MARK 3323 Exam 2 Review
MARK 3323 Exam 2 Review MARK 3323-001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gladys Serrano on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MARK 3323-001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Traci Freling in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 307 views. For similar materials see Integrated Marketing Communications in Marketing at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
MARK 3323 - IMC Dr. Freling EXAM II REVIEW Chapter 5 – Advertising, Integrated Brand Promotion, & Consumer Behavior Chapter 6 – Market Segmentation, Positioning, and the Value Proposition Chapter 7 – Advertising & Promotional Research CH.5 – ADVERTISING, IBP, & CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Consumer Behavior o It is defined as all things related to how humans operate as consumers (i.e., anything to do with consuming) How does consumer behavior relate to affect, cognition, and the environment? o It relates by its way of being dynamic, and involving interactions and exchanges in its environment with others o These are also known as the elements of Consumer Analysis Affect – feeling towards objective Cognition – thoughts toward objective Environment – Surroundings of objective that may persuade What are the steps of the consumer decision-making process? o Problem recognition - a realization that one needs to buy something to get back to the normal state of comfort Physical--hunger Psychological—boredom Internal stimuli—recognition of problem External stimuli – outside feeling o Information search o Alternative evaluation o Purchase decision o Postpurchase evaluation What is a customer problem? o This is just any state of deprivation, discomfort, or wanting to be felt by an individual What is a need state? What are the different types of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy? 1 o When one’s desired state of affairs differs from one’s actual state of affairs is a need state o The different types are Physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, self-actualization are the different types of needs What is the difference between functional and emotional benefits? o Functional benefits: Those benefits that come from the objective performance characteristics of a product or service. o Emotional benefits: Those benefits not typically found in some tangible feature or objective characteristic of a product or service. What are the different ways a consumer might recognize a problem? o Out of stock Choosing an alternative when something isn’t available o Dissatisfaction with a current service or product o New wants/needs o Related products/purchases Complimentary products/accessories; similar findings o Marketer-induced problem recognition Problems like insecurities created/pointed out o New products This is a Least likely way just because of few inventions being created compared to other solutions What are motives? How are these motives researched? o Those factors that compel a consumer to take a particular action In-depth interview Face-to-face questionnaire Projective techniques This explains internal state, motives, values on product Association tests Individual asked to respond with first thing that comes to mind Focus groups Small number of people with similarities to discuss a particular problem or product What does information search involve? 2 o internal search: past experiences, A search for product information that draws on personal experience and prior knowledge. o external search: visiting retail stores to examine alternatives, seeking input from friends and relatives about their experiences with the products in question, or perusing professional product evaluations. personal sources marketer/advocate sources o biased public sources o Articles, magazines, reports on TV personal experiences What is perception? o Where someone receives, selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world; creating some understanding of the outside world. What is selective perception? Selective exposure? Selective attention? Selection comprehension? Selective retention? o Selective perception: perceiving what you want & ignoring opposing viewpoints o Selective exposure: Choosing to expose self o Selective attention: affects certain stimuli o Selective comprehension: Own motives and positions o Selective retention: Remembering select information What is meant by cognitive consistency? Advertising clutter? o Cognitive consistency - The maintenance of a system of beliefs and attitudes over time; consumers’ desire for cognitive consistency is an obstacle to advertising. o Advertising clutter - An obstacle to advertising resulting from a large volume of similar ads for most products and services. What does alternative evaluation involve? o This is finding or reviewing another possible solution to a given problem or choice What does a consumer’s awareness set comprise? Evoked set? Consideration set? o Awareness set - All brands consumer know of o Evoked set - Those consumer can recall at the time o Consideration set - Actually considered 3 What is an attitude? Brand attitude? o An attitude is an overall evaluation of any object, person, or issue that varies along a continuum, favorable to unfavorable or positive to negative. o Brand attitudes are summary evaluations that reflect preferences for various products and brands. Integration - the way product knowledge, meanings, and beliefs are combined to evaluate two or more alternatives Purchase decision involves choice identification, purchase intent, and purchase implementation Postpurchase evaluation involves decision confirmation, experience evaluation, satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and a future response What is cognitive dissonance? o Cognitive dissonance - The anxiety or regret that lingers after a difficult decision. What is customer satisfaction? o Customer satisfaction - Good feelings that come from a favorable postpurchase experience. Brand loyalty is a decision-making mode in which consumers repeatedly buy the same brand of a product as their choice to fulfill a specific need The four modes of consumer decision-making: 1) Need recognition 2) Information search 3) Evaluation of alternatives 4) Purchase & post-purchase behavior Involvement is the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision process of consumer behavior What is meant by culture? subculture? values? o Culture is a complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society. It represents the total “life ways” of a people, the social legacy an individual acquires from his/her group 4 o Subculture is a segment of a larger culture whose members sshare distinguishing values and patterns of behavior o Values are strongly held and enduring beliefs that can be self, other, or environment-oriented CH.6 – MARKET SEGMENTATION, POSITIONING, & THE VALUE PROPOSITION STP marketing (segmenting, targeting, positioning) is a marketing strategy employed when advertisers focus their efforts on one subgroup of a product’s total market. What are the primary bases for market segmentation? o Geography This identifies neighborhoods around the country that share common demographic characteristics. o Demographics Basic descriptors like age, gender, race, marital status, income, education, and occupation. o Psychographics and lifestyle Understanding of consumers’ activities, interests, and opinions. o Behavior Groups based on their usage, loyalty, or buying responses to a product or services. (Income, Education) 80/20 rule: 20% of industrial marketers buyers account for 80% of their sales volume o Benefits Consumers try to satisfy some need or want Major benefits consumers seek in a product or service. Geo-demographic segmentation is a form of market segmentation that identifies neighborhoods around the country