×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to USC - History 109 - Study Guide
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to USC - History 109 - Study Guide

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

USC / History / HIST 109 / penninsulars

penninsulars

penninsulars

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: History
Course: Introduction to Latin American Civilization
Professor: Neal polhemus
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: History of Latin American Civilization Study Guide
Description: The full set of notes from lecture with basic outlines to help you get started planning for the final questions
Uploaded: 12/03/2015
52 Pages 7 Views 14 Unlocks
Reviews

Daniela Dare (Rating: )

These are great! I definitely recommend anyone to follow this notetaker


carlcord (Rating: )

It will not load for me


Maharshi Patel (Rating: )

Other: I cant see it at all



The Bourbon Reforms


who is Jose de Galvez?



• Major Points of Today’s Lecture

o Purpose of the Bourbon Reforms is to increase Spain’s control over: ▪ Politics

▪ Military

▪ Economy

▪ Religion

• Legacy of the Reforms

o Feeling colonial

▪ They have a separate cultural identity as mother country

▪ Once Spain began to change things, the people realized that they were  different

• The Bourbon Reforms

o Named for Charles III (1759 - 1788)

▪ Part of Bourbons, took charge in Spain over the Hapsburgs

▪ Look for change

o Charles IV (1788 - 1808)

o Political Goals

▪ Centralized Decision Making Process

• Far more absolutist monarchy

▪ Strengthen Links between Crown and Colony

• Population in Latin America is larger then the one in Spain

• The weight of Spain is in the New World

o Penninsulars vs Creoles


what is tax reform?



▪ Creole loyalty questioned

• Someone born in the Americas

• A localized culture, sometimes mixed

• Hyperattention to place of birth

▪ Removal from bureaucratic positions throughout the Spanish Empire • Between 1500 and 1750, the difference didn’t matter, social  

mobility

• Now there is a preference for penninsulars

• Sense of complaints

• Local input can’t get into government

▪ Jose de Galvez

• Holds title as Minister of Indies

o First one in this position

o Used to have a whole counsel of Indies

• Removes Creoles from bureaucratic and judicial positions in New  Spain

• Local input no longer consulted as before

o Alienating process

o Economic Goals

▪ Regain control over trade and commerce

• Too much independent economic activity in New World

▪ Increase tax revenues


what is the slave revolution?



• Colonial population greater than in Spain

▪ Free trade in the Empire

• All the colonies Spain has in Latin America

• Creates incentives for penninsular merchants to move into coastal  cities

▪ Tobacco Monopoly

• Most of Europe are habitual smokers

• Crown gets a lot of revenue from this, more than silver Don't forget about the age old question of jc or poly quiz

▪ Tax Reforms

• Silver tax dropped from 20% to 10%

o People become more likely to pay it

o Not worth risking the penalty now

o More incentive to allow people to go into silver mining

• Sales tax raised from 2% to 6%

• Tax farming ended

o It was on merchants to pay all of the taxes and collect from  

people

o Military Goals of the Bourbon Reform

▪ Expand the volunteer and professional army throughout Latin America ▪ Colonists more actively participate in the defense of the Empire ▪ Military Policies of the Bourbon Reforms

• Peninsulars replace Creoles as officers

o Somewhat blame native population for not defending the  

empire well enough

• Expansion of military forts

• Expansion of the militia system

o Fuero Militar

o Exemptions from taxes if you join militia

o Religious Goals of the Bourbon Reforms

▪ Move towards secular control If you want to learn more check out westerntc

• Less pope, more authoritative king

▪ Squeeze church for revenues

▪ Religious policies of the the Bourbon Reform

• Jesuit Expulsion from Latin America

o Made most of the Latin American Universities

o Challenged papal authority

o Do not support the Bourbon Reforms, go on strike If you want to learn more check out pdbio

o Creoles come to the defense of Jesuits

▪ Taxing Church Property

▪ Consequence

• Assault on local autonomy We also discuss several other topics like What frech state has the largest monetary patron?

• Beyond taxing and building an empire, overreach of the Spanish  

government

• Summary of Lecture

o The Bourbon reforms are an assault on local policies that have evolved over 250  years in colonial Latin America We also discuss several other topics like pols uconn

o The Bourbon reforms change the relationship between Spain and its colonies that  will provide the basis for independence

▪ Provides list of grievances

▪ Makes colonists tired of the government’s overreach and discrimination  against creoles

The Haitian Revolution (1791 – 1804)

• Major Points of Today’s Lecture

o Haitian Revolution is catalyzed by the French Revolution, but quickly takes on a  direction of its own

o Britain, France, and Spain will all fail in their attempts to suppress the Haitian  Revolution

o The key to understanding the Haitian Slave Revolution is to see the “slaves” as  Africans

• A Singular Event in Human History

o History has a tendency to repeat itself

o It’s the only example where slaves were able to rise up, overthrow masters and  kick them out of the country, and create their own political state

o Shows different institutions of slavery: political, military, legal

• Social Divisions of St. Domingue

o The French colony, renamed Haiti by

o Grand Blancs and Petit Blancs

▪ White population of 50,000 (10%)

▪ Grand

• The French nobility

• Large sugar plantation owners

• Wealthy and elite

▪ Petit

• Middle class

• artisans / urbanaries / small scale merchants

▪ The divisions become more apparent after French Revolution

o Free People of color

▪ 50,000 people (10%)

▪ Same role as petit blancs

▪ Because of racial identification and ancestry, never quite equal to whites ▪ Revolution brings opportunity to become equal in society

o African Imports If you want to learn more check out greg oldham tulane

▪ 400,000 (80%)

▪ Imported laborers, not voluntary

▪ Life expectancy is 3-5 years for slaves

▪ Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

• 1785-1790 Imports from the kingdom of Kongo

o They have common historical / cultural experience

• Civil war brings military soldiers to St. Domingue

• The French Revolution of 1789 and the Colony of St. Domingue

o Colonial Autonomy

▪ The colonists themselves would have more influence

▪ Mother country wouldn’t have as much control

▪ Divisions between white population

o The Amis de Noirs

▪ The friends of the blacks

▪ Tries to make the revolution helpful to the blacks

• The Slave Revolution

o August 1791

▪ Revolt on the Northern Plain

o The Bois-Caiman Ceremony

▪ The final preparations for the revolution

▪ Each plantation sent a representative to collaborate

▪ Sacrifice a pig and go through a ritualistic aspect, voodoo priestess ▪ Hurricane is happening, good omen

o Voodoo Cultural Resistance

o The rise of Toussaint Louverture

▪ Born Toussaint Breda on a slave plantation

▪ Has a foot in African culture and in the Caribbean culture (go between) ▪ Switches from the Spanish side to the French side

▪ Forces Emancipation in 1794

▪ Defeats the British by 1798

▪ Became Governor 1800

• A former slave now completely in charge of an island that was  

built on slavery

• Still colony of France though

o Final Push for Independence

▪ Napoleon’s Leclerc expedition to reconquer the islands

• Leclerc is brother in law

• Reestablish slavery on the island

o Toussaint Surrenders (May 1802)

▪ Toussaint’s two sons are taken captive at gunpoint

▪ Toussaint is taken out of the country, dies in dungeon in the Alps 1803 ▪ This changes the nature of the Haitian Revolution

▪ This is now a war of independence, whereas before it was a slave  

resurrection

o Independence Declared (January 1, 1804)

▪ Second independent country in the America's

▪ Napoleon admits defeat and gives up

• Legacies of the Haitian Revolution

o Louisiana Purchase of 1804

▪ Hope of French to become an empire in the Americas

▪ Slave defeat of the French makes the LP less valuable to the French ▪ The big slave states are made out of the LP

o Aid for Latin American Independence Movements

o Beginning of the End of New World Slavery

▪ Slavery was part of New World colonization from the very beginning ▪ One of the dominant political issues in the Americas is “how does slavery  end?"

o The “Debt” of Freedom: Haitians pay $21 billion in reparations to former Masters ▪ Haitians are cut off from the world

▪ French only recognize their independence after 20 years if Haitians pay  reparations to government for getting their freedom

▪ $21 billion in 2010 dollars

o Propertied Peasants

▪ They become their own landowners

▪ They become peasants, for the most part

▪ Highest percentage of people who own their own property

▪ Limited amount of stability

Independence Movements in Colonial Latin America (1800 – 1830) • Major Questions for Today’s Lecture

o How did Latin America react to political events caused by the Napoleonic Wars? o What were the differences and similarities in the Independence Movements that  swept Latin America from 1808 - 1830?

o How did race, ethnic, and class tensions influence support for independence? • Political Turmoil in Europe, 1790 - 1800

o Wars of the French Revolution

▪ The French want to take down other monarchies nearby

▪ French sees Spain and Portugal as powerful due to American colonies o Neutral Trade

▪ Colonies can trade with neutral parties

▪ Economic activity and transit

o Spanish State takes over Church debts

▪ Fund the war against the French

▪ Catholic Church owned the most property and lent out the most money ▪ Squeezes the church for more revenue

o Napoleonic Invasion of Iberia

▪ Occupation of Portugal (1807)

• Royal family in exile to Rio

• Vast majority of nobility go along with the monarch as well

• Monarch has to rule from the colonies

• Once the Portuguese king arrives in Brazil, Brazil is transformed  

into an equal Portuguese kingdom, not a colony anymore

▪ Charles IV abdication in favor of Ferdinand VII

▪ Napoleon’s brother Joseph placed on Spanish Throne

• Two competing political bodies'

• How will Latin America be governed during the Iberian Occupation? o Local Juntas (1808)

▪ Local political groups begin to form in Latin American capitals

▪ Sovereignty reverts to the people

▪ Begin to talk about their rights

o Cortes / Spanish Parliament (1810 - 14)

o 1812 Constitution

▪ Spain’s first Constitution

▪ Acknowledges rights of the colonists

▪ Pacifies and keeps the colonists loyal

o 1814 Return to Absolutist Rule

▪ Napoleon’s forces are defeated

▪ Everyone hopes Ferdinand VII comes back as a constitutional monarchist

▪ That doesn’t happen

• Mexico’s 2 Movements for Independence

o Phase I: The Peasant Uprising

▪ Mass Movement (1810 - 15)

