History of Latin American Civilization Study Guide
History of Latin American Civilization Study Guide HIST 109 005
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HIST 109 005
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HIST 109 005
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Date Created: 12/02/15
The Bourbon Reforms Major Points of Today s Lecture 0 Purpose of the Bourbon Reforms is to increase Spain s control over I Politics I Military I Economy I Religion Legacy of the Reforms 0 Feeling colonial I They have a separate cultural identity as mother country I Once Spain began to change things the people realized that they were different The Bourbon Reforms o Named for Charles 111 1759 1788 I Part of Bourbons took charge in Spain over the Hapsburgs I Look for change 0 Charles IV 1788 1808 0 Political Goals I Centralized Decision Making Process Far more absolutist monarchy I Strengthen Links between Crown and Colony Population in Latin America is larger then the one in Spain The weight of Spain is in the New World 0 Penninsulars vs Creoles I Creole loyalty questioned Someone born in the Americas A localized culture sometimes mixed Hyperattention to place of birth I Removal from bureaucratic positions throughout the Spanish Empire Between 1500 and 1750 the difference didn t matter social mobility Now there is a preference for penninsulars Sense of complaints Local input can t get into government I Jose de Galvez Holds title as Minister of Indies 0 First one in this position 0 Used to have a whole counsel of Indies Removes Creoles from bureaucratic and judicial positions in New Spain Local input no longer consulted as before 0 Alienating process 0 Economic Goals I Regain control over trade and commerce Too much independent economic activity in New World I Increase tax revenues Colonial population greater than in Spain I Free trade in the Empire All the colonies Spain has in Latin America Creates incentives for penninsular merchants to move into coastal cities I Tobacco Monopoly Most of Europe are habitual smokers Crown gets a lot of revenue from this more than silver I Tax Reforms Silver tax dropped from 20 to 10 0 People become more likely to pay it 0 Not worth risking the penalty now 0 More incentive to allow people to go into silver mining Sales tax raised from 2 to 6 Tax farming ended o It was on merchants to pay all of the taxes and collect from people 0 Military Goals of the Bourbon Reform I Expand the volunteer and professional army throughout Latin America I Colonists more actively participate in the defense of the Empire I Military Policies of the Bourbon Reforms Peninsulars replace Creoles as officers 0 Somewhat blame native population for not defending the empire well enough Expansion of military forts Expansion of the militia system 0 Fuero Militar o Exemptions from taxes if you join militia 0 Religious Goals of the Bourbon Reforms I Move towards secular control Less pope more authoritative king I Squeeze church for revenues I Religious policies of the the Bourbon Reform Jesuit Expulsion from Latin America 0 Made most of the Latin American Universities 0 Challenged papal authority 0 Do not support the Bourbon Reforms go on strike 0 Creoles come to the defense of Jesuits I Taxing Church Property I Consequence Assault on local autonomy Beyond taxing and building an empire overreach of the Spanish government Summary of Lecture 0 The Bourbon reforms are an assault on local policies that have evolved over 250 years in colonial Latin America 0 The Bourbon reforms change the relationship between Spain and its colonies that will provide the basis for independence I Provides list of grievances I Makes colonists tired of the govemment s overreach and discrimination against creoles The Haitian Revolution 1791 1804 Major Points of Today s Lecture 0 Haitian Revolution is catalyzed by the French Revolution but quickly takes on a direction of its own 0 Britain France and Spain will all fail in their attempts to suppress the Haitian Revolution 0 The key to understanding the Haitian Slave Revolution is to see the slaves as Africans A Singular Event in Human History 0 History has a tendency to repeat itself 0 It s the only example where slaves were able to rise up overthrow masters and kick them out of the country and create their own political state 0 Shows different institutions of slavery political military legal Social Divisions of St Domingue o The French colony renamed Haiti by 0 Grand Blancs and Petit Blancs I White population of 50000 10 I Grand The French nobility Large sugar plantation owners Wealthy and elite Middle class artisans urbanaries small scale merchants I The divisions become more apparent after French Revolution 0 Free People of color I 50000 people 10 I Same role as petit blancs I Because of racial identi cation and ancestry never quite equal to whites I Revolution brings opportunity to become equal in society 0 African Imports I 400000 80 I Imported laborers not voluntary I Life expectancy