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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Maria Martinez

Final Exam Study Guide BIOL 3020-001

Maria Martinez
GPA 3.5
Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates
Dr. Miller

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This is my study guide for the final.
Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates
Dr. Miller
Study Guide
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This 39 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Martinez on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3020-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 12/02/15
Final Exam Study Guide Biology 3020 The Nervous System 0 Is broken down into 2 major components 1 Central Nervous System CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord 2 Peripheral Nervous System PNS consists of the nerves off the brain and spinal cord 2 types of PNS nerves are 1 Afferent sensory nerves meaning they take information into the CNS via electrical waves 2 Efferent motor nerves meaning they carry out information to the muscles or glands 0 Nerves Vs Tracts Nerve is a bundle of axons in the PNS can ow either way Tract is a bundle of axons in the CNS 0 3 Rami Branches on the spinal cord 1 Dorsal Ramus Goes to the back muscles 2 Ventricle Ramus Goes to the muscles on the belly 3 Visceral Ramus Goes to the internal organs intestines heart diaphragm etc o 12 Cranial Nerves o Purely sensory I I II VIII 0 Eyeball extrinsic muscles I III IV VI 0 Branchiomeric pharyngeal region I V VII IX X O Terminalis Nerve sensory I Olfactory Nerve sensory II Optic Nerve sensory III Oculomotor Nerve motor IV Trocholier Nerve motor V Trigenimal Nerve sensory motor VI Abducen Nerve motor VII Facial Nerve sensorymotor O Temimalis Nerve Identified after the others were found and that is Why it is zero Used for pheromone detection 1 Olfactory Nerve Shortest cranial nerve Is a small host of nerves used for smell detection 2 Optic Nerve Is essentially an extension of the brain Used for light detection 3 Oculomotor Nerve Integrates 4 extrinsic eye muscles 4 Trocholier Nerve Integrates the trocholier muscles also known as the superior oblique muscle 5 Trigenimal Nerve Has 3 major branches 1 Opthalamic branch 2 Maxillary branch 3 Mandibular branch goes into the jaw tongue and teeth controls chewing 6 Abducen Nerve Intergrates the lateral rectus and the rector bulbi muscle 7 Facial Nerve Associated with the face and tongue muscles Involved with salivary glands and taste In sharks it is associated with 2 structures 1 Ampullae 2 Lorenzini allow for eye protection when opening jaws 8 Auditory Nerve Associated with the inner ear and the ability to hear sounds Also deals with equilibrium 9 Glossopharyngeal Nerve Integrates the pharynx and middle ear Associated with taste buds especially bitter and sour as well as swallowing 10 Vegus Nerve Travels to the diaphragm pharynx internal organs Is also called the wandering nerve because it travels long distances 11 Spinal Accessory Nerve Extends from C1 to C6 Has a cranial accessory that leads to the Vegus 12 Hypoglossal Nerve Integrates tongue and is involved in tongue movements 0 J awed Vertebrates 2 major groups 1 Anamniotes Includes fish and amphibians Have no amniotic sacs Has a yolk sac With cells identical to the impermeable membrane it absorbs dissolved yolk and passes it on to the embryo Jelly coat surrounding the egg sac comes from the mother s uterus so it has identical cells 2 Amniotes Includes reptiles birds turtles mammals Has 4 extraembryonic membranes 1 Yolk Sac Absorbs dissolved yolk and passes it on to the embryo 2 Amnion Filled With embryonic uid protects the embryo This uid cavity breaks and that s when the water breaks 3 Allantois Takes part in making the placenta 4 Chorion Acts as an extra embryonic lung and helps in gas exchange Brain 0 3 primary brain swellings vesicles 1 Prosencephalon forebrain 2 Mesencephalon midbrain 3 Rhombencephalon hindbrain 0 5 brain vesicles 1 Myelencephalon Also known as the medulla oblongata Is essentially a cord extension of the spinal cord to brainstem Composed of tracts that carry signals from the brain to the body A damaged nerve in the part of the brain can result in death Houses nuclei and cranial nerves Nerves VIIXII in mammals Nerves VI X in sharks 2 Metencephalon Has 2 prominent features 1 Pons Latin for bridge Grown out ventrally It is the connection between the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata Serves as communication and coordination center between both hemispheres 2 Cerebellum Associated With involuntary movements Hagfish have no cerebellum Lamprey have a very rudimentary cerebellum Has 2 components 1 Auricles Receive information from the lateral line systems and vestibular portion of the inner ear deal with equilibrium 2 Body Receives mostly sensory information No association With olfaction or gustation 3 Mesencephalon Contains the nuclei for the oculomotor and trochlier nerves Some of the nuclei are associated With the Vth cranial