• All sectors of society are getting involved in it

• A large independent thinking movement, not physical movement ▪ Hidalgo’s Grito de Dolores (1810)

• Led the mass movement

• Ex Catholic priest

• Writes Mexico’s declaration of independence in the indigenous  

language of Mexico

▪ Jose Maria Morelos

• Inherits the movement

o Phase II: White Creole Movement in Mexico

▪ Peninsular - Creole Unity

• Puts down the indigenous peasant uprising

• Morelos is captured and executed

▪ Elimination of peasant forces

▪ Independence in 1821

• Second white push for independence

• Argentine Creole Military Movement

o British invasions of 1806 and 1807

▪ Local volunteer militia defeats them

▪ Leaders in local community

o Cabildo Abierto / Open Government

▪ Local town council in response to Napoleon taking over mainland Spain ▪ Leaders of this government in the Creole militia

o 1816 Tucuman Congress

▪ Form a congress in the town of tucuman

▪ Basically declaration of independence

o San Martin Exports Independence

▪ San Martin, major leader / general of the movement

▪ The only way Argentina is officially secure is to spread independence ▪ Spreads the independence to Chile

• Venezula’s Movements for independence

o Simon Bolivar

▪ Leader of the independence movement

▪ Got same ideas as San Martin and spreads the independence to other  places, at least five countries

o Early failures and repeated expulsions

▪ Thinks everyone has the same political ideals as he does

o White Creole Elite Fear of uprisings by lower classes

▪ They know what has happened in other colonies

o Jose Antonio Paez and the Llaneros of Venezuela

▪ Llaneros not tied to the coast

• Don’t have same fear of the possible slave uprising

▪ Nationalize royalist property

• Promise to abolish slavery

• Colombia: Caribbean Coast vs Andean Highlands

o Bolivar’s army moves to Colombia

o 2 movements

▪ 1st Liberates the highlands

▪ 2nd liberates the coast

o 1822 gain independence

• Peru: Independence from without

o Legacy of Tupac Amaru Rebellion of 1780

▪ Indigenous movement to go back to a pre-colonial order

▪ Tupac Amaru builds up a large army, claims royal lineage

o Bolivar’s and San Martin’s army converges in Peru 1823

• Brazil’s Bloodless Declaration of Independence

o Royal family in Rio (1808 - 1821)

▪ Only goes back to keep his crown

o Pedro I and the Brazilian Monarchy

▪ Son is raised in Brazil and understands the Portuguese crown

▪ Convinced to declare independence and becomes first ruler

o Independence with stability (1822)

• Summary of Lecture

o Napoleonic Wars in Europe create a crisis of political authority in Latin America  that provide an opening for independence movements

o Where class, race, racial, and ethnic divisions are most pronounced the support  for independence among the elite is diluted

Mexico in the 19th Century

• Major Point of Today’s Lecture

o Mexico’s oscillation between extreme political stability and instability in the 19th  century laid the foundations for Revolution in the 20th century.

• Wars of the North American Invasions, 1836-1848

o The Texas Rebellion 1836

▪ Texas rebels and gets its independence

▪ Looks to colonize its frontier region

▪ Mexico outlaws slavery in 1829, Texas has friction

o The Mexican-American War 1846-1848

▪ Texas as a country begins to go into debt

▪ Texas and US join

▪ Border dispute for Texas vs Mexico

▪ United States will enforce border region, gets Arizona, California, New  Mexico as well

• War of Reform 1858-1861

o 1857 Constitution

▪ Main issue of the war

▪ Who has the authority to enact it?

o Civil War in Mexico

o Liberals vs Conservatives

▪ Liberals - political power should be extended liberally to the people ▪ Conservatives - should conserve power and political to the government ▪ Church

• Liberal - Subordinated to the state, Tax church property (largest  landowner)

• Conservatives - Church given autonomy, it’s always had it

▪ Politics

• Lib- universal male suffrage

• Cons- economically independent male suffrage

▪ Education

• Lib- Education taken over by the federal government

• Cons- Education should rest with the Catholic church

• French Occupation, 1862-1866

o Constitutional Monarchy

o Hapsburg Archduke Maximilian of Austria

▪ Takes over the throne of Mexico

▪ Mexico gets independence and kills the monarch and wife

o Cinco de Mayo: Battle of Puebla (5/5/1862)

▪ Opposition to foreign invaders

• The Porfiriato 1876-1910

o Porfirio Diaz

▪ In charge of Mexico

▪ Made a name for himself fighting against the French

▪ Gets presidency, uses longstanding military connections

▪ Campaigns on a slogan of order and progress

o Order and Progress

▪ Diaz sees too much political instability

o Political Changes

▪ Cientificos

• The cabinet of Mexico

▪ Rejection of Indian Past

• Blames Indians for producing the backwards country

• Program to correct indian past - foreign migration

▪ Pax Porfiriana: Rurales

• Uses military connections

• Has his own secret police

▪ “Remove” the opposition

• Sends his nephew to be an ambassador in Chile

• Never let someone be in a political position for too long • Constantly moving political system around

▪ 1897 Assasination attempt

• Shows how limited his power is

• Always are cracks underneath the system

• Diaz gets paranoid, organizes a mob to attack assasinator • Journalists find out that Diaz made the mob

o Economic Changes

▪ Foreign Investment

• Raise taxes on the poor

• Manages to pay off foreign debt

• Landgrab going on in Mexico

▪ Modernization

• Machine power begins to replace human / animal power • Ties into industrialization

• Steam power spreads throughout Mexico

• Railroads / steel / telephone lines big things

• Electricity in all major cities

▪ Railroads

• 1876 - 400 miles of railroads

• 1910 - 15,000 miles of railroads

• 80% of the money to build comes from the US

• Farmland is being converted into railroad land

▪ Mining

• 1876 - 1.5 milliion pesos

• 1910 - 300 million pesos

• Landless peasants converted into miners

▪ Oil

• Mexico led the world in oil production

▪ Expansion of Landless Peasantry and Debt-Peonage

• Still an agricultural society

• Peasants are kicked off of their land

• Forces Mexicans to move from their small towns to see the world

• Summary of Lecture: Poverty vs Progress: Consequences of the Porfiriato o Economic growth without economic development

o Growth of middle class, but denied political participation

Mexican Revolution: The Removal of Diaz

• Central Questions for Today’s Lecture

o Was it a weak government or a strong insurgency that resulted in the overthrow of  Diaz?

o What unified the opposition against Diaz?

o Did the problems caused by the Porfiriato require a political or social revolution? • Diaz regime weakness in the 1900’s

o Decline in the coercive power of the state

o From individual to collective opposition

▪ Hard to deal with collective opposition

• The Opposition in the 1900’s

o Liberal Mexican Party

▪ Plan of 1906

▪ Called for agrarian reform…

• Restoration of community lands

• Call for 8 hour workday

• Six day workweek

• Payment in real, legal tender

• Right to strike

• Asked for a minimum wage to be declared in Mexico

• Ban of child labor

• Free public education

▪ Forced to go into exile by Diaz

o Economic Recession

▪ 1907-1908

▪ Wages drop, credit isn’t extended

▪ Landless peasantry increases

▪ Combined with wage labor force shows vulnerability

o Agrarian trends of the Porfiriato

• Labor opposition in the 1900’s

o 1906 Cananea Strike

▪ Largest producer of copper, owned by William Green (American)

▪ Workers go on strike

▪ The organizers come from the ranks of the miners

▪ They demanded

• Equal pay with the Americans

• Better hours

• Sunday would be traditional overtime

▪ Green immediately says no

▪ 2,000 workers take over the mine

▪ Leaders hung up by trees

▪ Americans rangers given Mexican citizenship so they were allowed to put  down insurrection without being seen as invading

o 1907 Rio Blanco Strike

▪ Strike at a textile mill, overwhelmingly a female labor force

▪ They demanded

• 12 hour workday

• Want better wages

• Don’t want to have to pay for the machines

• No child labor

• Oppose being paid in script / account book

▪ Sent petition to Diaz, he rejects their issues

▪ Strike starts January 6th, day of the kings

▪ The women go into the store to destroy the account books

▪ Locked in the store by army, 100 women and children burnt alive

o The revolution is mostly economistic, not revolutionary

• The anti-reelection campaign: the failure of political reform

o February 1908 - Creelman interview

▪ Mexico has “elections" every four years

▪ Said that he wouldn’t run for reelection

▪ He quickly changes his mind, says he will run

o 1908 - The Presidential Succession of 1910 by Francisco Madero

▪ Doesn’t want to attack Diaz personally

▪ Madero wants him to not be elected though, becomes most outspoken ▪ Just talks about the dangers of incumbency politics

▪ Madero ends up forming Anti-Reelection Party

▪ 1909 - Anti-Reelection Party is listed at elections for governors

▪ Madero is forced into exile, failure of political reform

▪ New political platform to remove Diaz from power

▪ Declares the elections in October 1910 null and void and tells people to  not vote

▪ Madero declares himself provisional president

▪ Declares that land illegally gained needs to be returned to previous owners o Plan of San Luis Potosi