is 35 years for slaves I TransAtlantic Slave Trade 17851790 Imports from the kingdom of Kongo 0 They have common historical cultural experience Civil war brings military soldiers to St Domingue The French Revolution of 1789 and the Colony of St Domingue o Colonial Autonomy I The colonists themselves would have more in uence I Mother country wouldn t have as much control I Divisions between white population 0 The Amis de Noirs I The friends of the blacks I Tries to make the revolution helpful to the blacks The Slave Revolution 0 August 1791 I Revolt on the Northern Plain o The BoisCaiman Ceremony I The final preparations for the revolution I Each plantation sent a representative to collaborate I Sacrif1ce a pig and go through a ritualistic aspect voodoo priestess I Hurricane is happening good omen o Voodoo Cultural Resistance 0 The rise of Toussaint Louverture I Born Toussaint Breda on a slave plantation I Has a foot in African culture and in the Caribbean culture go between I Switches from the Spanish side to the French side I Forces Emancipation in 1794 I Defeats the British by 1798 I Became Governor 1800 A former slave now completely in charge of an island that was built on slavery Still colony of France though 0 Final Push for Independence I Napoleon s Leclerc expedition to reconquer the islands Leclerc is brother in law Reestablish slavery on the island 0 Toussaint Surrenders May 1802 I Toussaint s two sons are taken captive at gunpoint I Toussaint is taken out of the country dies in dungeon in the Alps 1803 I This changes the nature of the Haitian Revolution I This is now a war of independence whereas before it was a slave resurrection 0 Independence Declared January 1 1804 I Second independent country in the America39s I Napoleon admits defeat and gives up Legacies of the Haitian Revolution 0 Louisiana Purchase of 1804 I Hope of French to become an empire in the Americas I Slave defeat of the French makes the LP less valuable to the French I The big slave states are made out of the LP 0 Aid for Latin American Independence Movements Beginning of the End of New World Slavery I Slavery was part of New World colonization from the very beginning I One of the dominant political issues in the Americas is how does slavery endquot 0 The Debt of Freedom Haitians pay 21 billion in reparations to former Masters I Haitians are cut off from the world I French only recognize their independence after 20 years if Haitians pay reparations to government for getting their freedom I 21 billion in 2010 dollars 0 Propertied Peasants I They become their own landowners I They become peasants for the most part I Highest percentage of people who own their own property I Limited amount of stability Independence Movements in Colonial Latin America 1800 1830 Maj or Questions for Today s Lecture 0 How did Latin America react to political events caused by the Napoleonic Wars 0 What were the differences and similarities in the Independence Movements that swept Latin America from 1808 1830 o How did race ethnic and class tensions in uence support for independence Political Turmoil in Europe 1790 1800 o Wars of the French Revolution I The French want to take down other monarchies nearby I French sees Spain and Portugal as powerful due to American colonies 0 Neutral Trade I Colonies can trade with neutral parties I Economic activity and transit 0 Spanish State takes over Church debts I Fund the war against the French I Catholic Church owned the most property and lent out the most money I Squeezes the church for more revenue 0 Napoleonic Invasion of Iberia I Occupation of Portugal 1807 Royal family in exile to Rio Vast majority of nobility go along with the monarch as well Monarch has to rule from the colonies Once the Portuguese king arrives in Brazil Brazil is transformed into an equal Portuguese kingdom not a colony anymore I Charles IV abdication in favor of Ferdinand VII I Napoleon s brother Joseph placed on Spanish Throne Two competing political bodies39 How will Latin America be governed during the Iberian Occupation 0 Local Juntas 1808 I Local political groups begin to form in Latin American capitals I Sovereignty reverts to the people I Begin to talk about their rights 0 Cortes Spanish Parliament 1810 14 o 1812 Constitution I Spain s rst Constitution I Acknowledges rights of the colonists I Paci es and keeps the colonists loyal o 1814 Return to Absolutist Rule I Napoleon s forces are defeated I Everyone hopes Ferdinand VII comes back as a constitutional monarchist I That doesn t happen Mexico s 2 Movements for Independence 0 Phase I The Peasant Uprising I Mass Movement 1810 15 All sectors of society are getting involved in it A large independent thinking movement not physical movement I Hidalgo s Grito de Dolores 1810 Led the mass movement Ex Catholic priest Writes Mexico s declaration of independence in the indigenous language of Mexico I Jose Maria Morelos Inherits the movement 0 Phase II White Creole Movement in Mexico I Peninsular Creole Unity