hollywood actor manage to be president?

- Reagan’s Mission: restore America’s trust in itself – like FDR before him

o “Not doomed to an inevitable decline”

o Came to office with a fixed set of beliefs and agenda to achieve and  establish those beliefs

- Reagan Whitehouse: during first term

o Chief of Staff: James Baker

o Edwin Meese: Office of the Counselor to the President

▪ Noted Republican attorney, law professor and author

- Carter’s focus: became diffused and sent too much legislation during first  100days  

o Reagan tried to do the opposite

- Reagan Revolution: 

o Would ignite an economic boom that included  

▪ Tax cut  

▪ Balanced budget

▪ Reductions in spending

- Supply side economics: enough tax cuts taken to balance out the budget - February 18: Reagan proposes economic agenda to congress   o Trying to undo the Great Society put in place by Johnson o 30% tax cut across the board – wealthy benefit the most o For his economic package to become law he would have to  convince democrats to break off and join his side

▪ Called 29 members of congress one night – understood  presidents are judged on success of programs

▪ Extraordinarily hard worker

▪ Every night would do a stack of work

- Best Weapon: power of projecting to the people, vocalized their hopes  and fears and gave them a vision

o “Make government a server of the people”

- Administration gained momentum with every appeal: 

o By March 2/3 of America was in support of tax cuts

o March 30th 1981: at Washington Hilton Hotel at 2:25 he left a  meeting he was shot  

▪ No one knew he had been hit until he got out of the limo  and walked into the hospital  

• He went down as soon as he walked in the door

- John Hinckley Jr.: fired 6 shots at Reagan – hit his lung and missed his  lunch by an inch

- Nancy Reagan: 

o Reagan told her he was “sorry he forgot to duck”

o Horrified: “this will never happen again” – closed presidency down  because it took him out of the public and put the presidency too  far away from decision making

- America saw what Reagan was made of during this time: He returned to  White House 12 days after being shot

o Shooting confirmed everything he was ever taught about God’s  plan for him

- Mother Teresa: 

o Visited the White House to meet with him privately not long after  o She told him “god had a plan and god had intended him to suffer” - Reagan’s Life was now going to be put toward and lived for God – hesitated more and was more evangelical

o Rest of presidency was a slow decline

- April 28th 1981: 4 weeks after shooting he received a heroes welcome  from congress

- Economic Recovery: 

o Is essential  

o 298 – 195 vote in favor of economic package – convinced enough  democrats to break rank

o Rejoiced in the greatest political win in half a century

- August 13th 1981: went to ranch in sky to sign what would start step one  of the ratification of the Reagan Revolution

o Day was foggy and made some skeptical of whether they were in a  fog and making a mistake

o Without further cuts the US would face the largest deficit in  

history

o Reagan said they always knew more cuts were in the future

- Keystone of Anti-Soviet Policy and Social Security: would have to be taken  away from in order to balance out the budget – could if the economy was  strong enough

- Balance Budget or Regain Military Capabilities

o Never have such a great opportunity to balance the budget  

because by November 1981 blue collar workers that voted for  

Reagan were losing jobs

o Reagan admitted the nation was headed into a recession  

▪ There were no signs of improvement in Spring

o Reagan was “splashing in wealth while other American’s went  hungry” according to one journalist

o Media was most judgmental towards Nancy Reagan due to her  designer dresses and china in the White House

- Humanize an issue if you wanted Reagan to act on it

“Evil Empire”: “This is the "evil empire" speech that was often quoted as defining  my attitude toward the Soviets. At the time it was portrayed as some kind of know nothing, archconservative statement that could only drive the Soviets to further  heights of paranoia and insecurity.

For too long our leaders were unable to describe the Soviet Union as it actually was.  The keepers of our foreign-policy knowledge - in other words, most liberal foreign affairs scholars, the State Department, and various columnists - found it illiberal and provocative to be so honest. I’ve always believed, however, that it’s important to  define differences, because there are choices and decisions to be made in life and  history.” - Ronald Reagan

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