that share common demographic characteristics. How is segmenting consumer markets similar to (different from) segmenting business markets? o Consumer markets - The markets for products and services purchased by individuals or households to satisfy their specific needs. o Business markets - The institutional buyers who purchase items to be used in other products and services or to be resold to other businesses 5 What is a target segment? o Target segment - The subgroup (of the larger market) chosen as the focal point for the marketing program and advertising campaign. How do marketers prioritize segments? What is meant by competitive field? o They prioritize by measurability, meaningfulness, & marketability o Competitive field - The companies that compete for a segment’s business. How do marketers select a target market? How do the three primary market coverage options compare? o Determine how many segments to enter o Determine which markets offer potential Undifferentiated marketing: one product or service is offered to the entire market Differentiated marketing: products or services to a number of market segments and develops separate marketing strategies for each. Concentrated marketing: firm chooses to focus its marketing efforts on one particular market segments What is a market niche? o A relatively small group of consumers who have a unique set of needs and who typically are willing to pay a premium price to a firm that specializes in meeting those needs What is a positioning strategy? o The key themes or concepts an organization features for communicating the distinctiveness of its product or service to the target segment. What are the primary bases for positioning? o Attribute or benefit Setting the brand apart from competitors on the basis of the specific characteristics or benefits offered (salient attributes) o Use or application Associate a brand with a specific use or application (Ex: WD-40) o Product user Ex: Basketball shoes, weight loss o Product class 6 Ex: SW Airline, Splenda o Competitors Ex: Microsoft v. iPad; Coke v. Pepsi; Aleve v. Tyonol; Nescafe vs Starbucks; Dawn vs Mentioning other competitors o Price/quality High quality is more important than price What does benefit positioning involve? o Where target segments are delineated by the various benefit packages that different consumers want from the same product category and positioned as such. What does user positioning involve? o A positioning option that focuses on a specific profile of the target user. What does competitive positioning involve? o Given a competitive field where the companies compete for a segment’s business. Repositioning - Returning to the process of segmenting, targeting, and positioning a product or service to arrive at a revised positioning strategy. Value Proposition - A statement of the functional, emotional, and self-expressive benefits delivered by the brand, which provide value to customers in the target segment. CH. 7 ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION RESEARCH What is advertising and promotion research? o Advertising research is any research that helps in the development, execution, or evaluation of advertising and promotion o Promotion research is any research that helps in promoting or marketing a product Account Planning is a system by which an agency assigns a coequal account planner to work alongside the account executive and analyze research data The account planner is assigned to a single client Research is a lot more centralized Qualitative, naturalistic research is typical 7 What is developmental advertising research (DAR) and what are the different types/purposes of developmental advertising? o DAR - Generated opportunities and messages Focus groups A brainstorming session with a small group of target consumers and a professional moderator, used to gain new insights about consumer response to a brand. Projective techniques allow consumers to project thoughts and feelings (conscious or unconscious) in an indirect and unobtrusive way onto a theoretically neutral stimulus Fieldwork Research conducted outside the agency, usually in the home or site of consumption. Depth interviews One on one basis Secondary Sources Commercial, government, or internet sources Can be already gathered for some other purpose, but also provide useful information for the current problem Now, think about how advertising researchers generate ideas for a new product or an advertising campaign and how they test concepts… What is a concept test? o A concept test is a type of developmental research that seeks feedback designed to screen the quality of a new idea, using consumers as the final judge and jury. What are the different types/purposes of evaluative advertising? o recall tests Tests of how much the viewer of an ad remembers of the message; they are used to measure the cognitive residue of the ad. These are the most commonly employed tests in advertising. o frame-by-frame test Copy research method that works by getting consumers to turn dials (like/dislike) while viewing television commercials in a theater setting. o recognition tests 8 Tests in which audience members are asked if they recognize an ad or something in an ad. These are the standard cognitive residue test for print ads and promotion. o resonance test A type of message assessment in which the goal is to determine to what extent the message resonates or rings true with target audience members. o implicit memory measures Techniques used to obtain feedback that determines consumers’ recognition of products (and thus marketing success), characterized by questions or tasks that do not explicitly make reference to the advertisement in question. The perceived advantage of this type of test is a more subconscious, unadulterated response. o attitude study A method of obtaining customer feedback that measures target markets’ feelings and opinions about a company’s product, as well as that of the competing brand. o communication tests A type of pretest message research that simply seeks to see if a message is communicating something close to what is desired. o thought listing, or cognitive response analysis A type of pretest message research that tries to identify specific thoughts that may be generated by an advertisement. o physiological assessment The interpretation of certain biological feedback generated from viewers who are exposed to an ad. Although physiological assessment has advanced with devices such as mris and pt scans, its overall value is still questionable. What are physiological tests? o Eliminate interviewer biases o Gather data without interrupting the consumer o Gather subconscious, hard-to-articulate data o Are costly (one-on-one) o Require specialized equipment o Generate ambiguous results Results-oriented advertising research is needed to assess if ads are working! 9 Involves: o Conducting tracking studies (3 exposures) o Measuring direct response o Estimating advertising-related sales o Assessing single source data Tracking Studies: o Studies that document the apparent effect of advertising over time, assessing attitude change, knowledge, behavioral intent, and self-reported behavior. They are one of the most commonly used advertising and promotion research methods. Direct Response: o Copy research method measuring actual behavior of consumers. Single-source data o Information provided from individual households about brand purchases, coupon use, and television advertising exposure by combining grocery store scanner data with TV-viewing data from monitoring devices attached to the households’ televisions. Validity – the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure Reliability - the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedure yields the same result on repeated trials 10
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