Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSY 290
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mira Kawash on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 290 at University of Miami taught by Rick Stuetzle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Intro to Research Methods in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 12/02/15
Chapter 9 Correlational Research 12215 612 PM Psychology s Two Disciplines Correlational psychology is concerned with investigating the relationships between naturally occurring variables and with studying individual differences The experimental psychologist is not usually interested in individual differences however but rather with minimizing or controlling these differences in order to show that some stimulus factor influences every individual s behavior in a predictable way to a measurable degree Correlation and Regression The Basics Positive correlation the relationship is such that a high score on one variable is associated with a high score on the second variable similarly a low score on one relates to a low score on the other Negative Correlation on the other hand is an inverse relationship The Method of Concomitant variation merely states that changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by predictable changes in a second variable Positive and Negative Correlations The strength of a correlation is indicated by the size of a statistic called the coefficient of correlation which ranges from 100 for a perfect negative correlation through 000 for no relationship to 100 for a perfect positive correlation The most common coefficient is Pearson s r named for Karl Pearson the British statistician who rivals Sir Donald Fisher ANOVA in stature o The Pearson s r is calculated for data measured on either an interval or a ratio scale Scatterplots Scatterplot it provides a visual representation of the relationship shown by a correlation Correlations produce points falling on a straight line whereas a correlation of zero yields a scatterplot in which points appear to be randomly distributed on the surface of the graph Restricting the Range Restricting the Range of one or both of the measured variables weakens the correlation Being Aware of Outliers An outlier is a score that is dramatically different from the remaining scores in a data set Coefficient of Determination rAZ Coefficient of determinationr 2 it is found by squaring the Pearson s r hence the coefficient will always be a positive number regardless of whether the correlation is positive or negative RAZ is defined as the portion of variability in one of the variables in the correlation that can be accounted for by variability in the second variable Regression Analysis Making Predictions Regression Analysis making predictions on the basis of correlational research Regression line this line is used for making the predictions and is called the line of best fit it provides the best possible way of summarizing the points on the scatterplot o The formula is Yabx Criterion Variable in a regression analysis the variable being predicted form the predictor variable eg college grades are predicted from SAT scores Predictor Variable in a regression analysis the variable used to predict the criterion variable eg SAT scores are used to predict college grades When ever you encounter the terms risk factor or profile you can be sure regression analysis has occurred Directionality Directionality Problem in correlation research the fact for a correlation between variables X and Y it is possible that X is causing Y but is also possible that Y is causing X the correlation alone provides no basis for deciding between the two alternatives Third Variables Third Variable Problem the problem of drawing causal conclusion in correlational research third variables are uncontrolled factors that could underline a correlation between variables X and Y Partial correlation which attempts to control for third variables statistically Caution Correlational Statistics versus Correlational Research A Pearson s r can be calculated whenever you wish to examine the relationship between any two variables 0 Although this might occur most frequently in a correlational study it can also occur in an experimental study in which the researcher calculates a correlation between the independent variable and the dependent variable Varieties of Correlational Research Correlations are especially prevalent in o a research concerning the development of psychological tests in which reliability and validity are asses o b research in personality and abnormal psychology two areas full of subject variables 0 c twin studies research in the Galton tradition that relates to the naturenurture issue Splithalf reliability this involves dividing in half the items that make up a particular subtest eg evennumbered versus odd numbered items and correlating the two halves o The correlation should be high if the test is reliable someone scoring high on one half should score high on the other half as well Testretest reliability the relationship between two separate administrations of the test 0 Again these reliabilities should be high a reliable test yields consistent results from one testing to another Intraclass correlation A form of correlation used when pairs of scores do not come from the same individual as when correlations are calculated for pairs of twins Multivariate Analysis Bivariate approach that investigates the relationships between any two variables Multivariate approach on the other hand examines the relationships among more than two variables often many more than two Multiple Regression Multiple regression study that has one criterion variable and a minimum of two predictor variables 0 The analysis enable you to determine not just that these two or more variable combine to predict some criterion but also the relative strengths of the predictors Factor Analysis Factor analysis in this procedure a large number of variables are measured and correlated with each other 0 It is then determined whether groups of these variables cluster together to form factors Correlation Matrix A table that summarizes a series of correlations among several variables Factor analysis is a multivariate statistical tool that identifies factors from sets of intercorrelations among variables Factor loadings in essence are correlations between each of the measures and each other identified factors Chapter 10 QuasiExperimental Designs and Applied Research 12215 612 PM Beyond the Laboratory Applied research is designed primarily to increase our knowledge about a particular real world problem with an eye toward directly solving it