nerve Some motor sensory activity originates here 0 In fish There are bulges located off the tectum that are associated With visual responses The larger the eyes the larger the part of the optic nerves Will be on the brain Below the optic nerves are auditory nerves that receive and sent sound information o In mammals anmniotes In the optical lobes and auditory nerves is referred to as the superior colliculi Are associated with eye movements and visual re exes Below the superior colliculi are the inferior colliculi Are associated with hearing and auditory re exes Both of these swellings the superior and inferior colliculi make up the corpora quadrigemina 4 Diencephalon Has 3 distinct regions 1 Epithalamus Contains the habenula which serves as an interface for the limbic and motor pathways B asic emotions like fear pleasure anger are centered here The limbic system is associated hunger and sex drive These pathways sizes will increase in animals with larger habenula meaning they have better memory In birds the small habenula means less developed sense or smell Has 4 evaginations swellings 1 Paraphysis not much is known about the paraphysis 2 Dorsal sacnot much is known about the dorsal sac 3 Epiphysisalso known as the pineal organ lizards have well developed epiphysis In mammals is an independent structure 4 Parietal organ also known as the parapineal or the parietal eye Will include a cordia lens and photoreceptor cells Not well developed in frogs Not developed at all in mammals 2 Thalamus all sensory pathways coming from spinal cord are going to synapse in nuclei located in the thalamus In reptiles the thalamus is smaller where as in humans it is going to be bigger Contains large mass swellings found between the thalamus and the 3rd ventricle called massa intermedia 3 Hypothalamus associated with the endocrine system so it deals with horomones also produces antidiuretic hormone that conserves uid passing through kidneys this is inhibited when drinking alcohol and that is what causes people to go to the bathroom often because the kidneys aren t ltering the liquid it s just going straight though anterior pituitary regulates homeostatic activities contains some olfactory centers contains the tuber cinerium which helps regulate circadian rhythms 5 Telencephalon includes the cerebral hemispheres and Rhombencephalon which includes olfactory tracts bulbs and lobes the bigger the Rhombencephalon the better the sense of smell 4 Central canals enlarged cavities are called ventricles 4th ventricle is going to be in the Rhombencephalon cerebral aqueduct of sylvius is in the mesencephalon 3rd ventricle is located in the diencephalon lst and 2nd are within the telencephalon are called the lateral ventricles of the cerebral hemispheres Sense Organs Somatic sensory organs associated with skin going to the skeletal muscle Visual sensory organs Associated With the Visceral organs General sensory organs Wide distribution in the body Deal With touch heat and degree of contraction Specialized sensory organs deal With light touch and equilibrium form sense of olfaction sight gustation Specialized Sensory Receptors localized in distribution Sensitive to information like light waves or chemicals Specialized for specific stimuli Has chemoreceptors a chemical molecule that Will integrate With a receptor Which are responsible for two things 1 Gustation associated with the upper part of the tongue or Where there are taste buds taste buds acts as transducers fit in the receptors of the sensory cells and that Will cause the depolarization of the cells that Will send the message to the brain 3 primary cell types that make up taste buds 1 Basal cells Give support to the Sustentacular and gustatory cells 2 Sustentacular cells Give support to the basal cells 3 Gustatory sensory cells Live about a week and there are replaced Lack axons but when depolarized will link up with a sensory neuron causing a synaptic reaction The sensory neurons are associated with the facial glossypharyngial and vegus nerves 2 Olfaction associated with the nasal passage has 3 components 1 Olfactory epithalamium the surface layer of nasal passageways has 3 primary cell types 1 Basal cells replenish cells for the Sustentacular and olfactory cells 2 Sustentacular cells gives support for the basal cells 3 Olfactory sensory cells they send information to the brain has a series of dendritic process that have an axon processes that will travel to the olfactory bulb Olfactory bulb made of mitral cells synapse with axons of olfactory cells that send information into the olfactory tract in fish they are sacs in jawless fish the sacs become fused and just have a single sac and bulb but the tract ways are still paired in sharks water has to move through nasal sacs to smell the water the septum helps the water ow by separating into a division to increase the water ow other fish have extracurrent and internal organs to help the water ow in some fish the water ows to the oral cavity which is an evolutionary in the sarcopterygians eshfinned fish some have external and internal