Puts down the indigenous peasant uprising Morelos is captured and executed I Elimination of peasant forces I Independence in 1821 Second White push for independence Argentine Creole Military Movement 0 British invasions of 1806 and 1807 I Local volunteer militia defeats them I Leaders in local community 0 Cabildo Abierto Open Government I Local town council in response to Napoleon taking over mainland Spain I Leaders of this government in the Creole militia 0 1816 Tucuman Congress I Form a congress in the town of tucuman I Basically declaration of independence 0 San Martin Exports Independence I San Martin major leader general of the movement I The only way Argentina is officially secure is to spread independence I Spreads the independence to Chile Venezula s Movements for independence 0 Simon Bolivar I Leader of the independence movement I Got same ideas as San Martin and spreads the independence to other places at least five countries 0 Early failures and repeated expulsions I Thinks everyone has the same political ideals as he does 0 White Creole Elite Fear of uprisings by lower classes I They know what has happened in other colonies 0 Jose Antonio Paez and the Llaneros of Venezuela I Llaneros not tied to the coast Don t have same fear of the possible slave uprising I Nationalize royalist property Promise to abolish slavery Colombia Caribbean Coast vs Andean Highlands 0 Bolivar s army moves to Colombia 0 2 movements I 1st Liberates the highlands I 2nd liberates the coast 0 1822 gain independence Peru Independence from without 0 Legacy of Tupac Amaru Rebellion of 1780 I Indigenous movement to go back to a precolonial order I Tupac Amaru builds up a large army claims royal lineage 0 Bolivar s and San Martin s army converges in Peru 1823 Brazil s Bloodless Declaration of Independence 0 Royal family in Rio 1808 1821 I Only goes back to keep his crown 0 Pedro I and the Brazilian Monarchy I Son is raised in Brazil and understands the Portuguese crown I Convinced to declare independence and becomes rst ruler 0 Independence with stability 1822 Summary of Lecture 0 Napoleonic Wars in Europe create a crisis of political authority in Latin America that provide an opening for independence movements 0 Where class race racial and ethnic divisions are most pronounced the support for independence among the elite is diluted Mexico in the 19th Century Major Point of Today s Lecture 0 Mexico s oscillation between extreme political stability and instability in the 19th century laid the foundations for Revolution in the 20th century Wars of the North American Invasions 183 61848 0 The Texas Rebellion 1836 I Texas rebels and gets its independence I Looks to colonize its frontier region Mexico outlaws slavery in 1829 Texas has friction o The MexicanAmerican War 18461848 Texas as a country begins to go into debt Texas and US join Border dispute for Texas vs Mexico United States will enforce border region gets Arizona California New Mexico as well War ofReform 18581861 0 1857 Constitution Main issue of the war Who has the authority to enact it 0 Civil War in Mexico 0 Liberals vs Conservatives Liberals political power should be extended liberally to the people Conservatives should conserve power and political to the government Church Liberal Subordinated to the state Tax church property largest landowner Conservatives Church given autonomy it s always had it Politics Lib universal male suffrage Cons economically independent male suffrage Education Lib Education taken over by the federal government Cons Education should rest with the Catholic church French Occupation 18621866 0 Constitutional Monarchy o Hapsburg Archduke Maximilian of Austria Takes over the throne of Mexico Mexico gets independence and kills the monarch and wife 0 Cinco de Mayo Battle of Puebla 551862 Opposition to foreign invaders The Porfiriato 1876 1910 o Porfirio Diaz In charge of Mexico Made a name for himself fighting against the French Gets presidency uses longstanding military connections Campaigns on a slogan of order and progress 0 Order and Progress Diaz sees too much political instability 0 Political Changes Cienti cos The cabinet of Mexico Rejection of Indian Past Blames Indians for producing the backwards country Program to correct indian past foreign migration Pax Por riana Rurales Uses military connections Has his own secret police Remove the opposition Sends his nephew to be an ambassador in Chile Never let someone be in a political position for too long Constantly moving political system around 1897 Assasination attempt Shows how limited his power is Always are cracks underneath the system Diaz gets paranoid organizes a mob to attack assasinator Journalists nd out that Diaz made the mob 0 Economic Changes Foreign Investment Raise taxes on the poor Manages to pay off foreign debt Landgrab going on in Mexico Modernization Machine power begins to replace human animal power Ties into industrialization Steam power spreads throughout Mexico Railroads steel telephone lines