A second distinction between basic and applied research is that while basic research usually takes place in a laboratory applied research is often conducted in clinics social service agencies jails government agencies and business settings Virtually all applied research has the dual function of addressing applied problems directly and providing evidence of basic psychological phenomena that influence theory development Design Problems in Applied Research Most of the problems encountered in applied research which include 0 Ethical dilemmas A study conducted outside of the laboratory may create problems relating to informed consent and privacy 0 A tradeoff between internal and external validity Because research in applied psychology often takes place in the field the researcher can lose control over the variables operating in the study 0 Problems unique to betweensubject designs In applied research it is often impossible to use random assignment to form equivalent groups 0 Problems unique to withinsubject designs It is not always possible to counterbalance properly in applied studies using withinsubjects factors Hence the studies may have uncontrolled order effects Also attrition can be a problem for studies that extend over a long period QuasiExperimental Designs Quasiexperimental design occurs when causal conclusions about he effect of an independent variable cannot be drawn because subjects cannot be randomly assigned to the groups being given different levels of an independent variable Quasiexperiments have great value in applied research 0 They do allow for a degree of control they serve when ethical or practical problems make random assignment impossible and they often produce results with clean benefits for people s lives Archival research involves answering empirical questions by using information already collected for some other purpose rather than by collecting new data 0 Because it often includes nonmanipulated independent variables archival research is often considered quasiexperimental Nonequivalent Control Group Design Nonequivalent control group design the groups are not equal at the start of the study in addition they experience different events in the study itself Nonequivalent control group designs typically include pretests but that is not always the case 0 Sometimes these designs occur when an unforeseen opportunity for research makes pretesting impossible Regression to the Mean and Matching A special threat to the internal validity of nonequivalent control group designs occurs when there is an attempt to reduce the nonequivalency of the groups through a form of matching Interrupted Time Series Designs Interrupted time series design is when they had been able to take measure for an extended period before and after the event expected to influence behavior Outcomes Trends which are relatively consistent patterns of events that occur with the passing of time Variations on the Basic Time Series Design Sometimes the conclusions from an interrupted time series design can be strengthened if some type of control comparison is made 0 One approach amounts to combining the best features of the nonequivalent control group design a control group and the interrupted time series design longterm trend analysis 0 A second strategy for strengthening conclusion from a time series study is when a program can be introduced in different locations at different times Interrupted time series with switching replications with this procedure the same treatment or program is put into place in two locations at two points in time n There is no control group but the design provides the benefit of a builtin replication 0 A third elaboration on an interrupted time series design again in the absence of a control group is to measure several dependent variables some expected to be influenced by interruption others not expected to change Research Using Archival Data Archival data is information already gathered for some reason aside from the research project at hand 0 These data range from public information such as census data court records genealogical data corporate annual reports and patent office records to more private information such as credit histories health history data education records personal correspondence and diaries Content analysis can be defined as any systematic examination of qualitative information in terms of predefined categories The most obvious strength of archival research is the amount of information available is virtually unlimited and the possibilities for archival research are restricted only by the creativity of the investigator 0 Despite the vast amount of data available some information vital to a researcher may be missing or the available data may not be representative of some population Another problem with archival research is experimenter bias 0 In archival research this bias can take the form of attending more closely to records that support one s hypothesis or interpreting the content of records in away that is biased by one s expectations 0 But the problem can also be managed most of the time by using control procedures eg not disclosing the hypothesis to those responsible for coding or classifying the archival data in effect a double blind procedure One problem faceted by researchers that does not occur with archival research is participant reactivity o For those participating directly in a research study the knowledge that their behavior is being observed can influence the behavior in ways that yield a distorted result Program Evaluation Program evaluation applied research that attempts to asses the effectiveness and value of public policy or specially designed programs More generally program evaluation includes 0 a procedures for determining if a need exists for a particular program and who would benefit it the program is implemented b assessment of whether a program is being run according to plan and if not what changes can be made to facilitate its operation c methods for evaluating program outcomes d cost analyses to determine if program benefits justify the funds expended Planning for Programs Need Analysis Needs analysis is a set of procedures for predicting whether a population of sufficient size exists that would benefit from the proposed program whether the program could solve a clearly defined problem and whether members of the population would actually use the program There are several ways to identify the potential need for a program These include 0 O 0 Census data Surveys of available resources Surveys of potential users Key informants focus groups and community forums Key informant is someone in the community who has a great deal of