▪ Issued November 20, 1910 - 100 year independence of Mexico

▪ Diaz celebrated his 80 year birthday

• The Revolution to Remove Diaz

o Northern Theater of the War

▪ Fought in Northern Mexico, uses Americans for supplies

▪ The border region is used as security for the insurgents

o From political to the military

▪ Plan of San Luis Potosi, entices peasants to join army

▪ Goes from a political movement to a military one

▪ As soon as he opens up the ranks, the peasants and others who join have  their own demands, Madero has to encompass them into his plan

o Pancho Villa

▪ Joins Madero in 1910

▪ Doroteo Arango aka Pancho Villa

▪ Took the name as the famous bandit

▪ Brings a following with him of displaced workers

▪ Practiced social banditry

• Classic robin hood kinda thing

• He was strategic and targeted poor bosses

• Didn’t attack American landowners

▪ Rapidly climbs up the ranks of the military leadership

o Zapata Revolution in the South

▪ Agrarian aspect

▪ Fights for restoration of peasant lands

▪ Local based indigenous movement in the state of morelos

o The fall of Diaz, May 1911

▪ Capture city of Juarez

• Pascual Orozco

• Decisive defeat of Diaz

▪ Didn’t even march to Mexico City before Diaz flees the country

• Summary of Lecture

o Diaz’s Prophetic last words:

▪ Madero has unleashed a tiger, let’s see if he can tame it

▪ Changing Diaz’s policies that have been in place for over 30 years ▪ The revolution has its own energy / momentum

o The movement to remove Diaz from power became transformed into a political  and social revolution

▪ From Madero’s perspective, its a political movement

▪ Filling out the military, it became a social revolution

▪ Now needs to take care of people’s ideals and needs

Mexican Revolution: The Failure of Political Reform • Central Point of Today’s Lecture

o Mexicans could unite to remove Diaz from power, but they were divided on the  political and social priorities the new government should adapt

▪ Diaz almost too easy of a target

▪ They could all agree on the problem, but none agreed on the remedy

• Madero’s Presidency, 1911 - 1913

o When he reenters Mexico City, he is treated as a conquering hero

o Cabinet: Civilian Politicians over Social Revolutionaries

▪ Big dilemma, when a revolutionary movement come to power, is it a  conciliatory movement or revenge politics

▪ No Diaz supporters, but no revolutionaries

▪ Madero wants stability

o October 1911, Election

▪ Zapata’s Revolution Continues

• Meeting with Madero

• Madero wants Zapata to pledge loyalty with new government

• Zapata wants Madero to enforce Plan of San Luis Potosi

• Zapata gets Madero to publicly announce that they will get their  

land back

• Madero tells Zapata to go through the courts

• Zapata mad, him and men are armed and have forcefully taken  

their lands back

▪ Plan de Ayala

• November 1911

• Zapata issues this to call Madero is a liar

• Peasants will not put down their arms until their lands are returned

o Rebellions against the Madero Presidency

▪ Orozco Rebellion

• March 1912

• Military General that led the assault on Juarez

• Feels alienated by Madero’s policy

• Takes up arms against Madero because he feels that Madero isn’t  moving fast enough

• Plan Orozquista

o 10 hour workday

o Ban on child labor

o Higher wages

o Nationalization of some foreign industries

• May of 1912, his movement fizzles out

▪ Bernardo Reyes Rebellion

• December 1911

• Member of Diaz’s old military machine

• Marches on Mexico City

• Was put down

▪ Felix Diaz takes Veracruz

• October 1912

• Nephew of Diaz

• Takes Veracruz, but put down by Madero

▪ Decena Tragica

• February 9 - February 19, 1913

• Felix Diaz and Bernardo Reyes unite to overthrow Madero o They’re both in a prison cell together and plot

o They get some of the jailers in on this

o The two bust the way out of their prison

o March towards presidential palace and surround it

o Demand Manero’s resignation, and so they assault the  

palace

• US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson

o Appointed by Woodrow Wilson

o Americans are getting impatient about what’s going on in  Mexico

o Mexico not ready for democracy, needs strong military  regime

• Huerta overthrows Madero

o Madero sends word to his military supporters

o Huerta marches on Mexico City, surrounds Diaz and Reyes o Has a meeting before arriving with the US ambassador

o Wilson tells Huerta that they’ll recognize him as president o Huerta ends assault, but forces Madero to resign and be  exiled

o Madero is assassinated on the way out of the country

• The Revolution Against Huerta 1913-1914

o The Formation of the Constitutionalists to Overthrow Huerta

▪ Led by Madero’s supporters from the North

• Venustiano Carranza

o Adopts middle class labor policy

• Alvaro Obregon

o Focuses on labor rights

• Pancho Villa

o Focuses on land rights

▪ Plan of Guadalupe

• March 1913

• Constitutional convention to address all of the problems of the  

people

▪ Brutal civil war, Huerta’s army have mass defections

▪ US occupation of Veracruz

• April 1914

• US backpedals and doesn’t want to support Huerta anymore

• Marines occupy Caribbean waters

• Marines are imprisoned in Veracruz, Huerta authorizes release

• US wants apology of arrests, Huerta says he’ll do it, but the  

demands are too much

o 21 gun salute and American flag flown over military fort in  

Veracruz

• Marines occupy Veracruz, he’s overthrown a few months later

o Consolidating the Revolution through Constitutional Order

▪ Whoever gets to Mexico City first has the most influence

▪ Xochimilco Conference

• December 1914

• Zapata - Villa Alliance

• Pressure the politicians about how to write the demands into the  

constitution

• Don’t want popular support to be diluted by politics

• 1917 Constitutional Convention and the Carranza Presidency

o 3 years to have a meeting

o Zapata and Villa want a large convention to represent a lot of people o Zapata and Villa not invited

▪ Carranza worried about their forces being in the same town as the  

convention

▪ Land Article 27

• Land seized illegally during Diaz will be returned to peasants

• Legal title not necessary to make a claim, witnesses needed to be  

used

• Large landholdings will be taken over by the state and redistributed  upon sufficient demand

• Authorizes and legalizes land invasion

▪ Labor Article 123

• Establishes

o 8 hour workday

o 6 day workweek

o Minimum wage

o Equal pay regardless of sex or nationality

o Right to collectively bargain (union) and go on strike

• Government is the ultimate arbitrator between employer and  

employee

▪ Government can be a friend to labor now

o Carranza Presidency (1917 - 1920)

▪ Protects the labor force

o Zapata Assassination (1919)

▪ Zapata never recognizes the Constitution

▪ Carranza sends a spy into his camp and assassinates him

• Carrying out the demands of the revolution and the 1917 constitution o Ejido system of agrarian reform

▪ 1 out of 3 Mexicans received land through the constitution

▪ Put their lands as deeds and take out a loan through them

▪ Mexicans feel like they got something out of the revolution

o Nationalization of the oil industry (1938)

▪ 1936, Standard Oil employees go on strike

▪ Federal Government intervenes

▪ Federal Government sides with the workers, and so the Mexican  

government is basically forced to nationalize the industry

▪ US is in Great Depression, can’t help their company

▪ Nationalism of the Mexican Revolution has triumphed

• Summary for today’s lecture

o After the overthrow of Diaz, Mexican revolutionaries differed on whether a  political or social revolution would address inequalities in society

o The Mexican Revolution consolidates its power when the demands of the working  class and the peasantry become institutionalized through the government ▪ 1917 Constitution

Cuba in the First Half of the 20th Century: Setting the Stage for a  Revolution

• Major Questions of Today’s Lecture

o How did the absence of stable political institutions in Cuba during the first half of  the 20th Century create conditions for Revolution?

o How can we explain the rise of Fidel Castro as the leader of the Cuban Revolution  of 1959?

• Cuba under the Platt Amendment

o Cast a 30 year shadow on Cuba and America

o Amendment added to the Cuban Constitution, but proposed by an American  senator on the Foreign Affairs

o Limits Cuban independence and Cuban policy

▪ Right to Intervene

• United States has the right to occupy and intervene to maintain  

Cuban independence and stability

▪ Right to sign foreign treaties

▪ Cuba could not enter into foreign (commercial, military, or diplomatic)  treaties without the approval of the United States

▪ Cuba could not expand or alter its military without approval of US

▪ The US will retain possession of all naval and military stations on Cuba  (Guantanamo)

o Little or no independence left in Cuba

o Passed in the Cuban senate with one vote in order to get the military to leave o Marti’s “Historical Fatalism"

▪ He comes up with raceless identity in Cuba

▪ Died during the course of independence

▪ He always turned down support and aid from the US

o Occupations 1906 and 1917

o US control of the economy

▪ US occupies from 1898 to 1902

• 1933: Prologue to Revolution

o Machado Dictatorship 1925-1933

o General Strike 1933

o Grau San Martin Presidency, 1933-1934

• Era of Batista, 1934 - 1959

o 1st Coup and Rule 1934-1944

o Short “Good Neighbor” Policy

o Civilian Presidents 1944 - 1952

o 2nd Coup March 1952

• Fidel Castro: Myth, Fiction, and History

o Born August 13, 1926

o Education

o Student Politics

▪ 1947 Invasion of the Dominican Republic

▪ 1948 Bogotazo

▪ 1950 Law Degree

o 1952 Havana Senate

• 1948, Bogota Colombia

• Summary of Today’s Lecture

o From 1900 to 1950 Cuba did not develop its own stable political institutions due  to an absence of legitimate political leaders and an over reliance on the US for  support

o The lack of political legitimacy fostered an environment for radical political  action

The Cuban Revolution

• Major Point of Today’s Lecture

o Crisis of political legitimacy and weak political institutions causes Cuba to  oscillate between Military Dictatorship and radical revolution

▪ Similar to what happened in Haiti and Mexico

o Cuban revolution consolidates its power through mass based organization and its  break with the United States

• Cuba under US influence and military dictatorship

o Platt Amendment of 1902

o US interventions (1906 and 1917)

▪ US concerned with American interests in Cuba

▪ Hotly contested senatorial elections

▪ The losing side appeals to the United States for help, aid, and intervention ▪ Grants more authority to the United States

• Mexico in the 19th century, weak political institution that brought  

French forces in

o The Era of Batista 1934-1959

▪ Batista symbolizes same thing as Porfirio Diaz

▪ Begins to transform and modify Cuban economy

• Castro’s 1st Attempt at Power: The Moncada Assault

o Fidel Castro Background

▪ From a wealthy sugar plantation which sold sugar to an American  

company

▪ Staged the coup at 26, early

▪ Had all of the benefits of going to a good school

▪ Has stories about him

• Organized a strike on father’s plantation at 13

• Was a baseball player, and had a tryout with the Yankees

▪ Was able to single himself out as a future politicians

▪ Get to be President of the University, sits on Executive Board of Cuba’s  leading political party

