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Define art.

Define art.


School: University of California - Irvine
Department: Gender and Sexuality Studies (GNSE)
Course: Gender and Feminism
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Gender and Sexuality Studies 50A Final Study Guide
Description: Here are my detailed notes from Gender and Sexuality Studies 50A with Professor Sameh. Happy studying and good luck on finals!!!
Uploaded: 12/02/2015
19 Pages 72 Views 2 Unlocks


Define art.



Ways of Seeing/Feminist Interventions

1. Concepts for today

a. cultural representations

b. ways of seeing

c. cultural studies methodology

d. perspective

e. art activism

2. Representing

a. who does the representing? (who makes the representation?)

b. who gets represented?

c. how do they get represented?

3. Cultural Studies Methodology

a. image: what is in the frame ­ literal tv screen, classroom

b. political economy: what enables the image to be made and to be circulated ­ ideologies go into circulating image We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of a collective action problem?

c. audience reception: how the image is received

Who is mary seacole?

i. Ex: Picture of a woman in bikini. ­ frame. political economy ­ probably about selling sex or bikinis. Being circulated to sell something. Audience reception ­ sex, lust

4. Ways of Seeing (John Berger)

a. “the relations between what we see and what we know is never settled.” b. “the way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe.” c. The Real is always already a representation

i. everything we see goes through our own biases before it gets processed ­ becomes affected by our own understanding of what we think reality is d. “we see only what we look at. To look is an act of choice.”

e. “we never look at just one thing; we are always looking at the relation between things and ourselves.”

5. The image

a. “an image is a sight which has been recreated and reproduced.”

What factors or forces cause people to migrate?

Don't forget about the age old question of It is an ongoing marketing research system that collects customer inputs and integrates them into managerial decisions?

b. it is selected from an infinity of possible sights

c. “every image embodies a way of seeing.”

d. “the photographer’s way of seeing is reflected in his choice of subject.” 6. Perception and Reception

a. “although every image embodies a way of seeing, our perception or appreciation of an image depends also upon our way of seeing.”

b. “perspective makes the single eye the center of the visible world.”

7. Renaissance Perspective (1400­1500s)

a. Geometrical

b. Three­dimensional world rendered in two­dimensional form

c. represented objects are consolidated by a vanishing point as analogue to the lens or the eye

d. “God’s eye view” ­ mastery over objects

e. Mechanistic ­ tries to capture an infinite possibility of what we see and what’s in the world in a contained way

f. Objectifying

g. centralized point of view

h. seeking accurate correspondence between the spatial configuration of the object and its projection onto a two­dimensional surface

8. Gender and Perspective

a. “a woman must continually watch herself… From earliest childhood she has been taught and persuaded to survey herself continually.”

b. She is simultaneously the surveryor and the surveyed Don't forget about the age old question of Was the birth of the massachusetts bay colony focused on religious liberty?

c. “Her own sense of being in herself is supplanted by a sense of being appreciated as herself by another”

9. Watch Yourself! (John Burger)

a. “men act and women appear”

b. “men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at”

c. “the surveyor of woman in herself is male, the surveyed female. Thus she turns herself into an object”

10. What is Art? (Catherine King)

a. painting, drawing, sculpting, woodworking, ceramics, weaving, printmaking, dressmaking, fashion

b. drama, music, dance

11. Gender divisions in Art History

a. segregation of art forms by gender

b. masculine art as substantial and superior

i. painting broad canvases, sculpting, photography, filmmaking

c. feminine art as “decorative” and inferior

i. lace­making, knitting, miniatures

12. Public/Private Split

a. men as professional artists making art that is universal and shapes the world b. women as amateurs or hobbyists making decorative objects suitable for the home but not for the art gallery or museum Don't forget about the age old question of It is a collection of data whose properties are analyzed, what is it?

13. Feminist Art Activism

a. emerged in 1970s

b. absence of women artists in gallery and museum shows

c. objected to the gendered division of art

d. called out the long history of male artist’ objectification of women in artworks 14. Another Strategy: Guerrilla Girls

a. “3 white women, 1 woman of color and no men of color ­ out of 71 artists?” 15. Concluding thoughts

a. what does it mean to be represented?

b. how can performance art and direct action interrupt the dominant forms of representation?