experience and specialized knowledge about the problem at hand that is otherwise unavailable to the researcher Focus group is a small group whose members respond to a set of openended questions about some topic such as the need for a particular program Community forum an open meeting at which all members of a community affected by a potential program are invited to come and participate Monitoring Programs Formative Evaluation Formative Evaluation Form of program evaluation that monitors the functioning of a program while it is operating to determine if it is functioning as planned A formative evaluation can include several components 0 O O For one thing it determines if the program is being implemented as planned A formative evaluation would determine whether the planned ads were placed in the newspapers at appropriate times and whether mass mailings of stickers with the hotline s number went out as planned Another general function of the formative evaluation is to provide data on how the program is being used Program audit An examination of whether a program is being implemented as planned a type of formative evaluation 0 A final part of a formative evaluation can be a pilot study Program implementation and some preliminary outcomes can be assessed on a small scale before extending the programs Evaluating Outcomes Summative Evaluations Summative Evaluations Form of program evaluation completed at the close of a program that attempts to determine its effectiveness in solving the problem which it was planned Formative evaluation is aimed at program improvement and is less likely to call into question the program s very existence Weighing Costs Cost Effectiveness Analysis Costeffectiveness analysis monitoring the actual costs of a program and relating those costs to the effectiveness of the program s outcomes A second type of cost analysis takes place during the planning stages for a program Estimating costs at the outset helps determine whether a program is feasible and provides a basis for the later comparison projected costs and actual costs Chapter 11 Small N Designs 12215 612 PM Misleading Results from Statistical Summaries of Grouped Data Individualsubject validity the extent to which a general research outcome applies to any one individual subject in the study A lack of individualsubject validity can produce erroneous conclusions about behavior Continuity theory learning is a gradual process of accumulating habit strength Noncontinuity theory holds that the children actively try out different hypotheses about the solution during the early trials Practical and Philosophical Problems with Large N Designs Small N designs are sometimes necessary because potential subjects are rare or difficult to find Large N designs may occasionally fail to reflect the behaviors of individuals and they may not be feasible even if they are desired but there are also philosophical reasons for preferring small N designs Inductive science reasoning from specific cases to general laws of behavior The Experimental Analysis of Behavior Operant conditioning this form of learning is a process in which the frequency of occurrence of a bit of behavior is modified by the consequences of behavior that is when some behavior occurs in a particular situation it will be followed by some consequence Rate of response the favored dependent variable of researchers working in the Skinnerian tradition refers to how frequently a behavior occurs per unit of time To predict and control behavior according to Skinner we must be able to specify three things 0 1 the occasion upon which the relationship occurs 0 2 the response itself 0 3 the reinforcing consequences Cumulative Recorder Apparatus for recording the subject s cumulative rate of response in operant conditioning studies Applied Behavior Analysis Applied Behavior analysis it includes any procedure that uses behavioral especially operant principles to solve reallife behavioral problems Elements of SingleSubject Designs First the target behaviors must be operationally defined The second feature of any singlesubject design is to establish a baseline level of responding 0 Baseline means the behavior in question must be observed for a period prior to treatment to determine its typical frequency The third element is to begin the treatment and continue to monitor the behavior AB Design A small N design in which a baseline period A is followed by a treatment period B Withdrawal Designs Withdrawal design A small N design n which a treatment is in place for a time and then removed to determine if the rate of behavior returns to baseline ABA Design A small N design in which a baseline period A is followed by a treatment period B followed by a period in which the treatment is reversed or withdrawn A ABAB Design Like an ABA design except that a second treatment period is established second B Multiple Baseline Designs A withdrawal design may also present ethical problems andor practical ones especially if the behavior being changed is selfdestructive Multiple baseline design several baseline measures are establish and then treatment is introduced at different times First multiple baselines can be established for the same type of behavior in several individuals essentially replication strategy The second type of multiple baseline design baselines are establish for three different behaviors within a single individual The third variety of a multiple baseline design tries to change one type of behavior in three different settings environments Changing Criterion Designs Changing criterion design a procedure inspired by the operant procedure or shaping in which a behavior is developed by reinforcing gradual approximations to the final desired behavior Social Validity this type of validity refers to o a whether a particular applied behavior analysis program has value for improving society 0 b whether its value is perceived as such by the study s participants 0 c the extent tot which the program is actually used by participants Alternating Treatment Designs Alternating treatment design A small N design that compares in the same study and for the same participants two or more forms of treatment for changing some behavior Evaluating SingleSubject Designs The most frequent complaint concerns external validity the extent to which results generalize beyond the specific conditions of the study and replicate consistently Advocates reply that generalization and replication are indeed evaluated directly in some studies Proponents of singlesubject designs also point out that external validity is often just as much of a problem for large N designs as it is for small N designs Singlesubject designs