▪ Ran for Senator for Havana, Batista shuts down elections

o Moncada Assault (July 26, 1953)

▪ Castro with 82 followers, assaulted the military barracks in Santiago ▪ Everything goes wrong

▪ Castro’s car stalls in front of the barracks, alerts the guards

▪ Most people are shot on the spot, Castro is captured three days later ▪ Batista puts him on trial for treason

▪ Castro goes from accused to accuser and gets more followers

▪ Takes full responsibility of the Moncada assault

▪ Names Marti as Intellectual Author for the movement

• Founding father of Cuban independence

▪ “History will Absolve Me” his last remarks where he pleads guilty o Imprisonment and Freedom (July 1953 - May 1955)

▪ He gets an amnesty bill, but refuses to sign it

▪ Doesn’t renounce his past political activity

▪ Is released from jail so Batista can keep him out of the news

▪ He goes on a speaking tour in the US to get more press

• The Guerilla War, 1956 - 1959

o The Granma “Shipwreck” and the Guerilla War (1956-1959)

▪ Exchange of strength for time

▪ Arrested within Mexico, Batista had spies

▪ Castro’s political allies in Mexico get him out of jail

▪ Goes looking for a boat in the port of Vera Cruz

▪ American is selling a boat called Granma, a yacht

• Buying a boat from an American - great symbolism

• They have to tear out essential parts of the boat to make room for  people

• Two day trip become a five day trip w/ no food or water

• Boat runs aground on a sandbar a mile away from shore

• Only 16 people will survive, including Castro

• They move up to the mountains and slowly recruit people

• An American reporter comes up and thinks Castro has 1,000  

fighters

o Emergence of “Dual Power"

▪ The rebel army in the mountains are taking over more territory

• They become a government themselves

• Shows what a political system under them would look like

• Implement revolutionary thoughts and ideals

• Project confidence that the insurgent group can actually rule

• Territorio Libre, have their own radio station

• Provided social services, schools, made taxes in exchange for help  in harvests

• Doctors who joined the cause set up health care system

• Institute an agrarian reform law

• Summer of 1958, half the island is under their control

▪ Batista is in charge of the current government

o Batista Flees (January 1, 1959)

• Consolidation of the Cuban Revolution through Mass Organizations o Agrarian Reform

▪ Peasants get their land back, become part of the local communities o University Tuition is free, have to become part of the University Federation o Cuban Women’s Federation

▪ Women as spies, political advisors, and combatants become key people ▪ Child care becomes universally provided by the state

▪ Household work becomes politicized

• Husband has to provide 50% of the tasks within the house

• Stay at home moms are given government wages and a pension

• Women are encouraged to get university degrees

o Highest percentage of women with medical degrees in the  

Americas

▪ Highest divorce rate in the hemisphere: two ways to look at it

• Women have an independent status

• Everything has gone to hell in Cuba and no one is happy

o Committees for the Defense of the Revolution

▪ Lurking fear that allies of the Batista regime are everywhere

▪ Both voluntary and coercive

o Both workers and students federation

o Many people belonged in more than one

• The Cuban Revolution and the United States

o April 1959 Trip to US

▪ Ike Eisenhower is in the presidency

▪ Castro is invited to visit the White House

▪ Eisenhower plays golf and misses the meeting

▪ Castro meets the VP: Nixon instead

• Nixon is very anti-communist

▪ Castro feels dissed, hasn’t been given proper respect

▪ He issues May 1959 Agrarian Reform Law

• Returns lands to the peasants

• Threatens US land holdings as well

▪ Political relations deteriorates very quickly

o Fidel and Communism

▪ The US meeting pushes Cuba more towards Soviet Union

▪ More of a conversion to communism than confession of

▪ Soviet Union thinks Castro is too populist to be communist

▪ Castro claims to be more socialist

o Bay of Pigs (April 1961)

▪ Invasion by US trained and aided Cuban exiles

▪ Gets the ear of the CIA that there is a widespread opposition of Castro ▪ Really were not in touch with Cuba and were too confident that he could  be overthrown

▪ Castro knows that there is a planned invasion on the way

▪ Invading force of 1,500 lands and is quickly put down in three days ▪ Castro’s popularity gets a large boost

o Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962)

▪ Castro knows that US will try again, cozies up to USSR

o Castro’s idea to bring missiles to Cuba

▪ If Cuba owns / operates missiles on its island, they will be less likely to  invade

▪ US finds out about this and freaks out

▪ For 13 days, there is an international standoff

• Entire world is at a standstill

• The world could be ended at any time

▪ A compromise is worked out, a pact is made (but not followed)

▪ Raised the question: how important is Cuba?

• Summary of Lecture

o The lack of legitimate political institutions makes Cuba vulnerable to radical  revolution

o After overthrowing the Batista Dictatorship, the Cuban Revolution consolidates  its power through developing state controlled mass based organization and its  break with the United States

HIST 109

Dr. Matt Childs

USC, Fall 2015

Essay Questions for Exam 2 on Mon, 7 Dec 2015 at 12:30 PM

1. Compose an essay that explains what issues resulted in Latin Americans  fighting for their independence? In answering this question, analyze: (1) the  role of events in Europe that catalyzed independence movements; (2) what  opportunities emerged to fight for political rights; and (3) how Latin  Americans defined their national identity after gaining independence.  Include material from the lectures and discussion section readings. I. Introduction

a. Haiti, Mexico, Cuba, Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Peru all fought for  their independence

b. Thesis

II. Europe events that catalyzed the independence movements

a. Bourbon reforms – the crown changes local policies that have been around  for over 250 years, alienates local population, especially Creoles, and  gives the colonists a list of grievances  

b. Napoleonic Wars – leads to new freedoms

i. Portugal transformed into equal kingdom, not colony

c. End of Napoleonic Wars – end of new freedoms, back to absolutist rule,  the people revolt

d. French Revolution – (Haiti?)

III. Opportunities to fight for political rights (independence doc)

a. Local juntas – sovereignty reverts to the people

b. Slaves were freed when they joined the army (Afro-Argentinians) c. Women – Republican motherhood

d. Haitian Revolution

IV. National Identity of Latin America (nationalism)

a. Cuban racelessness  

b. Scientific racism?

c. Brazil and racial democracy

d. Anti-US imperial power (Cuba)

V. Conclusion

Document heavy

2. 19th and 20th Century Latin America was marked by radical political  movements aimed to overthrow entrenched military dictatorships and the  legacies of colonial regimes. Focusing on: (1) the Haitian Revolution; (2)  the Mexican Revolution; and (3) the Cuban Revolution, how did each  revolution attempt to radically change Latin American society? Include  material from the lectures and discussion section readings. I. Introduction

a. Thesis

II. Haiti

a. Background

i. Originally started by local French population as a reaction to  

French revolution, Grand Blancs wanted colonial autonomy

ii. Rise of Toussaint Louverture

1. He leads the troops to fully take over Haiti and becomes a  

governor, abolishing slavery

iii. Toussaint is captured by Napoleon

1. The remaining locals full scale revolution for independence

2. Napoleon ends up admitting defeat and leaves, letting Haiti  

be independent

iv. Outcome

1. Beginning of the end of New World Slavery

2. They give aid to Latin American independence movements

3. Propertied peasants, limited stability

b. Slave Revolt  

c. Property redistribution

d. Overthrow French control

III. Mexican Revolution

a. Background

i. First: Massive instability

1. 1857 Constitution leads to civil war between Liberals and  

Conservatives (church, male suffrage, education)

2. French Occupation by Hapsburgs (Cinco de Mayo)

ii. Porfiriato Diaz takes control

1. Rejection of Indian past, secret police, paranoid

2. Poverty vs Progress – modernization at the cost of the poor

iii. Social and Political Revolution

1. Finally Diaz overthrown, and things calm down

2. 1917 Constitutional Convention, Carranza Presidency

a. Land Article 27

b. Labor Article 123

c. Ejido system of agrarian reform

d. Nationalization of the oil industry

b. Agrarian reform

c. Labor Laws (worker’s rights)

d. Nationalize oil industry

e. New Constitution – overthrew Diaz

f. Document – Mexico and indigenous roots

g. Document - Morelos

IV. Cuban Revolution

a. Background

i. US takeover

1. Platt amendment – little to no independence  

2. US concerned with American interests

3. Large interference in senatorial races

4. Bunch of political leaders until …

5. Batista military coup

ii. Batista being bad

1. Military dictatorship

2. Transforms and modifies Cuban economy

3. Symbolizes the same thing that Porfirio Diaz did in Mexico

iii. Castro and Consolidation of Cuba

1. Agrarian Reform

2. Lots of Confederations to bond local people together

3. Castro becomes more popular as he defeats various US  

interventions

4. Develops state controlled mass based organization and  

breaks with the US to be free

b. Rejects US involvement

c. Consolidated power with mass organizations

d. Guerilla warfare – document

e. Marxist – communist (Bay of Pigs leads into that)  

V. Conclusion

Lecture heavy

3. 20th Century Latin America produced new types of political movements in  the form of populism and social revolutions. How did populism and social  revolutions change relations between: (1) the government and the people in  terms of politics; (2) employers and laborers in terms of conditions for the  working class; and (3) diplomatic relations in terms of relations between

Latin American countries and the United States? Include material from the  lectures and discussion section readings.