1. Concepts for Review

a. cultural representations

b. ways of seeing

c. perspective

d. art activism

2. methods for review

a. intersectional analysis

b. cultural studies methodology

3. Intersectional Analysis (Kimberle Crenshaw) If you want to learn more check out What are the gross investments of a business?
Don't forget about the age old question of 1,3-dibromopentane has how many stereoisomers in its family?

a. main argument: the concept of a generalized “essential” gender identity does not address differences among women based on race or culture.

b. proposed method: recognize intersectional identities to understand the complexity of belonging simultaneously to several groups

4. cultural studies methodology

a. image: what is in the frame

b. political economy: what enables the image to be made and to be circulated ($$$) c. audience reception: how the image is received differently by different groups 5. key questions for today

a. what is the relationship between knowledge and power?

b. what is the relationship between literacy and power?

c. why has literacy ­ abilitiy to read, write, and engage in interpretation­ been a goal of intersectional feminist movements?

d. what is the relationship of the internet to questions of literacy, knowledge, and power?

6. printing and power (Ewen and Ewen)

a. Argument: the invention of the printing press radically shifted relationships of power

b. the printing press became an instrument of capitalism and labor exploitation c. but also an instrument of protest and revolution

7. claiming divine right

a. “the Bible was the word of God, the universal law, but its interpretation was left to those privileged few who could read it”

b. “within the context of feudal Catholicism, biblical interpretation tended to underwrite the immense social, political, landholding power of the church” 8. Feudalism and the Word

a. “while feudal power was often held and defended by the sword, it was justified by the word. The monopoly over the word, over literacy, and over the ability to interpret was was read was the fundamental aspect of rule” (299).

9. The Babblers and the Lollards (early 1300s)

a. John Wycliffe and the Babblers/ Lollards

b. traveled through the English countryside reading the Bible aloud in the vernacular language

c. vernacular: the common or native language (not Latin but English) d. Wycliffe branded a heretic by Pope Gregory XI

10. Moveable type

a. Johann Gutenberg (1450)­ invented a mechanical moveable type printing press b. enabled the assembly ­ line production of books

c. remembered for “gutenberg’s bible”

11. printing and commerce

a. standardized transactions and contracts

b. enabled dissemination of information and imagery

c. established and maintained commercial networks

12. printing and interpretation

a. the printing press replaced the Lingua Franca of Latin with vernacular languages (French, dutch, spanish, english, german, italian)

b. challenged old authority of the Catholic and Anglican churches during protestant reformation

13. printing and social revolt

a. unrestricted at first so printing was used to challenge political and religious authorities

b. growth and spread of literacy beyond just the elite class

c. monopoly on “the word” was broken up

d. emergence of mass communication of knowledge

14. literacy and democracy

a. literacy enabled individuals to spread knowledge and ideas and “to interpret the world in their own terms”

b. “the power to speak through the printing press provided the link between literacy and struggle”

15. Gender and the right to literacy

a. Rassundari Devi’s first autobiography ever published in Bengali (1876) “My Life” b. stealing a page to learn how to read

c. household as a place of isolation and ignorance

d. reading associated with masculinity, class, and status

16. literacy and patriarchy

a. illiteracy as a mode of control over women

b. women’s literacy as rebellion against patriarchy

17. Literacy and its limits (Pat Dean v M.S. Mlahleki)

a. context: in 1986, 814 million people in the world could not read or write 62% women

b. Zimbabwe 1980s (struggle between capitalist development vs socialist society); gained independence from England in 1980

c. Pat Dean: literacy is crucial for economic development, self­esteem, upward mobility

18. Mlahleki’s critique

a. literacy campaigns, when they are part of capitalist development schemes, often further the goals of dominant groups and marginalize everyone else.

b. literacy programs are not value­neutral

c. in zimbabwe they were used to train people to become low­ranking clerks 19. colonizing the mind

a. some literacy programs, like some educational programs, are part of a process of colonizing the minds of people

b. they may teach people to read simple words and numbers but discourage them from thinking critically or valuing other forms of expression

20. world media (william wresch)

a. television around the world dominated by U.S media industry

i. cultural imperialism

b. newspapers diminishing in number and circulation

c. sensationalism sells (violent crime, celebrity scandals)

21. but what about the internet?

a. the new public sphere?

b. who has access to the internet?

c. what does the internet enable?

d. what power relations does it reinforce?

e. what power relations does it challenge?

f. does the internet create new imagined communities?

g. does it exclude new populations?

22. literacy, technology, and democracy

a. what is the role of the internet in democracy?

b. what kinds of literacies does the internet make possible?

c. what new problems does the internet create for democracy/democratic participation?