are also criticized for not using statistical analyses but for relying instead on the mere visual inspection of the data A third criticism of singlesubject designs is that they cannot test adequately for interactive effects A final criticism of small N designs in the operant tradition concerns their reliance on rate of response as the dependent variable 0 This approach seldom includes research using reaction times whether or not a word is recalled correctly amount of time spent looking as in a habituation study a number of other dependent variables that shed important light on behavior Small N research is not confined to the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis Case study in psychology normally refers to a detailed description and analysis of a single individual 0 The method is occasionally referred to as a case history because it involves a close analysis of the history of that person s life or a substantial portion of it Evaluating Case Studies Case studies provide inductive support for a theory they can suggest hypotheses for further testing with other methods and they can serve the purpose of falsification Case studies also have important limitations however 0 First conclusions drawn on the basis of a single individual may not generalize that is here can be problems with external validity o A final limitation of case study methods concerns memory Participants in case studies of individuals are often required to recall events from the past and the writers of case histories also have to rely on memories of their encounters with the object of the case In sum case studies are susceptible to bias they lack control over extraneous variables and their results may not generalize easily but they can be useful in generating new research ideas they can help falsify weak theories and sometimes they are the only way to document an extraordinary person or event Chapter 12 Observational and Survey Research Methods 12215 612 PM Varieties of Observational Research First some observational studies are more global observing a variety of behaviors while others are narrower focusing on a specific behavior Second researchers impose varying degrees of structure on the setting being observed Studies with a very high degree of structure often take place in a laboratory environment and are sometimes called laboratory observation studies 0 One famous set of laboratory observation studies featured a procedure called the strange situation designed to investigate parent child attachment patterns The strange situation incorporates a sequence of events in which a parent a child and a stranger interact in a laboratory environment with observation occurring with twoway mirrors Naturalistic Observation Naturalistic observation the goal is to study the behaviors of people or animals as they act in their everyday environments In order for the researcher to feel confident the behavior being observed is typical in the observed environment it is important that is not be affected by the experimenter s presence 0 First in some naturalistic studies the observer is hidden form those being observed 0 In some naturalistic observations especially those involving animals it can be impossible for the observer to remain hidden the subjects quickly sense the presence of an outsider Participant Observation Participant observation it is when researchers will join a group being observed or at least make their presence known to the group 0 The chief virtue of this strategy is its power to get the investigator as close to the action as possible Challenges Facing Observational Methods Absence of Control Because of this lack of direct control the conclusions from observational studies must be drawn very carefully Despite the lack of control observational research can be a rich source of ideas for further study and it can sometimes serve the purpose of falsification an important strategy for theory testing Observational research can call ideas into question and it can also suggest hypotheses for further study Challenges Facing Observational Methods Observer Bias A second problem for those doing observational research is experimenter bias Observer bias means having preconceived ideas about what will be observed and having those ideas color one s observations Bias can also occur because observational studies may collect huge amounts of information o Deciding which observation to report involves reducing this information to a manageable size and the choice about what to select as relevant and what to omit can be affect by preconceived beliefs Behavior checklist are normally used these are lists of predefined behaviors that observers are trained to spot Time sampling is sometimes used in observational studies 0 Rather than trying to maintain a continues record of everything occurring behavior is sampled at predefined times and only at those times Event sampling selects a specific set of events for observation others are ignored Challenges Facing Observational Methods Participants Reactivity Reactivity that is your behavior would be influenced by the knowledge that you were being observed and recorded Unobtrusive measures these are measures taken of behavior either directly or indirectly when the subject is unaware of the measure being made Survey Research Survey is a structured set of questions or statements given to a group of people to measure their attitudes beliefs values or tendencies to act Because samples in many studies are not chosen using a random procedure the selection procedure is referred to as nonprobability sampling Probability Sampling This general sampling strategy is used whenever the goal is to survey a clearly identifiable group of individuals As a group those individuals are referred to as a population and any subset of them is a sample In probability sampling each member of the population has a definable probability of being selected for the sample In survey research it is important for the sample to reflect the attributes of the target population as a whole 0 When this happens the sample is representative if it doesn t happen the sample is biased Selfselection in surveys when the sample is composed of only those who voluntarily choose to respond the result can be a biased sample Random Sampling Simple random sample in essence this means each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected as a member of the sample Simple random sampling is often an effective practical way to create representative sample There are two problems with simple random sampling 0 First there may be systematic features of the population you might light to have reflected in your sample 0 Second the procedure