Unit 4 Review
Unit 4 Review 88770 - BIOL 1030 - 003
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Reavey on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 88770 - BIOL 1030 - 003 at Clemson University taught by Kristi J. Whitehead in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 12/02/15
BIOL 1030 Unit 4 review Chapter 13 Gene expression how we go from DNA to RNA to proteins 0 You can nd the protein that s encoded for by tat DNA seq gene is quotonquot being expressed Gene pool all the variations of genes in a population at a given time o What is in your population from a genetic standpoint Gene ow genes are owing in between both of the pools 0 Members of one population move to another pop ow of genetic info between populations Genetic drift l sudden unexpected change in the gene pool 0 What you had in gene pool drifts away from what it was 0 Change in gene pool due to chance 0 Bottleneck effect natural disaster for example wipes out some of the population and the gene pool isn t what it once was Suddenly and quickly changes 0 Founder effect small group of population moves away and quotfoundsquot a new population For example moving to an island Early Greek philosophers thought things change over time but they didn t know why Aristotle said what is on earth today is what has always been there things are changing in a perfect fashion Things change agrees with Greek philosophers l based on fossil records Lamarck agreed that things change he said they change because of use and disuse Ex giraffes long necks had to constantly reach farther and farther to reach leaves on trees so their necks gradually became longer Darwin said that there are natural forces that change Earth forces that have been at work for a long time and are still at work These forces effect living organisms o Organisms are adapted well to the environment that they are living in l geography matters 0 Ex organisms on Galapagos more similar to organisms in south America common ancestor Natural selection l natural forces are involved Arti cial l humans get involved quotselectquot traits ex dog breeding Descent with modi cation l similar to Darwin s theories organisms modify as they descend from an ancestor What s alive today is a modi cation of its ancestor Natural selection is the mechanism through with these changes occur to make an organism more t to its environment These are the changes that persist Observations of natural selection l differences between members of a population looking at how it interacts with its environment populations overproduce l connection between these is competition 0 The variation in the pop says that some members in the pop are going to be better at surviving and reproducing than others 0 How this all ties in with evolution is descent with modi cation l traits that allow organisms to better survive and reproduce are the traits that get passed out as species evolve 0 Evolution is NOT goal directed l will never end up with the perfect organism because environment is constantly changing If a gene gets duplicated then you still have original gene that makes the protein duplicated gene can get changed but it doesn t matter because you still have original gene if the changed gene is better than original gene it can be used with the original or instead of the original 0 Opportunity for bad changes to happen and not matter HardyWeinberg equation only one problem on exam 0 Calculate allele frequencies l if it is changed evolution is occurring if it is not changed not evolving 0 Don t do genotype frequencies 0 Ex rst generation 400 individuals l 800 alleles 200 GG l 400 G 150 Gg l 150 G 150 g 50 gg l 100 g 069 G 031 g number of each alleles over total alleles 0 Second generation 500 individuals 1000 alleles 250 GG l 500 G 100 Gg l 100 G 100 g 150 gg l 300 g 066 G 04 g o The allele frequencies are different between the generations l evolving l NOT in HardyWeinberg equilibrium 0 3 possible results of natural selection stabilizing selection directional selection disruptive selection Chapter 14 Allopatric speciation l due to genetic drift space keeping population apart ex mountain range forms between a population 0 They evolve over time to become a different species l adapting to their environment 0 Geographical separation is not enough to cause speciation l there is usually also a reproductive barrier Sympatric speciation l happens in the same location reproductive barriers are involved 0 Reproductive barriers are more important when it comes to speciation Polyploidy l speciation can occur in a single generation one of the fastest ways that speciation occurs VERY rare o It takes a mistake for this to happen most of the time the mistake is not successful 0 Ex chromosomal duplication without cell division l diploid gametes self fertilization occurs ends up with a tetraploid species that can not reproduce 0 Ex 2 different species try to breed with each other have different numbers of chromosomes not homologous l sterile hybrid that does not have pairs of chromosomes can t undergo meiosis Can reproduce asexually if chromosomes are duplicated happens by chance Chapter 15 o The beginning of life 0 4 step process 1 Synthesis of small organic molecules l idea that abiotic system creates biologically important compounds nothing living on Earth at the very beginning a Studied by Stanley Miller stimulated lightning water and gases found on early earth l found chains of carbon and certain amino acids end result was to provide evidence that an abiotic system could produce biologically relevant compounds 2 Formation of polymers l monomers from the ocean were washed on the beach it would evaporate and they became concentrated to become polymers 3 Packaging of molecules into quotprotocellsquot l when the phospholipids are put into water they form a membrane 4 Origin of selfreplicating molecules l RNA formed from organic molecules self assemble if put into a solution some types of RNA have enzymatic activity Plate tectonics l liquid mantle solid crust earth made up of plates earth s crust that oat on top of the mantle Continental drift l as the mantle moves the plate moves Adaptive Radiation new species quotradiate outquot from original one o Darwin s nches l within Galapagos a single nch species traveled over to Galapagos they were able to colonize almost all the Galapagos islands different islands have different resources food shelter etc eventually formed into many new species of nches based on adaptation to environment 0 Biological diversity Pangaea has an effect on biological diversity 0 As it pulled apart parts of the ocean deepened and parts of the shores were dried up loss of habitats Mass extinctions l unpredictable event where over 50 of the species on Earth are destroyed go extinct 5 mass extinctions total 0 Permian mass extinction l mass amounts of volcanic eruption massive toll on marine life 0 Cretaceous mass extinction l asteroid hit the earth atmosphere was clouded with toxic dust Takes 510 million years to recover o 100 million for Permian mass extinction Homeotic genes special group of genes referred to as master control genes they have a lot to do with why you look the way that you do 0 Control development in terms of rate timing and spatial patterns l where they re expressed what the result of expression is etc Homologies l shared because the 2 species share relatively recent a common ancestor descended from the same type of organism Analogies l shared characteristics that occur because of shared selective pressures random event 0 Convergent evolution l evolution paths of organisms converge because of selective pressures Cladistics o Clades l monophyletic group 0 Look at shared ancestral characters and shared derived characters 0 Ex having a backbone all vertebrates into a clade ancestral o Derived l more speci c l allows you to break it into more speci c group subgroup Organisms you are studying are in groups there is one group that is considered the out group l included in order to understand the relationship
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