1. Concepts for review

a. colonization and colonialism

b. commodity form

c. orientalism

i. comes from Edward Said, talked about the production through colonial texts, paintings, films, television

d. cultural representation

e. eurocentrism

2. Gender, Travel, and Tourisms

3. Concepts for today

a. globalization ­ using this framework for the rest of the quarter

b. international/global tourism industry

c. women explorers/”Victorian lady travelers”

d. travel/tourism as pleasure and power

e. racial and gender politics of the tourism economy

4. Globalization

a. economic, social cultural and political processes and systems of integration (among people, economies, movements, culture, communications, and technologies)

i. economic globalization: unregulated capitalism creates maximum economic growth and individual choice

1. free trade, deregulation, privatization, end of social welfare,

immigration restrictions

ii. political globalization: moves from state­centered politics to transnational governance and movements

1. from above: UN, NATO, EU

2. from below: movements, networks, ngos, civil society

5. Feminist approaches to globalization

a. seeks to understand range of injustices produced by globalization b. seek new feminist analyses of and solutions to global injustice

c. use methods of intersectionality: gender interacts with other forms of oppression and disadvantage arising within a global context (nationality, citizenship status, labor position in global economy)

d. analyze gender injustice within particular transnational histories and contexts (colonialism, war, global economy)

e. examine new social movements and resistance based on transnational solidarity 6. Cynthia Enloe

a. excerpt from larger work that seeks to “make feminist sense of international politics”

i. follow lives of diverse women­ domestic workers, soldiers, travelers, refugees, etc. ­ to understand international politics: where are the


ii. where does power operate?

1. what forms does it take?

2. who wields it?

7. Travel and Tourism as big business

a. greater numbers of countries dependent on tourism for earnings

i. Jamaica, Bahamas, Samoa, Fiji, and Rwanda garner 40% of export earnings from tourism

ii. Nepal, Croatia, Egypt, Tanzania, and Morocco garner at least 20% of export earnings from tourism

iii. 1.8 billion tourists traveled worldwide in 2012, creating 7% of all jobs globally and generating 5% of the global gdp

b. travel for pleasure generates income and profits for governments and companies c. creates well­paying careers and exploitative jobs

d. attracts millions of people to venture far from home

e. tourists form ideas about other cultures )new and/or pre­conceived) f. those who service tourists create own ideas about travelers

g. tourism is relational­creates desires, affections, resentment, friendship, scorn, etc.

8. Tourism is gendered

a. concept of tourism gendered (men are historically the adventurers, while women need to be protected in travel)

b. tourists are gendered

c. policies promoting tourism are gendered

d. profit­seeking tourist companies and people working for them are gendered e. more women than ever are traveling voluntarily for business and pleasure f. women working in tourism industry earning 10 to 15% less than men employed in same industry

9. Tourism has its own international political history

a. femininity associated with home

b. masculinity as a “passport for travel” (Enloe, 389)

c. women voluntary traveling away from home without men historically deemed “unrespectable”

i. blamed for any violence incurred along the way

d. forced/enforced travel­enslaved or indentured workers, refugees, subordinated members of families

10. Victorian lady travelers

a. took on masculinized identities of “adventurer” and “explorer”

i. not content with designated “safe zones”

ii. wanted adventure and challenge

b. undermined Victorian notions of femininity as well as the bond between Western masculinity, travel, and imperialism

i. feminist ideals/desires/practices around travel bound up with histories/ contexts of colonial expansion, imperial military might, and global


11. Mary Seacole

a. born in Kingston, Jamaica

b. Scottish and African ancestry

c. adept at medicine and trade

d. travel as adventure and employment

i. treats British soldiers in Crimean War

e. identifies with British crown and England

f. challenges racial and gender inequalities of her era

12. Sylvia Jacobs on Black Women Missionaries in Southern Africa

a. believed in “civilizing” and “Christianizing” of Africa, not as colonizers but as descendents of the continent

b. strong commitments to improving economic, social, educational, and religious development

c. at odds with European imperialists who sought to maintain control, but not investing in growth of societies

d. contradictory relationship to Africa and Africans

i. sought transnational links/solidarity, but imposed own ideas about work and family life

ii. challenge but also reproduce colonial ideologies

1. colonial powers nervous about African­American/African unity and mutual identification