I. Introduction

a. Thesis

II. The Government and People (Politics)

a. Agrarian Reform (Mexico and Cuba)

b. Vargas and Brazilians

c. Personal connection between people and the leaders

III. Employers and Laborers (Work Conditions)

a. Peron Document

b. Mexico and the Constitution – Labor Article 123

c. Agrarian reform (making employees own their own land and become the  boss)

IV. Latin America and the US (Diplomatic Relations)

a. Cuba

i. Castro is more for the people than for American corporations

ii. Has breaks with the US

b. Bay of Pigs (US tries to overthrow)

c. Salvador Allende – Chile (CIA agent overthrows)

d. Social revolutionaries try and get US corporations out of their countries i. Mexico oil

ii. Allende and copper

iii. Agrarian reform took land away from corporate interests

e. Marxism itself (cold war)

V. Conclusion

Blend of the two

The Bourbon Reforms

• Major Points of Today’s Lecture

o Purpose of the Bourbon Reforms is to increase Spain’s control over: ▪ Politics

▪ Military

▪ Economy

▪ Religion

• Legacy of the Reforms

o Feeling colonial

▪ They have a separate cultural identity as mother country

▪ Once Spain began to change things, the people realized that they were  different

• The Bourbon Reforms

o Named for Charles III (1759 - 1788)

▪ Part of Bourbons, took charge in Spain over the Hapsburgs

▪ Look for change

o Charles IV (1788 - 1808)

o Political Goals

▪ Centralized Decision Making Process

• Far more absolutist monarchy

▪ Strengthen Links between Crown and Colony

• Population in Latin America is larger then the one in Spain

• The weight of Spain is in the New World

o Penninsulars vs Creoles

▪ Creole loyalty questioned

• Someone born in the Americas

• A localized culture, sometimes mixed

• Hyperattention to place of birth

▪ Removal from bureaucratic positions throughout the Spanish Empire • Between 1500 and 1750, the difference didn’t matter, social  

mobility

• Now there is a preference for penninsulars

• Sense of complaints

• Local input can’t get into government

▪ Jose de Galvez

• Holds title as Minister of Indies

o First one in this position

o Used to have a whole counsel of Indies

• Removes Creoles from bureaucratic and judicial positions in New  Spain

• Local input no longer consulted as before

o Alienating process

o Economic Goals

▪ Regain control over trade and commerce

• Too much independent economic activity in New World

▪ Increase tax revenues

• Colonial population greater than in Spain

▪ Free trade in the Empire

• All the colonies Spain has in Latin America

• Creates incentives for penninsular merchants to move into coastal  cities

▪ Tobacco Monopoly

• Most of Europe are habitual smokers

• Crown gets a lot of revenue from this, more than silver

▪ Tax Reforms

• Silver tax dropped from 20% to 10%

o People become more likely to pay it

o Not worth risking the penalty now

o More incentive to allow people to go into silver mining

• Sales tax raised from 2% to 6%

• Tax farming ended

o It was on merchants to pay all of the taxes and collect from  

people

o Military Goals of the Bourbon Reform

▪ Expand the volunteer and professional army throughout Latin America ▪ Colonists more actively participate in the defense of the Empire ▪ Military Policies of the Bourbon Reforms

• Peninsulars replace Creoles as officers

o Somewhat blame native population for not defending the  

empire well enough

• Expansion of military forts

• Expansion of the militia system

o Fuero Militar

o Exemptions from taxes if you join militia

o Religious Goals of the Bourbon Reforms

▪ Move towards secular control

• Less pope, more authoritative king

▪ Squeeze church for revenues

▪ Religious policies of the the Bourbon Reform

• Jesuit Expulsion from Latin America

o Made most of the Latin American Universities

o Challenged papal authority

o Do not support the Bourbon Reforms, go on strike

o Creoles come to the defense of Jesuits

▪ Taxing Church Property

▪ Consequence

• Assault on local autonomy

• Beyond taxing and building an empire, overreach of the Spanish  

government

• Summary of Lecture

o The Bourbon reforms are an assault on local policies that have evolved over 250  years in colonial Latin America

o The Bourbon reforms change the relationship between Spain and its colonies that  will provide the basis for independence

▪ Provides list of grievances

▪ Makes colonists tired of the government’s overreach and discrimination  against creoles

The Haitian Revolution (1791 – 1804)

• Major Points of Today’s Lecture

o Haitian Revolution is catalyzed by the French Revolution, but quickly takes on a  direction of its own

o Britain, France, and Spain will all fail in their attempts to suppress the Haitian  Revolution

o The key to understanding the Haitian Slave Revolution is to see the “slaves” as  Africans

• A Singular Event in Human History

o History has a tendency to repeat itself

o It’s the only example where slaves were able to rise up, overthrow masters and  kick them out of the country, and create their own political state

o Shows different institutions of slavery: political, military, legal

• Social Divisions of St. Domingue

o The French colony, renamed Haiti by

o Grand Blancs and Petit Blancs

▪ White population of 50,000 (10%)

▪ Grand

• The French nobility

• Large sugar plantation owners

• Wealthy and elite

▪ Petit

• Middle class

• artisans / urbanaries / small scale merchants

▪ The divisions become more apparent after French Revolution

o Free People of color

▪ 50,000 people (10%)

▪ Same role as petit blancs

▪ Because of racial identification and ancestry, never quite equal to whites ▪ Revolution brings opportunity to become equal in society

o African Imports

▪ 400,000 (80%)

▪ Imported laborers, not voluntary

▪ Life expectancy is 3-5 years for slaves

▪ Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

• 1785-1790 Imports from the kingdom of Kongo

o They have common historical / cultural experience

• Civil war brings military soldiers to St. Domingue

• The French Revolution of 1789 and the Colony of St. Domingue

o Colonial Autonomy

▪ The colonists themselves would have more influence

▪ Mother country wouldn’t have as much control

▪ Divisions between white population

o The Amis de Noirs

▪ The friends of the blacks

▪ Tries to make the revolution helpful to the blacks

• The Slave Revolution

o August 1791

▪ Revolt on the Northern Plain

o The Bois-Caiman Ceremony

▪ The final preparations for the revolution

▪ Each plantation sent a representative to collaborate

▪ Sacrifice a pig and go through a ritualistic aspect, voodoo priestess ▪ Hurricane is happening, good omen

o Voodoo Cultural Resistance

o The rise of Toussaint Louverture

▪ Born Toussaint Breda on a slave plantation

▪ Has a foot in African culture and in the Caribbean culture (go between) ▪ Switches from the Spanish side to the French side

▪ Forces Emancipation in 1794

▪ Defeats the British by 1798

▪ Became Governor 1800

• A former slave now completely in charge of an island that was  

built on slavery

• Still colony of France though

o Final Push for Independence

▪ Napoleon’s Leclerc expedition to reconquer the islands

• Leclerc is brother in law

• Reestablish slavery on the island

o Toussaint Surrenders (May 1802)

▪ Toussaint’s two sons are taken captive at gunpoint

▪ Toussaint is taken out of the country, dies in dungeon in the Alps 1803 ▪ This changes the nature of the Haitian Revolution

▪ This is now a war of independence, whereas before it was a slave  

resurrection

o Independence Declared (January 1, 1804)

▪ Second independent country in the America's

▪ Napoleon admits defeat and gives up

• Legacies of the Haitian Revolution

o Louisiana Purchase of 1804

▪ Hope of French to become an empire in the Americas

▪ Slave defeat of the French makes the LP less valuable to the French ▪ The big slave states are made out of the LP

o Aid for Latin American Independence Movements

o Beginning of the End of New World Slavery

▪ Slavery was part of New World colonization from the very beginning ▪ One of the dominant political issues in the Americas is “how does slavery  end?"

o The “Debt” of Freedom: Haitians pay $21 billion in reparations to former Masters ▪ Haitians are cut off from the world

▪ French only recognize their independence after 20 years if Haitians pay  reparations to government for getting their freedom

▪ $21 billion in 2010 dollars

o Propertied Peasants

▪ They become their own landowners

▪ They become peasants, for the most part

▪ Highest percentage of people who own their own property

▪ Limited amount of stability

Independence Movements in Colonial Latin America (1800 – 1830) • Major Questions for Today’s Lecture

o How did Latin America react to political events caused by the Napoleonic Wars? o What were the differences and similarities in the Independence Movements that  swept Latin America from 1808 - 1830?

o How did race, ethnic, and class tensions influence support for independence? • Political Turmoil in Europe, 1790 - 1800

o Wars of the French Revolution

▪ The French want to take down other monarchies nearby

▪ French sees Spain and Portugal as powerful due to American colonies o Neutral Trade

▪ Colonies can trade with neutral parties

▪ Economic activity and transit

o Spanish State takes over Church debts

▪ Fund the war against the French

▪ Catholic Church owned the most property and lent out the most money ▪ Squeezes the church for more revenue

o Napoleonic Invasion of Iberia

▪ Occupation of Portugal (1807)

• Royal family in exile to Rio

• Vast majority of nobility go along with the monarch as well

• Monarch has to rule from the colonies

• Once the Portuguese king arrives in Brazil, Brazil is transformed  

into an equal Portuguese kingdom, not a colony anymore

▪ Charles IV abdication in favor of Ferdinand VII

▪ Napoleon’s brother Joseph placed on Spanish Throne

• Two competing political bodies'

• How will Latin America be governed during the Iberian Occupation? o Local Juntas (1808)

▪ Local political groups begin to form in Latin American capitals

▪ Sovereignty reverts to the people

▪ Begin to talk about their rights

o Cortes / Spanish Parliament (1810 - 14)

o 1812 Constitution

▪ Spain’s first Constitution

▪ Acknowledges rights of the colonists

▪ Pacifies and keeps the colonists loyal

o 1814 Return to Absolutist Rule

▪ Napoleon’s forces are defeated

▪ Everyone hopes Ferdinand VII comes back as a constitutional monarchist

▪ That doesn’t happen

• Mexico’s 2 Movements for Independence

o Phase I: The Peasant Uprising

▪ Mass Movement (1810 - 15)

• All sectors of society are getting involved in it

• A large independent thinking movement, not physical movement ▪ Hidalgo’s Grito de Dolores (1810)