big things Electricity in all major cities Railroads 1876 400 miles of railroads 1910 15000 miles of railroads 80 of the money to build comes from the US Farmland is being converted into railroad land Mining 1876 15 milliion pesos 1910 300 million pesos Landless peasants converted into miners Oil Mexico led the world in oil production I Expansion of Landless Peasantry and DebtPeonage Still an agricultural society Peasants are kicked off of their land Forces Mexicans to move from their small towns to see the world Summary of Lecture Poverty vs Progress Consequences of the Por riato 0 Economic growth without economic development 0 Growth of middle class but denied political participation Mexican Revolution The Removal of Diaz Central Questions for Today s Lecture 0 Was it a weak government or a strong insurgency that resulted in the overthrow of Diaz 0 What uni ed the opposition against Diaz 0 Did the problems caused by the Por riato require a political or social revolution Diaz regime weakness in the 1900 s 0 Decline in the coercive power of the state 0 From individual to collective opposition I Hard to deal with collective opposition The Opposition in the 1900 s 0 Liberal Mexican Party I Plan of 1906 I Called for agrarian reform Restoration of community lands Call for 8 hour workday Six day workweek Payment in real legal tender Right to strike Asked for a minimum wage to be declared in Mexico Ban of child labor Free public education I Forced to go into exile by Diaz 0 Economic Recession I 19071908 I Wages drop credit isn t extended I Landless peasantry increases I Combined with wage labor force shows vulnerability o Agrarian trends of the Por riato Labor opposition in the 1900 s o 1906 Cananea Strike Largest producer of copper owned by William Green American Workers go on strike The organizers come from the ranks of the miners They demanded Equal pay with the Americans Better hours Sunday would be traditional overtime Green immediately says no 2000 workers take over the mine Leaders hung up by trees Americans rangers given Mexican citizenship so they were allowed to put down insurrection without being seen as invading o 1907 Rio Blanco Strike Strike at a textile mill overwhelmingly a female labor force They demanded 12 hour workday Want better wages Don t want to have to pay for the machines No child labor Oppose being paid in script account book Sent petition to Diaz he rejects their issues Strike starts January 6th day of the kings The women go into the store to destroy the account books Locked in the store by army 100 women and children burnt alive 0 The revolution is mostly economistic not revolutionary The antireelection campaign the failure of political reform 0 February 1908 Creelman interview 0 1908 Mexico has elections every four years Said that he wouldn t run for reelection He quickly changes his mind says he will run The Presidential Succession of 1910 by Francisco Madero Doesn t want to attack Diaz personally Madero wants him to not be elected though becomes most outspoken Just talks about the dangers of incumbency politics Madero ends up forming AntiReelection Party 1909 AntiReelection Party is listed at elections for governors Madero is forced into exile failure of political reform New political platform to remove Diaz from power Declares the elections in October 1910 null and void and tells people to not vote Madero declares himself provisional president Declares that land illegally gained needs to be returned to previous owners 0 Plan of San Luis Potosi Issued November 20 1910 100 year independence of Mexico Diaz celebrated his 80 year birthday The Revolution to Remove Diaz 0 Northern Theater of the War Fought in Northern Mexico uses Americans for supplies The border region is used as security for the insurgents 0 From political to the military Plan of San Luis Potosi entices peasants to join army Goes from a political movement to a military one As soon as he opens up the ranks the peasants and others who join have their own demands Madero has to encompass them into his plan 0 Pancho Villa Joins Madero in 1910 Doroteo Arango aka Pancho Villa Took the name as the famous bandit Brings a following with him of displaced workers Practiced social banditry Classic robin hood kinda thing He was strategic and targeted poor bosses Didn t attack American landowners Rapidly climbs up the ranks of the military leadership 0 Zapata Revolution in the South Agrarian aspect Fights for restoration of peasant lands Local based indigenous movement in the state of morelos o The fall of Diaz May 1911 Capture city of Juarez Pascual Orozco Decisive defeat of Diaz Didn t even march to Mexico City before Diaz ees the country Summary of Lecture 0 Diaz s Prophetic last words Madero has unleashed a tiger let s see if he can tame it Changing Diaz s policies that have been in place for over 30 years The revolution has its own energy momentum o The movement to remove Diaz from power became transformed into a political and social revolution I