2. critical of women’s agricultural work

3. biased against polygamy

4. disturbed by African women’s nudity and sexuality

e. ultimately African­American missionaries are racialized in similar ways to Africans by colonial powers nervous about political solidarity

i. increasingly excluded for working in Africa

13. Sylvia Chant

a. gendered tiers of labor in tourist industry in Puerto Rico

b. reflection of larger trends

i. service sector forms most of women’s employment

ii. low­wage service work

iii. reproductive labors/care work­associated with women’s labor inside home 14. Mixed results from women’s entry into tourism economy

a. feminized forms of labor segregate/isolate women

b. less interaction with public in tourism economy means fewer tips

c. limited occupational mobility because of fewer ranks and specializations i. on the other hand…

d. women gain from economic power which brings them bargaining power within the family

e. more “power to choose”

15. Concluding thoughts

a. travel and tourism are embedded in power

i. who travels voluntarily?

ii. what relations are constructed through travel?

iii. how does the tourism industry profit from racialized and gendered forms of pleasure and labor?

b. travel and tourism are gendered

i. depend on ideas of masculinity and femininity

c. travel and tourism are empowering and exploitative

i. intersectionality helps us map our relation to travel and mobility

1. where are the women?

2. which women?





FInal ­ no lecture Tuesday November 24, TA’s will lead review in preparation for final. Attendance required. final weighted towards materials from week 6­10

1. Concepts for review.

a. travel and tourism are gendered ­

i. concept that men venture out in the world and public sphere, women confined to domestic sphere. women work in tourism but in lower wage

sector “caring labors” labors related to the home

b. travel and tourism have an international political history

i. been embedded in colonial relationships, where Westerners have access to what they have defined as “exotic, exciting places” through colonialism ii. colonialism opened up the opportunity for travel

c. travel and tourism are embedded in power

d. travel and tourism are relational ­ they produce desire, resentments, pleasures, hierarchies, friendships, hostilities, etc. between different people

e. travel and tourism are voluntary forms of global mobility

Forced Relocations and Removals

1. concepts for today

a. migration

b. labor power

c. relocation

d. forced migration

e. refugee

2. what factors or forces cause people to migrate?

a. slavery and indentured servitude

b. war

c. political violence (exile)

d. relocation

e. seeking to escape poverty

f. incentivized by governments

g. opportunity (education, safety, employment)

h. family reunification

i. climate change

3. Globalization and social hierarchies: who moves and why?

a. social dislocation and displacement (diaspora, exile, war, poverty) b. labor exploitation and human trafficking

c. economic betterment or incentives from government

4. globalization ­ review

a. economic, social, cultural, and political processes and systems of integration (among people, economies, movements, culture, communications, and technologies)

i. economic globalization: unregulated capitalism creates maximum economic growth and individual choice

1. free trade, deregulation, privatization, end of social welfare,

immigration restrictions

ii. political globalization: moves from state­centered politics to transnational governance and movements

1. from above: UN, NATO, EU

2. from below: movements, networks, ngos, civil society

5. migration as labor power (Potts)

a. labor market segmentation

b. “secondary work force” ­ last hired, first fired; expendable labor

c. who is in the workforce?

6. Explaining divisions of labor

a. patriarchy model

i. men as a class have authority over women

ii. exercised through the sexual division of labor

1. households dependent on wage labor

2. creates division of labor­ men as laborers in public, women as

consumers and caretakers in family

b. internal colonialism model

i. racial minorities kept weak ­ exploited as workers

ii. exercised through segmented labor market, discriminatory barriers, and separate wage scales

iii. not all families could rely on single wage ­ many women had to work, but their jobs are secondary, i.e. low wage, insecure

7. neither model recognizes the specific oppression of women of color a. bring back together to look at how labor is structured along gendered and racial lines

b. multiple tiers

8. must look at colonial economy

a. labor power needed to exploit resources, but always in short supply i. cheap labor supply is imported through slavery and immigration ii. racial­ethnic minorities build agricultural and industrial base of 19th and early 20th century economy in U.S

iii. but, they are excluded from the industrial jobs (secure, high­paying), that resulted in this economy

9. industrial barriers

a. separate tiers for white workers and workers of color ­ different kinds of jobs b. dual wage system

c. legal and administrative restrictions

i. freed slaves become sharecroppers and live in debt bondage

ii. U.S. military conquest of Mexico ­ native Mexicans become agricultural and wage laborers, but lose their own farmland

iii. Chinese men work as contract laborers to send money to families in exchange for passage to U.S.