• Led the mass movement

• Ex Catholic priest

• Writes Mexico’s declaration of independence in the indigenous  

language of Mexico

▪ Jose Maria Morelos

• Inherits the movement

o Phase II: White Creole Movement in Mexico

▪ Peninsular - Creole Unity

• Puts down the indigenous peasant uprising

• Morelos is captured and executed

▪ Elimination of peasant forces

▪ Independence in 1821

• Second white push for independence

• Argentine Creole Military Movement

o British invasions of 1806 and 1807

▪ Local volunteer militia defeats them

▪ Leaders in local community

o Cabildo Abierto / Open Government

▪ Local town council in response to Napoleon taking over mainland Spain ▪ Leaders of this government in the Creole militia

o 1816 Tucuman Congress

▪ Form a congress in the town of tucuman

▪ Basically declaration of independence

o San Martin Exports Independence

▪ San Martin, major leader / general of the movement

▪ The only way Argentina is officially secure is to spread independence ▪ Spreads the independence to Chile

• Venezula’s Movements for independence

o Simon Bolivar

▪ Leader of the independence movement

▪ Got same ideas as San Martin and spreads the independence to other  places, at least five countries

o Early failures and repeated expulsions

▪ Thinks everyone has the same political ideals as he does

o White Creole Elite Fear of uprisings by lower classes

▪ They know what has happened in other colonies

o Jose Antonio Paez and the Llaneros of Venezuela

▪ Llaneros not tied to the coast

• Don’t have same fear of the possible slave uprising

▪ Nationalize royalist property

• Promise to abolish slavery

• Colombia: Caribbean Coast vs Andean Highlands

o Bolivar’s army moves to Colombia

o 2 movements

▪ 1st Liberates the highlands

▪ 2nd liberates the coast

o 1822 gain independence

• Peru: Independence from without

o Legacy of Tupac Amaru Rebellion of 1780

▪ Indigenous movement to go back to a pre-colonial order

▪ Tupac Amaru builds up a large army, claims royal lineage

o Bolivar’s and San Martin’s army converges in Peru 1823

• Brazil’s Bloodless Declaration of Independence

o Royal family in Rio (1808 - 1821)

▪ Only goes back to keep his crown

o Pedro I and the Brazilian Monarchy

▪ Son is raised in Brazil and understands the Portuguese crown

▪ Convinced to declare independence and becomes first ruler

o Independence with stability (1822)

• Summary of Lecture

o Napoleonic Wars in Europe create a crisis of political authority in Latin America  that provide an opening for independence movements

o Where class, race, racial, and ethnic divisions are most pronounced the support  for independence among the elite is diluted

Mexico in the 19th Century

• Major Point of Today’s Lecture

o Mexico’s oscillation between extreme political stability and instability in the 19th  century laid the foundations for Revolution in the 20th century.

• Wars of the North American Invasions, 1836-1848

o The Texas Rebellion 1836

▪ Texas rebels and gets its independence

▪ Looks to colonize its frontier region

▪ Mexico outlaws slavery in 1829, Texas has friction

o The Mexican-American War 1846-1848

▪ Texas as a country begins to go into debt

▪ Texas and US join

▪ Border dispute for Texas vs Mexico

▪ United States will enforce border region, gets Arizona, California, New  Mexico as well

• War of Reform 1858-1861

o 1857 Constitution

▪ Main issue of the war

▪ Who has the authority to enact it?

o Civil War in Mexico

o Liberals vs Conservatives

▪ Liberals - political power should be extended liberally to the people ▪ Conservatives - should conserve power and political to the government ▪ Church

• Liberal - Subordinated to the state, Tax church property (largest  landowner)

• Conservatives - Church given autonomy, it’s always had it

▪ Politics

• Lib- universal male suffrage

• Cons- economically independent male suffrage

▪ Education

• Lib- Education taken over by the federal government

• Cons- Education should rest with the Catholic church

• French Occupation, 1862-1866

o Constitutional Monarchy

o Hapsburg Archduke Maximilian of Austria

▪ Takes over the throne of Mexico

▪ Mexico gets independence and kills the monarch and wife

o Cinco de Mayo: Battle of Puebla (5/5/1862)

▪ Opposition to foreign invaders

• The Porfiriato 1876-1910

o Porfirio Diaz

▪ In charge of Mexico

▪ Made a name for himself fighting against the French

▪ Gets presidency, uses longstanding military connections

▪ Campaigns on a slogan of order and progress

o Order and Progress

▪ Diaz sees too much political instability

o Political Changes

▪ Cientificos

• The cabinet of Mexico

▪ Rejection of Indian Past

• Blames Indians for producing the backwards country

• Program to correct indian past - foreign migration

▪ Pax Porfiriana: Rurales

• Uses military connections

• Has his own secret police

▪ “Remove” the opposition

• Sends his nephew to be an ambassador in Chile

• Never let someone be in a political position for too long • Constantly moving political system around

▪ 1897 Assasination attempt

• Shows how limited his power is

• Always are cracks underneath the system

• Diaz gets paranoid, organizes a mob to attack assasinator • Journalists find out that Diaz made the mob

o Economic Changes

▪ Foreign Investment

• Raise taxes on the poor

• Manages to pay off foreign debt

• Landgrab going on in Mexico

▪ Modernization

• Machine power begins to replace human / animal power • Ties into industrialization

• Steam power spreads throughout Mexico

• Railroads / steel / telephone lines big things

• Electricity in all major cities

▪ Railroads

• 1876 - 400 miles of railroads

• 1910 - 15,000 miles of railroads

• 80% of the money to build comes from the US

• Farmland is being converted into railroad land

▪ Mining

• 1876 - 1.5 milliion pesos

• 1910 - 300 million pesos

• Landless peasants converted into miners

▪ Oil

• Mexico led the world in oil production

▪ Expansion of Landless Peasantry and Debt-Peonage

• Still an agricultural society

• Peasants are kicked off of their land

• Forces Mexicans to move from their small towns to see the world

• Summary of Lecture: Poverty vs Progress: Consequences of the Porfiriato o Economic growth without economic development

o Growth of middle class, but denied political participation

Mexican Revolution: The Removal of Diaz

• Central Questions for Today’s Lecture

o Was it a weak government or a strong insurgency that resulted in the overthrow of  Diaz?

o What unified the opposition against Diaz?

o Did the problems caused by the Porfiriato require a political or social revolution? • Diaz regime weakness in the 1900’s

o Decline in the coercive power of the state

o From individual to collective opposition

▪ Hard to deal with collective opposition

• The Opposition in the 1900’s

o Liberal Mexican Party

▪ Plan of 1906

▪ Called for agrarian reform…

• Restoration of community lands

• Call for 8 hour workday

• Six day workweek

• Payment in real, legal tender

• Right to strike

• Asked for a minimum wage to be declared in Mexico

• Ban of child labor

• Free public education

▪ Forced to go into exile by Diaz

o Economic Recession

▪ 1907-1908

▪ Wages drop, credit isn’t extended

▪ Landless peasantry increases

▪ Combined with wage labor force shows vulnerability

o Agrarian trends of the Porfiriato

• Labor opposition in the 1900’s

o 1906 Cananea Strike

▪ Largest producer of copper, owned by William Green (American)

▪ Workers go on strike

▪ The organizers come from the ranks of the miners

▪ They demanded

• Equal pay with the Americans

• Better hours

• Sunday would be traditional overtime

▪ Green immediately says no

▪ 2,000 workers take over the mine

▪ Leaders hung up by trees

▪ Americans rangers given Mexican citizenship so they were allowed to put  down insurrection without being seen as invading

o 1907 Rio Blanco Strike

▪ Strike at a textile mill, overwhelmingly a female labor force

▪ They demanded

• 12 hour workday

• Want better wages

• Don’t want to have to pay for the machines

• No child labor

• Oppose being paid in script / account book

▪ Sent petition to Diaz, he rejects their issues

▪ Strike starts January 6th, day of the kings

▪ The women go into the store to destroy the account books

▪ Locked in the store by army, 100 women and children burnt alive

o The revolution is mostly economistic, not revolutionary

• The anti-reelection campaign: the failure of political reform

o February 1908 - Creelman interview

▪ Mexico has “elections" every four years

▪ Said that he wouldn’t run for reelection

▪ He quickly changes his mind, says he will run

o 1908 - The Presidential Succession of 1910 by Francisco Madero

▪ Doesn’t want to attack Diaz personally

▪ Madero wants him to not be elected though, becomes most outspoken ▪ Just talks about the dangers of incumbency politics

▪ Madero ends up forming Anti-Reelection Party

▪ 1909 - Anti-Reelection Party is listed at elections for governors

▪ Madero is forced into exile, failure of political reform

▪ New political platform to remove Diaz from power

▪ Declares the elections in October 1910 null and void and tells people to  not vote

▪ Madero declares himself provisional president

▪ Declares that land illegally gained needs to be returned to previous owners o Plan of San Luis Potosi

▪ Issued November 20, 1910 - 100 year independence of Mexico

▪ Diaz celebrated his 80 year birthday

• The Revolution to Remove Diaz

o Northern Theater of the War

▪ Fought in Northern Mexico, uses Americans for supplies

▪ The border region is used as security for the insurgents

o From political to the military

▪ Plan of San Luis Potosi, entices peasants to join army

▪ Goes from a political movement to a military one

▪ As soon as he opens up the ranks, the peasants and others who join have  their own demands, Madero has to encompass them into his plan

o Pancho Villa

▪ Joins Madero in 1910

▪ Doroteo Arango aka Pancho Villa

▪ Took the name as the famous bandit

▪ Brings a following with him of displaced workers

▪ Practiced social banditry

• Classic robin hood kinda thing

• He was strategic and targeted poor bosses

• Didn’t attack American landowners

▪ Rapidly climbs up the ranks of the military leadership

o Zapata Revolution in the South

▪ Agrarian aspect

▪ Fights for restoration of peasant lands

▪ Local based indigenous movement in the state of morelos

o The fall of Diaz, May 1911

▪ Capture city of Juarez

• Pascual Orozco

• Decisive defeat of Diaz

▪ Didn’t even march to Mexico City before Diaz flees the country

• Summary of Lecture

o Diaz’s Prophetic last words:

▪ Madero has unleashed a tiger, let’s see if he can tame it

▪ Changing Diaz’s policies that have been in place for over 30 years ▪ The revolution has its own energy / momentum

o The movement to remove Diaz from power became transformed into a political  and social revolution

▪ From Madero’s perspective, its a political movement

▪ Filling out the military, it became a social revolution

▪ Now needs to take care of people’s ideals and needs

Mexican Revolution: The Failure of Political Reform • Central Point of Today’s Lecture

o Mexicans could unite to remove Diaz from power, but they were divided on the  political and social priorities the new government should adapt

▪ Diaz almost too easy of a target

▪ They could all agree on the problem, but none agreed on the remedy

• Madero’s Presidency, 1911 - 1913

o When he reenters Mexico City, he is treated as a conquering hero

o Cabinet: Civilian Politicians over Social Revolutionaries

▪ Big dilemma, when a revolutionary movement come to power, is it a  conciliatory movement or revenge politics

▪ No Diaz supporters, but no revolutionaries

▪ Madero wants stability

o October 1911, Election

▪ Zapata’s Revolution Continues

• Meeting with Madero

• Madero wants Zapata to pledge loyalty with new government

• Zapata wants Madero to enforce Plan of San Luis Potosi

• Zapata gets Madero to publicly announce that they will get their  

land back

• Madero tells Zapata to go through the courts

• Zapata mad, him and men are armed and have forcefully taken  

their lands back

▪ Plan de Ayala

• November 1911

• Zapata issues this to call Madero is a liar

• Peasants will not put down their arms until their lands are returned

o Rebellions against the Madero Presidency

▪ Orozco Rebellion

• March 1912

• Military General that led the assault on Juarez

• Feels alienated by Madero’s policy

• Takes up arms against Madero because he feels that Madero isn’t  moving fast enough

• Plan Orozquista

o 10 hour workday

o Ban on child labor

o Higher wages

o Nationalization of some foreign industries

• May of 1912, his movement fizzles out

▪ Bernardo Reyes Rebellion

• December 1911

• Member of Diaz’s old military machine

• Marches on Mexico City

• Was put down

▪ Felix Diaz takes Veracruz

• October 1912

• Nephew of Diaz

• Takes Veracruz, but put down by Madero

▪ Decena Tragica

• February 9 - February 19, 1913

• Felix Diaz and Bernardo Reyes unite to overthrow Madero o They’re both in a prison cell together and plot

o They get some of the jailers in on this

o The two bust the way out of their prison

o March towards presidential palace and surround it

o Demand Manero’s resignation, and so they assault the  

palace

• US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson

o Appointed by Woodrow Wilson

o Americans are getting impatient about what’s going on in  Mexico

o Mexico not ready for democracy, needs strong military  regime

• Huerta overthrows Madero

o Madero sends word to his military supporters

o Huerta marches on Mexico City, surrounds Diaz and Reyes o Has a meeting before arriving with the US ambassador

o Wilson tells Huerta that they’ll recognize him as president o Huerta ends assault, but forces Madero to resign and be  exiled

o Madero is assassinated on the way out of the country

• The Revolution Against Huerta 1913-1914

o The Formation of the Constitutionalists to Overthrow Huerta

▪ Led by Madero’s supporters from the North

• Venustiano Carranza

o Adopts middle class labor policy

• Alvaro Obregon

o Focuses on labor rights

• Pancho Villa

o Focuses on land rights

▪ Plan of Guadalupe

• March 1913

• Constitutional convention to address all of the problems of the  

people

▪ Brutal civil war, Huerta’s army have mass defections

▪ US occupation of Veracruz

• April 1914

• US backpedals and doesn’t want to support Huerta anymore

• Marines occupy Caribbean waters

• Marines are imprisoned in Veracruz, Huerta authorizes release

• US wants apology of arrests, Huerta says he’ll do it, but the  

demands are too much

o 21 gun salute and American flag flown over military fort in  

Veracruz

• Marines occupy Veracruz, he’s overthrown a few months later

o Consolidating the Revolution through Constitutional Order

▪ Whoever gets to Mexico City first has the most influence

▪ Xochimilco Conference

• December 1914

• Zapata - Villa Alliance

• Pressure the politicians about how to write the demands into the  

constitution

• Don’t want popular support to be diluted by politics

• 1917 Constitutional Convention and the Carranza Presidency

o 3 years to have a meeting

o Zapata and Villa want a large convention to represent a lot of people o Zapata and Villa not invited

▪ Carranza worried about their forces being in the same town as the  

convention

▪ Land Article 27

• Land seized illegally during Diaz will be returned to peasants

• Legal title not necessary to make a claim, witnesses needed to be  

used

• Large landholdings will be taken over by the state and redistributed  upon sufficient demand

• Authorizes and legalizes land invasion

▪ Labor Article 123

• Establishes

o 8 hour workday

o 6 day workweek

o Minimum wage

o Equal pay regardless of sex or nationality

o Right to collectively bargain (union) and go on strike

• Government is the ultimate arbitrator between employer and  

employee

▪ Government can be a friend to labor now

o Carranza Presidency (1917 - 1920)

▪ Protects the labor force

o Zapata Assassination (1919)

▪ Zapata never recognizes the Constitution

▪ Carranza sends a spy into his camp and assassinates him

• Carrying out the demands of the revolution and the 1917 constitution o Ejido system of agrarian reform

▪ 1 out of 3 Mexicans received land through the constitution

▪ Put their lands as deeds and take out a loan through them

▪ Mexicans feel like they got something out of the revolution

o Nationalization of the oil industry (1938)

▪ 1936, Standard Oil employees go on strike

▪ Federal Government intervenes

▪ Federal Government sides with the workers, and so the Mexican  

government is basically forced to nationalize the industry

▪ US is in Great Depression, can’t help their company

▪ Nationalism of the Mexican Revolution has triumphed

• Summary for today’s lecture

o After the overthrow of Diaz, Mexican revolutionaries differed on whether a  political or social revolution would address inequalities in society

o The Mexican Revolution consolidates its power when the demands of the working  class and the peasantry become institutionalized through the government ▪ 1917 Constitution

Cuba in the First Half of the 20th Century: Setting the Stage for a  Revolution

• Major Questions of Today’s Lecture

o How did the absence of stable political institutions in Cuba during the first half of  the 20th Century create conditions for Revolution?

o How can we explain the rise of Fidel Castro as the leader of the Cuban Revolution  of 1959?

• Cuba under the Platt Amendment

o Cast a 30 year shadow on Cuba and America

o Amendment added to the Cuban Constitution, but proposed by an American  senator on the Foreign Affairs

o Limits Cuban independence and Cuban policy

▪ Right to Intervene

• United States has the right to occupy and intervene to maintain  

Cuban independence and stability

▪ Right to sign foreign treaties

▪ Cuba could not enter into foreign (commercial, military, or diplomatic)  treaties without the approval of the United States

▪ Cuba could not expand or alter its military without approval of US

▪ The US will retain possession of all naval and military stations on Cuba  (Guantanamo)

o Little or no independence left in Cuba

o Passed in the Cuban senate with one vote in order to get the military to leave o Marti’s “Historical Fatalism"

▪ He comes up with raceless identity in Cuba

▪ Died during the course of independence

▪ He always turned down support and aid from the US

o Occupations 1906 and 1917

o US control of the economy

▪ US occupies from 1898 to 1902

• 1933: Prologue to Revolution

o Machado Dictatorship 1925-1933

o General Strike 1933

o Grau San Martin Presidency, 1933-1934

• Era of Batista, 1934 - 1959

o 1st Coup and Rule 1934-1944

o Short “Good Neighbor” Policy

o Civilian Presidents 1944 - 1952

o 2nd Coup March 1952

• Fidel Castro: Myth, Fiction, and History

o Born August 13, 1926

o Education

o Student Politics

▪ 1947 Invasion of the Dominican Republic

▪ 1948 Bogotazo

▪ 1950 Law Degree

o 1952 Havana Senate

• 1948, Bogota Colombia

• Summary of Today’s Lecture

o From 1900 to 1950 Cuba did not develop its own stable political institutions due  to an absence of legitimate political leaders and an over reliance on the US for  support

o The lack of political legitimacy fostered an environment for radical political  action

The Cuban Revolution

• Major Point of Today’s Lecture

o Crisis of political legitimacy and weak political institutions causes Cuba to  oscillate between Military Dictatorship and radical revolution

▪ Similar to what happened in Haiti and Mexico

o Cuban revolution consolidates its power through mass based organization and its  break with the United States

• Cuba under US influence and military dictatorship

o Platt Amendment of 1902

o US interventions (1906 and 1917)

▪ US concerned with American interests in Cuba

▪ Hotly contested senatorial elections

▪ The losing side appeals to the United States for help, aid, and intervention ▪ Grants more authority to the United States

• Mexico in the 19th century, weak political institution that brought  

French forces in

o The Era of Batista 1934-1959

▪ Batista symbolizes same thing as Porfirio Diaz

▪ Begins to transform and modify Cuban economy

• Castro’s 1st Attempt at Power: The Moncada Assault

o Fidel Castro Background

▪ From a wealthy sugar plantation which sold sugar to an American  

company

▪ Staged the coup at 26, early

▪ Had all of the benefits of going to a good school

▪ Has stories about him

• Organized a strike on father’s plantation at 13

• Was a baseball player, and had a tryout with the Yankees

▪ Was able to single himself out as a future politicians

▪ Get to be President of the University, sits on Executive Board of Cuba’s  leading political party

▪ Ran for Senator for Havana, Batista shuts down elections

o Moncada Assault (July 26, 1953)

▪ Castro with 82 followers, assaulted the military barracks in Santiago ▪ Everything goes wrong