From Madero s perspective its a political movement I Filling out the military it became a social revolution I Now needs to take care of people s ideals and needs Mexican Revolution The Failure of Political Reform Central Point of Today s Lecture 0 Mexicans could unite to remove Diaz from power but they were divided on the political and social priorities the new government should adapt I Diaz almost too easy of a target I They could all agree on the problem but none agreed on the remedy Madero s Presidency 1911 1913 0 When he reenters Mexico City he is treated as a conquering hero 0 Cabinet Civilian Politicians over Social Revolutionaries I Big dilemma when a revolutionary movement come to power is it a conciliatory movement or revenge politics I No Diaz supporters but no revolutionaries I Madero wants stability 0 October 1911 Election I Zapata s Revolution Continues Meeting with Madero Madero wants Zapata to pledge loyalty with new government Zapata wants Madero to enforce Plan of San Luis Potosi Zapata gets Madero to publicly announce that they will get their land back Madero tells Zapata to go through the courts Zapata mad him and men are armed and have forcefully taken their lands back I Plan de Ayala November 1911 Zapata issues this to call Madero is a liar Peasants will not put down their arms until their lands are returned 0 Rebellions against the Madero Presidency I Orozco Rebellion March 1912 Military General that led the assault on Juarez Feels alienated by Madero s policy Takes up arms against Madero because he feels that Madero isn t moving fast enough Plan Orozquista O O O O 10 hour workday Ban on child labor Higher wages Nationalization of some foreign industries May of 1912 his movement f1zzles out I Bernardo Reyes Rebellion December 1911 Member of Diaz s old military machine Marches on Mexico City Was put down I Felix Diaz takes Veracruz October 1912 Nephew of Diaz Takes Veracruz but put down by Madero I Decena Tragica February 9 February 19 1913 Felix Diaz and Bernardo Reyes unite to overthrow Madero O 0000 They re both in a prison cell together and plot They get some of the jailers in on this The two bust the way out of their prison March towards presidential palace and surround it Demand Manero s resignation and so they assault the palace US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson 0 0 Appointed by Woodrow Wilson Americans are getting impatient about what s going on in Mexico Mexico not ready for democracy needs strong military regime Huerta overthrows Madero OOOO Madero sends word to his military supporters Huerta marches on Mexico City surrounds Diaz and Reyes Has a meeting before arriving with the US ambassador Wilson tells Huerta that they ll recognize him as president Huerta ends assault but forces Madero to resign and be exiled Madero is assassinated on the way out of the country The Revolution Against Huerta 19131914 0 The Formation of the Constitutionalists to Overthrow Huerta I Led by Madero s supporters from the North Venustiano Carranza o Adopts middle class labor policy Alvaro Obregon o Focuses on labor rights Pancho Villa 0 Focuses on land rights I Plan of Guadalupe March 19 13 Constitutional convention to address all of the problems of the people I Brutal civil war Huerta s army have mass defections I US occupation of Veracruz April 1914 US backpedals and doesn t want to support Huerta anymore Marines occupy Caribbean waters Marines are imprisoned in Veracruz Huerta authorizes release US wants apology of arrests Huerta says he ll do it but the demands are too much 0 21 gun salute and American ag own over military fort in Veracruz Marines occupy Veracruz he s overthrown a few months later 0 Consolidating the Revolution through Constitutional Order I Whoever gets to Mexico City rst has the most in uence I Xochimilco Conference December 1914 Zapata Villa Alliance Pressure the politicians about how to write the demands into the constitution Don t want popular support to be diluted by politics 1917 Constitutional Convention and the Carranza Presidency o 3 years to have a meeting 0 Zapata and Villa want a large convention to represent a lot of people 0 Zapata and Villa not invited I Carranza worried about their forces being in the same town as the convention I Land Article 27 Land seized illegally during Diaz will be returned to peasants Legal title not necessary to make a claim witnesses needed to be used Large landholdings will be taken over by the state and redistributed upon suff1cient demand Authorizes and legalizes land invasion Labor Article 123 Establishes o 8 hour workday o 6 day workweek 0 Minimum wage 0 Equal pay regardless of sex or nationality 0 Right to collectively bargain union and go on strike Government is the ultimate arbitrator between employer and employee Government can be a friend to labor now 0 Carranza Presidency 1917 1920 Protects the labor force 0 Zapata Assassination 1919 Zapata never recognizes the Constitution Carranza sends a spy into his camp and assassinates