iv. incorporation and entry into labor systems of slaves

10. what happens to former slave and immigrant women?

a. because of subordinate status of male workers of color in the colonial economy, they are unable to earn a family wage

i. women forced to work

b. because of racialized assaults on family, kin, and communities, women keep families together

11. racial and gendered forms of labor

a. family businesses ­ laundries, restaurants, stores

b. wage laborers, service workers, laundresses, seamstresses

c. domestic servants, cooks, farm laborers, waitresses, maids

d. sharecroppers, factory workers (African­American women)

e. later in 20th century ­ food and health services

12. feminization of survival

a. women are now the majority group of migratory laborers

b. over 50% of migrant workers are women

c. they are working in the formal, informal, and shadow economies

13. feminization of survival

a. households and entire communities increasingly dependent on women for their survival

b. governments also dependent on women’s earnings ­ remittances from migrant women workers provide home country banks with revenue

c. governments save on health care and other social services through cuts ­ in order to pay back debts to U.S. from structural adjustment

14. economic globalization and migration

a. collapse of economic borders between nations

b. re­entrenchment of national borders vis­a­vis citizenship rights

c. migration as economic necessity

d. decrease in agricultural jobs ­ women move to urban areas

e. industrial jobs (higher paying, steady , unionized) move or disappear and service jobs ( low­paying, non­unionized) increase

f. ongoing heavy burden of government debt ­ ongoing repayment of loans from the 1970s ­ 1990s

15. opposite turns of nationalism ­ Saskia Sassen

a. re­entrenchment of national border vis­a­vis citizenship rights ­ receiving nations curb integration of workers to secure a source of low­wage labor (similar to immigrant laborers and workers of color in the 19th century)

b. we can think about the immigration debates in U.S and Europe as hinging on opposite turns of nationalism

16. relocation as coerced migrations­ Mankiller and Wallis

a. relocation in mid­20th century = contemporary Trail of Tears

i. seeks termination of tribes ­ labeled as “Indian freedom program” ii. framed as integration but attempt to destroy Indian sovereignty

iii. seen as poverty alleviation

iv. meager assistance and bureaucratic loopholes

v. from land­based life to urban dwelling

17. political economy of borders

a. nation­state boundaries are policed for many reasons

b. refugees often have difficulty crossing borders to safety (what constitutes a refugee?)

c. importance of documents ­ a piece of paper can mean life or death d. keeping certain people out and keeping certain people in are matters of politics, economics, and social attitudes

e. freedom to cross border can be a privilege of race,class, gender, sexuality, religion, and nationality ­ who becomes a “sympathetic” refugee and who doesn’t?

18. category of refugee contested ­ Marfleet argues

a. Geneva Convention Relation to the Status of Refugees (1951 and 67 ­ not updated)

i. relies on subjective interpretation of asylum­seeker’s experience

ii. individually­based although recognizes notion of oppressed groups iii. initial focus on European refugees (after WW2)

b. shift now to acknowledge the majority of refugees coming out of Global south c. still contested term ­ who counts?

d. desire to distinguish between refugees and “economic migrants” is about exclusion and inclusion

e. globalization and geopolitics compel migration ­ forced, coerced, or necessitated 19. histories of inclusion/exclusion

a. remember colonial discourse inside U.S. in 19th century about home, homeland, domestic versus foreign

b. Alabama, Louisiana, and Michigan governors announce they will close state borders to Syrian refugees

20. gendered anaylsis of refugee crisis ­ Khan

a. war and conflict strip women of economic livelihood

b. tear apart kin and social networks of original home

c. women responsible for their own and their children’s livelihood

d. humanitarian aid organizations recreate patriarchal structures

i. limit women’s mobility

21. concluding thoughts

a. forced migration, exile movement is a result of economic and political structures b. race, gender, nation, class, ehtnicitiy, citizneship status, etc affect reasons for and experiences of migration




Final Review

1. Format

a. tuesday, December 8 8­10 am

b. 2 hours to complete

c. similar to midterm

d. bring blue book for answers

e. short answer questions weighted to material from weeks 6­10

2. study tips

a. make note cards for key terms and for the readings

b. come up with a list of 10 readings that you want to be able to use on the final i. focus on the readings that you liked best, understood best, or that you remember best

ii. don’t try to memorize or use ALL of the readings in the books

iii. note which key terms relate to each reading you have chosen

c. come up with a good working def for each key term

d. use the study guides

3. dual H system

a. labor systems ­ how different people of color v people of non color have jobs especially in tourism­ people of color work harder for lower wages