▪ Castro’s car stalls in front of the barracks, alerts the guards

▪ Most people are shot on the spot, Castro is captured three days later ▪ Batista puts him on trial for treason

▪ Castro goes from accused to accuser and gets more followers

▪ Takes full responsibility of the Moncada assault

▪ Names Marti as Intellectual Author for the movement

• Founding father of Cuban independence

▪ “History will Absolve Me” his last remarks where he pleads guilty o Imprisonment and Freedom (July 1953 - May 1955)

▪ He gets an amnesty bill, but refuses to sign it

▪ Doesn’t renounce his past political activity

▪ Is released from jail so Batista can keep him out of the news

▪ He goes on a speaking tour in the US to get more press

• The Guerilla War, 1956 - 1959

o The Granma “Shipwreck” and the Guerilla War (1956-1959)

▪ Exchange of strength for time

▪ Arrested within Mexico, Batista had spies

▪ Castro’s political allies in Mexico get him out of jail

▪ Goes looking for a boat in the port of Vera Cruz

▪ American is selling a boat called Granma, a yacht

• Buying a boat from an American - great symbolism

• They have to tear out essential parts of the boat to make room for  people

• Two day trip become a five day trip w/ no food or water

• Boat runs aground on a sandbar a mile away from shore

• Only 16 people will survive, including Castro

• They move up to the mountains and slowly recruit people

• An American reporter comes up and thinks Castro has 1,000  

fighters

o Emergence of “Dual Power"

▪ The rebel army in the mountains are taking over more territory

• They become a government themselves

• Shows what a political system under them would look like

• Implement revolutionary thoughts and ideals

• Project confidence that the insurgent group can actually rule

• Territorio Libre, have their own radio station

• Provided social services, schools, made taxes in exchange for help  in harvests

• Doctors who joined the cause set up health care system

• Institute an agrarian reform law

• Summer of 1958, half the island is under their control

▪ Batista is in charge of the current government

o Batista Flees (January 1, 1959)

• Consolidation of the Cuban Revolution through Mass Organizations o Agrarian Reform

▪ Peasants get their land back, become part of the local communities o University Tuition is free, have to become part of the University Federation o Cuban Women’s Federation

▪ Women as spies, political advisors, and combatants become key people ▪ Child care becomes universally provided by the state

▪ Household work becomes politicized

• Husband has to provide 50% of the tasks within the house

• Stay at home moms are given government wages and a pension

• Women are encouraged to get university degrees

o Highest percentage of women with medical degrees in the  

Americas

▪ Highest divorce rate in the hemisphere: two ways to look at it

• Women have an independent status

• Everything has gone to hell in Cuba and no one is happy

o Committees for the Defense of the Revolution

▪ Lurking fear that allies of the Batista regime are everywhere

▪ Both voluntary and coercive

o Both workers and students federation

o Many people belonged in more than one

• The Cuban Revolution and the United States

o April 1959 Trip to US

▪ Ike Eisenhower is in the presidency

▪ Castro is invited to visit the White House

▪ Eisenhower plays golf and misses the meeting

▪ Castro meets the VP: Nixon instead

• Nixon is very anti-communist

▪ Castro feels dissed, hasn’t been given proper respect

▪ He issues May 1959 Agrarian Reform Law

• Returns lands to the peasants

• Threatens US land holdings as well

▪ Political relations deteriorates very quickly

o Fidel and Communism

▪ The US meeting pushes Cuba more towards Soviet Union

▪ More of a conversion to communism than confession of

▪ Soviet Union thinks Castro is too populist to be communist

▪ Castro claims to be more socialist

o Bay of Pigs (April 1961)

▪ Invasion by US trained and aided Cuban exiles

▪ Gets the ear of the CIA that there is a widespread opposition of Castro ▪ Really were not in touch with Cuba and were too confident that he could  be overthrown

▪ Castro knows that there is a planned invasion on the way

▪ Invading force of 1,500 lands and is quickly put down in three days ▪ Castro’s popularity gets a large boost

o Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962)

▪ Castro knows that US will try again, cozies up to USSR

o Castro’s idea to bring missiles to Cuba

▪ If Cuba owns / operates missiles on its island, they will be less likely to  invade

▪ US finds out about this and freaks out

▪ For 13 days, there is an international standoff

• Entire world is at a standstill

• The world could be ended at any time

▪ A compromise is worked out, a pact is made (but not followed)

▪ Raised the question: how important is Cuba?

• Summary of Lecture

o The lack of legitimate political institutions makes Cuba vulnerable to radical  revolution

o After overthrowing the Batista Dictatorship, the Cuban Revolution consolidates  its power through developing state controlled mass based organization and its  break with the United States

HIST 109

Dr. Matt Childs

USC, Fall 2015

Essay Questions for Exam 2 on Mon, 7 Dec 2015 at 12:30 PM

1. Compose an essay that explains what issues resulted in Latin Americans  fighting for their independence? In answering this question, analyze: (1) the  role of events in Europe that catalyzed independence movements; (2) what  opportunities emerged to fight for political rights; and (3) how Latin  Americans defined their national identity after gaining independence.  Include material from the lectures and discussion section readings. I. Introduction

a. Haiti, Mexico, Cuba, Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Peru all fought for  their independence

b. Thesis

II. Europe events that catalyzed the independence movements

a. Bourbon reforms – the crown changes local policies that have been around  for over 250 years, alienates local population, especially Creoles, and  gives the colonists a list of grievances  

b. Napoleonic Wars – leads to new freedoms

i. Portugal transformed into equal kingdom, not colony

c. End of Napoleonic Wars – end of new freedoms, back to absolutist rule,  the people revolt

d. French Revolution – (Haiti?)

III. Opportunities to fight for political rights (independence doc)

a. Local juntas – sovereignty reverts to the people

b. Slaves were freed when they joined the army (Afro-Argentinians) c. Women – Republican motherhood

d. Haitian Revolution

IV. National Identity of Latin America (nationalism)

a. Cuban racelessness  

b. Scientific racism?

c. Brazil and racial democracy

d. Anti-US imperial power (Cuba)

V. Conclusion

Document heavy

2. 19th and 20th Century Latin America was marked by radical political  movements aimed to overthrow entrenched military dictatorships and the  legacies of colonial regimes. Focusing on: (1) the Haitian Revolution; (2)  the Mexican Revolution; and (3) the Cuban Revolution, how did each  revolution attempt to radically change Latin American society? Include  material from the lectures and discussion section readings. I. Introduction

a. Thesis

II. Haiti

a. Background

i. Originally started by local French population as a reaction to  

French revolution, Grand Blancs wanted colonial autonomy

ii. Rise of Toussaint Louverture

1. He leads the troops to fully take over Haiti and becomes a  

governor, abolishing slavery

iii. Toussaint is captured by Napoleon

1. The remaining locals full scale revolution for independence

2. Napoleon ends up admitting defeat and leaves, letting Haiti  

be independent

iv. Outcome

1. Beginning of the end of New World Slavery

2. They give aid to Latin American independence movements

3. Propertied peasants, limited stability

b. Slave Revolt  

c. Property redistribution

d. Overthrow French control

III. Mexican Revolution

a. Background

i. First: Massive instability

1. 1857 Constitution leads to civil war between Liberals and  

Conservatives (church, male suffrage, education)

2. French Occupation by Hapsburgs (Cinco de Mayo)

ii. Porfiriato Diaz takes control

1. Rejection of Indian past, secret police, paranoid

2. Poverty vs Progress – modernization at the cost of the poor

iii. Social and Political Revolution

1. Finally Diaz overthrown, and things calm down

2. 1917 Constitutional Convention, Carranza Presidency

a. Land Article 27

b. Labor Article 123

c. Ejido system of agrarian reform

d. Nationalization of the oil industry

b. Agrarian reform

c. Labor Laws (worker’s rights)

d. Nationalize oil industry

e. New Constitution – overthrew Diaz

f. Document – Mexico and indigenous roots

g. Document - Morelos

IV. Cuban Revolution

a. Background

i. US takeover

1. Platt amendment – little to no independence  

2. US concerned with American interests

3. Large interference in senatorial races

4. Bunch of political leaders until …

5. Batista military coup

ii. Batista being bad

1. Military dictatorship

2. Transforms and modifies Cuban economy

3. Symbolizes the same thing that Porfirio Diaz did in Mexico

iii. Castro and Consolidation of Cuba

1. Agrarian Reform

2. Lots of Confederations to bond local people together

3. Castro becomes more popular as he defeats various US  

interventions

4. Develops state controlled mass based organization and  

breaks with the US to be free

b. Rejects US involvement

c. Consolidated power with mass organizations

d. Guerilla warfare – document

e. Marxist – communist (Bay of Pigs leads into that)  

V. Conclusion

Lecture heavy

3. 20th Century Latin America produced new types of political movements in  the form of populism and social revolutions. How did populism and social  revolutions change relations between: (1) the government and the people in  terms of politics; (2) employers and laborers in terms of conditions for the  working class; and (3) diplomatic relations in terms of relations between

Latin American countries and the United States? Include material from the  lectures and discussion section readings.

I. Introduction

a. Thesis

II. The Government and People (Politics)

a. Agrarian Reform (Mexico and Cuba)

b. Vargas and Brazilians

c. Personal connection between people and the leaders

III. Employers and Laborers (Work Conditions)

a. Peron Document

b. Mexico and the Constitution – Labor Article 123

c. Agrarian reform (making employees own their own land and become the  boss)

IV. Latin America and the US (Diplomatic Relations)

a. Cuba

i. Castro is more for the people than for American corporations

ii. Has breaks with the US

b. Bay of Pigs (US tries to overthrow)

c. Salvador Allende – Chile (CIA agent overthrows)

d. Social revolutionaries try and get US corporations out of their countries i. Mexico oil

ii. Allende and copper

iii. Agrarian reform took land away from corporate interests

e. Marxism itself (cold war)

V. Conclusion

Blend of the two

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here