him Carrying out the demands of the revolution and the 1917 constitution o Ejido system of agrarian reform 1 out of 3 Mexicans received land through the constitution Put their lands as deeds and take out a loan through them Mexicans feel like they got something out of the revolution 0 Nationalization of the oil industry 1938 1936 Standard Oil employees go on strike Federal Government intervenes Federal Government sides with the workers and so the Mexican government is basically forced to nationalize the industry US is in Great Depression can t help their company Nationalism of the Mexican Revolution has triumphed Summary for today s lecture After the overthrow of Diaz Mexican revolutionaries differed on whether a political or social revolution would address inequalities in society The Mexican Revolution consolidates its power when the demands of the working class and the peasantry become institutionalized through the government 0 1 9 1 7 Constitution Cuba in the First Half of the 20th Century Setting the Stage for a Revolution Major Questions of Today s Lecture 0 How did the absence of stable political institutions in Cuba during the rst half of the 20th Century create conditions for Revolution 0 How can we explain the rise of Fidel Castro as the leader of the Cuban Revolution of 1959 Cuba under the Platt Amendment 0 Cast a 30 year shadow on Cuba and America 0 Amendment added to the Cuban Constitution but proposed by an American senator on the Foreign Affairs 0 Limits Cuban independence and Cuban policy I Right to Intervene United States has the right to occupy and intervene to maintain Cuban independence and stability I Right to sign foreign treaties I Cuba could not enter into foreign commercial military or diplomatic treaties without the approval of the United States I Cuba could not expand or alter its military without approval of US I The US will retain possession of all naval and military stations on Cuba Guantanamo 0 Little or no independence left in Cuba 0 Passed in the Cuban senate with one vote in order to get the military to leave 0 Marti s Historical Fatalismquot I He comes up with raceless identity in Cuba I Died during the course of independence I He always turned down support and aid from the US 0 Occupations 1906 and 1917 0 US control of the economy I US occupies from 1898 to 1902 1933 Prologue to Revolution 0 Machado Dictatorship 19251933 0 General Strike 1933 o Grau San Martin Presidency 19331934 Era of Batista 1934 1959 o lst Coup and Rule 19341944 0 Short Good Neighbor Policy 0 Civilian Presidents 1944 1952 0 2nd Coup March 1952 Fidel Castro Myth Fiction and History 0 Born August 13 1926 0 Education 0 Student Politics I 1947 Invasion of the Dominican Republic I 1948 Bogotazo I 1950 Law Degree 0 1952 Havana Senate 1948 Bogota Colombia Summary of Today s Lecture 0 From 1900 to 1950 Cuba did not develop its own stable political institutions due to an absence of legitimate political leaders and an over reliance on the US for support 0 The lack of political legitimacy fostered an environment for radical political action The Cuban Revolution Major Point of Today s Lecture 0 Crisis of political legitimacy and weak political institutions causes Cuba to oscillate between Military Dictatorship and radical revolution I Similar to what happened in Haiti and Mexico 0 Cuban revolution consolidates its power through mass based organization and its break with the United States Cuba under US in uence and military dictatorship o Platt Amendment of 1902 0 US interventions 1906 and 1917 I US concerned with American interests in Cuba I Hotly contested senatorial elections I The losing side appeals to the United States for help aid and intervention I Grants more authority to the United States Mexico in the 19th century weak political institution that brought French forces in o The Era of Batista 19341959 I Batista symbolizes same thing as Porflrio Diaz I Begins to transform and modify Cuban economy Castro s 1st Attempt at Power The Moncada Assault 0 Fidel Castro Background I From a wealthy sugar plantation which sold sugar to an American company I Staged the coup at 26 early Had all of the bene ts of going to a good school Has stories about him Organized a strike on father s plantation at 13 Was a baseball player and had a tryout with the Yankees Was able to single himself out as a future politicians Get to be President of the University sits on Executive Board of Cuba s leading political party Ran for Senator for Havana Batista shuts down elections 0 Moncada Assault July 26 1953 Castro with 82 followers assaulted the military barracks in Santiago Everything goes wrong Castro s car stalls in front of the barracks alerts the guards Most people are shot on the spot Castro is captured three days later Batista puts him on trial for treason Castro goes from accused to accuser and gets more followers Takes full responsibility of the Moncada assault Names Marti as Intellectual Author for the movement Founding father of Cuban