4. orientalism

a. broad ideology about how the West is civilized and the East is exotic b. separates people into different categories ­ west and east, makes middle eastern women in particular exotic and open to sexual ventures. Representing men in east as dangerous, mysterious

c. came out from looking at art ­ how west was representing east through art 5. mankiller and wallace article about relocation of Native Americans a. moving people to a different place ­ indigenous americans

b. forced into other parts of country ­ Trail of Tears

c. distinguishing between relocation and migration. relocation ­ forced, not an option. migration ­ what does it mean for something to be an option/not an option?

6. Ewin and Ewin ­ literacy and the printing press

7. what is debate between Pat Dean and M.S. Mlalehki

a. Pat Dean­ value of literacy particularly for African women ­ draws from idea that literacy and knowledge is power

b. Mlalehki ­ argues against Pat Dean ­ too simplistic, because literacy is not neutral. learning to read is not without systems of power. does not change systems to make lives better.

8. relationship between the exotic and representation of women

a. women are usually seen as the center of culture, so women become commodities

b. the way women are represented because money makers

c. whiteness becomes standard

9. how is labor power structured along racial lines

a. commercial for korean air ­ korean women and asian women very light skinned serving white women

b. encouraged women to travel

c. tourism is seen as a dangerous thing for women

d. why is it that women are portrayed as the servers? women are portrayed as serving

e. women are constructed as servers, men constructed as those who are being served

10. why is representation political?

a. representation is neutral ­ images are constructed by ideology

11. sample test question

a. what’s the difference between economic and globalization, provide examples of their impact of women

i. 1. define political globalization and economic

ii. 2. point to articles

iii. 3. define author’s explanation and how it relates to question

iv. CLARITY ­ be very clear

12. sample

a. how does advertising reproduce colonial ideas

i. define ­ start with advertising. Ex: advertisements about beauty/tourism) ii. advertising for beauty products/tourism reproduce colonial ideas (first sentence)

iii. the advertisement talked about it Judith Williamson’s Women’s Island shows a woman of color advertising for cocoa butter




1. Concepts for review

a. open diaspora

i. stuart hall

ii. diaspora ­ scattering of people from places of origin to a new home iii. sometime voluntary, or involuntary

iv. open diaspora ­ not necessarily cutting off ties with country of origin, but incorporating new place into their identity, orientation

b. closed diaspora

i. organized life in communities made up of people from the same country of origin

c. diasporic identities

d. forced migration

i. search for a way out of poverty, out of natural disasters, war,

e. relocation

i. forced by government agencies to relocate

Global division of caring labor

2. concepts for today

a. labor migration and women’s work

b. global division of labor

i. sexual division of labor

ii. racial division of labor

c. from servitude to service work

d. caring labor(s)

e. autonomy and agency (power to choose)

3. labor migration and work

a. what is the relationship between migration and work?

i. global capitalism needs cheap and expendable labor supply

ii. slavery and indentured servitude

iii. seeking to escape poverty

iv. incentivized by governments ­ many governments incentivize to women who leave and become domestic workers in other countries

v. opportunity (power to choose)

4. women’s labor essential for survival

a. cheap labor imported through slavery and immigration

b. racial­ethnic minorities build agricultural and industrial base of 19th and early 20th century economy in U.S

c. migrant fathers and husbands rarely earned/earn family wage

d. migrant women’s labor critical to survival

5. explaining divisions of labor

a. patriarchy model (sexual division of labor)

i. men as a class have authority over women

ii. exercised through the sexual division of labor

1. households dependent on market and on wage labor participation in market (women lose economic role)

2. creates division of labor ­ men as laborers in public, women as

consumers and caretakers in family (cult of domesticity)

b. internal colonialism model (racial division of labor)

i. racial minorities kept weak ­ exploited as workers

ii. exercised through segmented labor market, discriminatory barriers, and separate wage scales

iii. not all families could rely on single wage­ many women had to work, but their jobs are secondary, i.e., low wage, insecure

c. public/private divide ­ women maintain household, men get the wage outside the house. cult of domesticity ­ women’s role is to maintain and protect family, keep household a haven from the public world