may not be practical if the population is extremely large Stratified Sampling Stratified Sample the proportions of important subgroups in the population are represented precisely Cluster Sampling Cluster sampling a procedure frequently used by national polling organizations solves the problem With this approach the researcher randomly selects a cluster of people all having some feature in common If the selected clusters are too large the research can sample a smaller cluster within the larger one Nonprobability Sampling Convenience sample this is group of individuals who meet the general requirements of the study and are recruited in a variety of nonrandom ways Purposive sampling A nonprobability sample in which the researcher targets a particular group of individuals eg Milgram using working adults and avoiding college students Quota sampling the researcher attempts to accomplish the same goal as stratified sampling representing subgroups proportionally but does so in a nonrandom fashion Snowball sampling once a member of a particular group has been surveyed the researcher asks that person to help recruit additional subjects through a network of friends Interviews Interview survey A survey method in which the researcher interviews the participant face to face allows for more indepth surveying Even though the interviewer typically asks a standard set of questions the skilled interviewer is able to elicit considerable information through followup questions or probes Having an interview present also reduces the problem of unclear questions the interviewer can clarify on the spot Besides sampling issues other major problems with the interview approach are cost logistics and interviewer bias Interviewers must be hired and trained travel expenses can be substantial and interviews might be restricted to a fairly small geographic area because of the logistical problems of sending interview long distances Phone Surveys Phone surveying a survey method in which the researcher asks questions over the phone Sugging A marketing strategy in which an attempt to sell a product is made by disguising the sales pitch with what appears to be a legitimate survey the term is short for Selling Under the Guise of a Survey Phone surveying does have positive aspects 0 Cost is one obvious advantage over interviews and mailed survey 0 The method also combines the efficiency of a mailed survey with the personal contact of an interview 0 Another clear advantage over the interview is a logistical one many more participants can be contacted per unit of time o The phone surveyor is not likely to be highcrime areas To increase the chances of people responding one technique used by legitimate phone surveys is to precede the call with a brief letter or email alerting them a phone call is on the way Electronic Surveys Electronic surveying survey research conducted over the internet can be a survey sent viaemail or posted on a website First esurveys can be sent via email to a selected sample of individuals 0 Email lists can be purchased or following the ethically dubious lead of spammers obtained by using search spiders that search the Internet for posted emails and accumulate email addresses A second form of esurvey is one that can be posted on a website collecting data from those who choose to respond A third procedure tis to follow a probability sampling procedure with incentives for participating The main advantage of esurveying is that a large amount of data can be collected in relatively short time for minimal cost And with the internet open 24 hours a day esurveying can be completed in less time than other forms of surveys Although internet use is widespread the sample tends to be biased for instance responders are unlikely to be representative of all income and education levels Written Surveys Written survey the traditional survey is the paperandpencil type Written survey can be sent through the mail they can be administered in a group setting or they can put online Another problem with rate of return occurs when people who return surveys differ in some important way from those who don t 9 nonresponse bias Social Desirability bias sometimes people respond to a survey question in a way that reflect not how they truly feel or what they truly believe but how they think they should respond that is they attempt to create a positive picture of themselves one that is socially desirable Types of Survey Questions or Statements Openended question requires a response beyond yes or no participants must provide narrative information Closed question can be answered with a yes or a no by choosing a single response from among several alternatives Openended questions can be useful for eliciting a wide range of responses including some not even conceived of by the researchers They can also increase the respondent s sense of control while filing out the survey Another good use of openended questions is in a pilot study as way of identifying alternatives for a subsequent questionnaire to be composed of closed items Response acquiescence a tendency to agree with statements 0 To avoid these problems surveys with Likert scales typically balance favorable and unfavorable statements DK alternative in survey research when assessing levels of participant knowledge this is an alternative that means don t know Adding Demographic Information Demographic information is the basic data that identifies the survey respondent 0 These data can include age gender socioeconomic status marital status and so on In general it is a good idea to put questions about demographic information at the end of the survey Also you should include only demographic categories that are important empirical questions that interest you The more demographic information you include the longer the survey and the greater the risk the respondents will tune out A Key Problem Survey Wording First questions can be ambiguous as when people are asked whether they agree Second survey writers sometimes include too much in an item resulting in one that actually asks for two responses at once Doublebarreled question Third what lawyers call a leading question is one structured so that it is likely to produce an answered desired by the asker Surveys and Ethics One point worth noting about survey research is that in some cases the APA does not require informed consent A second point about survey research and ethics is that decisions affecting people s lives are sometimes made with the help of survey data and if the surveys are flawed and biased or poorly constructed people can be hurt or at the least have their time wasted
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