independence History will Absolve Me his last remarks where he pleads guilty 0 Imprisonment and Freedom July 1953 May 1955 He gets an amnesty bill but refuses to sign it Doesn t renounce his past political activity ls released from jail so Batista can keep him out of the news He goes on a speaking tour in the US to get more press The Guerilla War 1956 1959 o The Granma Shipwreck and the Guerilla War 1956195 9 Exchange of strength for time Arrested within Mexico Batista had spies Castro s political allies in Mexico get him out of jail Goes looking for a boat in the port of Vera Cruz American is selling a boat called Granma a yacht Buying a boat from an American great symbolism They have to tear out essential parts of the boat to make room for people Two day trip become a five day trip w no food or water Boat runs aground on a sandbar a mile away from shore Only 16 people will survive including Castro They move up to the mountains and slowly recruit people An American reporter comes up and thinks Castro has 1000 fighters o Emergence of Dual Powerquot I The rebel army in the mountains are taking over more territory They become a government themselves Shows what a political system under them would look like Implement revolutionary thoughts and ideals Project con dence that the insurgent group can actually rule Territorio Libre have their own radio station Provided social services schools made taxes in exchange for help in harvests Doctors who joined the cause set up health care system Institute an agrarian reform law Summer of 1958 half the island is under their control I Batista is in charge of the current government 0 Batista Flees January 1 1959 Consolidation of the Cuban Revolution through Mass Organizations 0 Agrarian Reform I Peasants get their land back become part of the local communities 0 University Tuition is free have to become part of the University Federation 0 Cuban Women s Federation I Women as spies political advisors and combatants become key people I Child care becomes universally provided by the state I Household work becomes politicized Husband has to provide 50 of the tasks within the house Stay at home moms are given government wages and a pension Women are encouraged to get university degrees 0 Highest percentage of women with medical degrees in the Americas I Highest divorce rate in the hemisphere two ways to look at it Women have an independent status Everything has gone to hell in Cuba and no one is happy 0 Committees for the Defense of the Revolution I Lurking fear that allies of the Batista regime are everywhere I Both voluntary and coercive 0 Both workers and students federation 0 Many people belonged in more than one The Cuban Revolution and the United States 0 April 1959 Trip to US I Ike Eisenhower is in the presidency I Castro is invited to visit the White House I Eisenhower plays golf and misses the meeting I Castro meets the VP Nixon instead Nixon is very anticommunist I Castro feels dissed hasn t been given proper respect I He issues May 1959 Agrarian Reform Law Returns lands to the peasants Threatens US land holdings as well I Political relations deteriorates very quickly 0 Fidel and Communism I The US meeting pushes Cuba more towards Soviet Union I More of a conversion to communism than confession of I Soviet Union thinks Castro is too populist to be communist I Castro claims to be more socialist 0 Bay of Pigs April 1961 I Invasion by US trained and aided Cuban eXiles I Gets the ear of the CIA that there is a widespread opposition of Castro I Really were not in touch with Cuba and were too confident that he could be overthrown I Castro knows that there is a planned invasion on the way I lnvading force of 1500 lands and is quickly put down in three days I Castro s popularity gets a large boost 0 Cuban Missile Crisis October 1962 I Castro knows that US will try again cozies up to USSR 0 Castro s idea to bring missiles to Cuba I If Cuba owns operates missiles on its island they will be less likely to invade I US finds out about this and freaks out I For 13 days there is an international standoff Entire world is at a standstill The world could be ended at any time I A compromise is worked out a pact is made but not followed I Raised the question how important is Cuba Summary of Lecture 0 The lack of legitimate political institutions makes Cuba vulnerable to radical revolution 0 After overthrowing the Batista Dictatorship the Cuban Revolution consolidates its power through developing state controlled mass based organization and its break with the United States HIST 109 Dr Matt Childs USC Fall 2015 Essay Questions for Exam 2 on Mon 7 Dec 2015 at 1230 PM 1 Compose an essay that explains what issues resulted in Latin Americans ghting for their independence In answering this question analyze l the role of events in Europe that catalyzed independence movements 2 what opportunities emerged to ght for political rights and 3 how Latin Americans de ned their national identity after gaining independence Include