6. neither model recognizes the specific oppression of women of color a. bring both together to look at how labor is sturctured along gendered and racial lines

b. multiple tiers

i. race­and gender­stratified labor market (Nakano Glenn)

7. what kinds of jobs are migrant women getting?

a. they face this race ­ and gender­ stratified labor market

i. they get lowest paid jobs

ii. these jobs are most degraded

iii. agriculture field labors

iv. servants

v. cooks

vi. waitresses

vii. laundresses

viii. seamstresses

ix. manufacturing jobs

x. domestic service

8. women of color and working­class white women never fully removed from production a. always working and contributing to family wage

b. never solely domestically defined

c. identities as laborers takes precedence over domestic roles

d. denied caregiving role to their own children; can only be caregivers to other women’s children

i. also can’t afford to hire out caring labor (Salzinger)

9. from servitude to service work

a. non­european migrant groups (involuntary migrants) have different experience in U.S. than European migrants

i. recruited as cheap and temporary labor

1. economic globalization recruits people as laborers/excludes from


ii. tiered labor ­ barred from skilled and manufacturing jobs

iii. institutional barriers

b. domestic work and laundry work become only available options outside of agricultural work for former slave women and immigrant women and their descendants (black women in North; chicanas in the Southwest; Japanese American women in North California).

10. domestic service as long­term proposition

a. concentration in domestic work reinforces degraded status in society b. become seen as particularly suited for ­ and only suited for ­ degraded work (degraded by patriarchy and racism)

c. example of intersection of race, class, gender as interlocking systems 11. domestic work as social reproduction/caring labor

a. creation and recreation of people as cultural, social, and physical beings b. requires mental, emotional, and manual labor

c. labor organized in and outside of household

d. paid or unpaid work

i. preparation of food as an example

1. by family member as unpaid work inside household

2. by a servant as waged work inside household

3. by a cook or worker in restaurant (sit down or fast­food) as waged work which makes a profit for employer

4. all forms exist today

12. Household moves from production and reproduction to reproduction only a. historically women involved in both produciton and reproduction

b. industrialization moves production of goods outside of home

c. reproduction remains responsibility of household

i. idealized sexual division of labor

ii. women of color never removed from production

13. commodification of social reproduction

a. goods production incorporated into market by 2nd half of 20th century i. capital expands into new profit­making areas

ii. family’s needs increasingly met outside home

1. food

2. clothing

3. goods

4. care ­ health care, elderly care, child care

b. nuclear family cannot bear all the work of care ­ work shifts to outside of home or paid inside

14. care work is labor intensive

a. state provides some services (child protection care for disabled)

b. corporations provide as state shrinks services (economic globalization) i. labor intensive and commodified work that requires large pool of

low­wage workers

1. mostly women

2. disproportionately women of color (historical conditions)

a. resolve contradiction embedded in cult of domesticity

b. white women don’t challenge sexual divisions of labor b/c

they benefit from relation to white men ­ push dilemma

onto women of color

15. crisis in care is global

a. feminist movements achieved victory of work as a right for all women b. but haven’t been able to end sexual division of labor at large scale c. care still labor intensive and now needed by more and more families 16. economic globalization and caring labor

a. migratory workers in domestic work, day care, elder care, food service, health care

b. Rhacel Parrenas studies domestic workers from Philipines­ documents “partial citizenship”

i. refers to the “stunted integration of migrants in receiving nation­states, which in the case of women is demonstrated by discriminatory measures that deny them their reproductive rights”

1. healthy care, birth control, the right to have and raise children,

citizenship status, etc.

17. opposite turns of nationalism ­ Saskia Sassen

a. re­entrenchment of national borders vis­a­vis citizenship rights ­ receiving nations curb integration of workers to secure a source of low­wage labor

18. sex work as caring labor

a. work that is physical and emotional

b. fulfills need for intimacy ­ not always sex involved but different forms of intimacy c. seen primarily as women’s work

d. can by exploitative, empowering or both depending on work conditions ­ shares this with other forms of service work

e. women often have more job control than other forms of service/caring work 19. autonomy and agency

a. how do women challenge histories of oppression?

b. how do they gain power?

20. feminization of survival

a. household and entire communities

21. feminist movement revaluing care work

a. acknowledgement of interdependence of all humans

b. caring labor as valuable labor

c. many women “coming out” as dependent on other women

i. working women in solidarity with domestic workers

22. domestic workers organize

a. many states pass domestic workers bill of rights

b. national domestic workers alliance

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