material from the lectures and discussion section readings I Introduction a Haiti Mexico Cuba Brazil Argentina Venezuela Peru all fought for their independence b Thesis 11 Europe events that catalyzed the independence movements a Bourbon reforms the crown changes local policies that have been around for over 250 years alienates local population especially Creoles and gives the colonists a list of grievances b Napoleonic Wars leads to new freedoms i Portugal transformed into equal kingdom not colony c End of Napoleonic Wars end of new freedoms back to absolutist rule the people revolt d French Revolution Haiti III Opportunities to ght for political rights independence doc a Local juntas sovereignty reverts to the people b Slaves were freed when they joined the army AfroArgentinians c Women Republican motherhood d Haitian Revolution IV National Identity of Latin America nationalism a Cuban racelessness b Scienti c racism c Brazil and racial democracy d AntiUS imperial power Cuba V Conclusion Document heavy 2 19th and 20th Century Latin America was marked by radical political movements aimed to overthrow entrenched military dictatorships and the legacies of colonial regimes Focusing on 1 the Haitian Revolution 2 the Mexican Revolution and 3 the Cuban Revolution how did each revolution attempt to radically change Latin American society Include material from the lectures and discussion section readings I Introduction a Thesis II Haiti a Background i Originally started by local French population as a reaction to French revolution Grand Blancs wanted colonial autonomy ii Rise of Toussaint Louverture 1 He leads the troops to fully take over Haiti and becomes a governor abolishing slavery iii Toussaint is captured by Napoleon 1 The remaining locals full scale revolution for independence 2 Napoleon ends up admitting defeat and leaves letting Haiti be independent iv Outcome 1 Beginning of the end of New World Slavery 2 They give aid to Latin American independence movements 3 Propertied peasants limited stability b Slave Revolt c Property redistribution d Overthrow French control 111 Mexican Revolution a Background i First Massive instability 1 1857 Constitution leads to civil war between Liberals and Conservatives church male suffrage education 2 French Occupation by Hapsburgs Cinco de Mayo ii Porf1riato Diaz takes control 1 Rejection of Indian past secret police paranoid 2 Poverty vs Progress modernization at the cost of the poor iii Social and Political Revolution 1 Finally Diaz overthrown and things calm down 2 1917 Constitutional Convention Carranza Presidency a Land Article 27 b Labor Article 123 c Ejido system of agrarian reform d Nationalization of the oil industry Agrarian reform Labor Laws worker s rights Nationalize oil industry New Constitution overthrew Diaz Document Mexico and indigenous roots g Document Morelos IV Cuban Revolution a Background i US takeover l Platt amendment little to no independence rupee 2 US concerned with American interests 3 Large interference in senatorial races 4 Bunch of political leaders until 5 Batista military coup ii Batista being bad 1 Military dictatorship 2 Transforms and modifies Cuban economy 3 Symbolizes the same thing that Porflrio Diaz did in Mexico iii Castro and Consolidation of Cuba 1 Agrarian Reform 2 Lots of Confederations to bond local people together 3 Castro becomes more popular as he defeats various US interventions 4 Develops state controlled mass based organization and breaks with the US to be free Rejects US involvement Consolidated power with mass organizations 999 Guerilla warfare document e Marxist communist Bay of Pigs leads into that V Conclusion Lecture heavy 3 20th Century Latin America produced new types of political movements in the form of populism and social revolutions How did populism and social revolutions change relations between 1 the government and the people in terms of politics 2 employers and laborers in terms of conditions for the working class and 3 diplomatic relations in terms of relations between Latin American countries and the United States Include material from the lectures and discussion section readings I Introduction a Thesis II The Government and People Politics a Agrarian Reform Mexico and Cuba b Vargas and Brazilians c Personal connection between people and the leaders 111 Employers and Laborers Work Conditions a Peron Document b Mexico and the Constitution Labor Article 123 c Agrarian reform making employees own their own land and become the boss IV Latin America and the US Diplomatic Relations a Cuba i Castro is more for the people than for American corporations ii Has breaks with the US b Bay of Pigs US tries to overthrow c Salvador Allende Chile CIA agent overthrows d Social revolutionaries try and get US corporations out of their countries i Mexico oil ii Allende and copper iii Agrarian reform took land away from corporate interests e Marxism itself cold war V Conclusion Blend of the two
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