nares nostrils Amphibians have a vomeronasal organ also known as J acobson s organ which is a specialized sac that is associated with pheromone detection the olfactory bulbs are smaller compared to fishes unlike fishes where the nasal passage way is for olfaction and the nasal pathway is for respiration Lizards Snakes Vestibule has a duct nasopharyngeal duct that leads into the body have a more complex nasal passageway vomeronasal organ is separated into pits and located in the oral cavity and used for detecting chemicals for mating or catching prey in snakes the tongue fork has receptors used to sense chemicals allowing it to track prey m Has 3 primary layers 1 Fiberous Tunic Includes the sclera Forms a tough coating capsule of connective tissue for the eyeball Forms eye shape Eye muscles connect to the sclera and that allows for eye movement In chickens the sclerotic ossicles will form the schlerate ring In amphibians and fish the schlerate cartilage will develop instead of bones In birds the sclera will be tougher so as to protect the eyes in ight includes the cornea Its transparency allows light into the eyeball Because the light bends When light enters the eye the cornea Will focus the image While the lens Will work on fine focus In water the water will do the majority of the focusing because the cornea s refracting value is already met With that of the water This refraction is What causes astigmatism because some people have lenses that are too circular causing the light to come in at an angle that over stimulates the receptor cells Conjunctivitis is When the sheet of epithelia coating on the surface of the eye becomes in amed due to infection 2 Vascular Tunic Includes the choroid heavily pigmented lots of melanin the light that comes into the eye is absorbed by the pigment to keep from over stimulating the receptors in the eyes In some lowlight environment animals the choroid is used to bounce back the the light in the eye to restimulate the sensory cells This is done by the tapetum lucidum Which evolved to be able to see at night the eye shine effect seen in some mammals like dogs cats and deer is the tapetum lucidum bouncing back extra light humans get red eye because of the blood vessels in the eye Also includes the iris Circular muscle that has the ability to contract and dilate located at the anterior end of the eye Surrounds the pupil The pigmented portion of the eye that gives it its color blue green brown etc Has multiple layers that portray color Many groups of fish have a fixed pupil diameter meaning the only way to change the amount of light received is to change positions to limit light intensity Sharks bonyfish lizards snakes turtles and mammals all have sphincter and dilator muscles The iris becomes elliptical in nocturnal animals vertical in cats horizontal in some amphi is some animals the eye opening and closing more rapidly has evolved independently Geckos have pupils that in low light look like key holes and this allows super imposed images to go to the retina Includes the ciliary body sometimes called a ciliary muscle A circular muscle that helps support eyes and is around the lens Responsible for supporting the lens The ripped fibers in the lens are the remains of the suspensory ligaments The ciliary body s circular shape allows the lens to atten they the pupils dilate causing the suspensory muscles to contract Short distance vision will require a rounder lens while long distant vision will require a atter lens In amniotes the shape of the lens changes to be able to accommodate In anamniotes the position of the lens is changed to accommodate an advantage to this is that the curvature of the lens allows the light to cross and focus the object 2 different methods of accommodation 1 Anamniotes will have spherical lens Lampreys Don t have good vision in general Spherical lens at rest will be against on the cornea Have corneal muscles that will deform the cornea and pus the lens posteriorly so when the lamprey s pupils contract they will have better distant vision When relaxed the cornea will be pulled back out by the humerous Teleost advanced bony fish Spherical lens Positioned near not on the cornea at rest this gives them good near focus To see distant objects or to focus on a faraway object an intrinsic eye muscle will retract the lens posteriorly To see near objects the lens will go back to its original resting place Sharks and Amphibians Spherical lens The lens is positioned near the retina giving them distant vision To see nearby objects the lens is moved anteriorly by the protractor lenti muscles and once they are relaxed the lens will go back In sharks the protractor lenti muscles are mesodermal In amphibians the protractor lenti muscles of the endodermal origin 2 Amniotes The lens will be held in place and will change shape to accommodate Birds and most groups of lizards Have a series of paths that are between the ciliary in cornea these will constrict the suspensory muscles allowing the ciliary muscles to push down on the lens forming it to a rounder shape In mammals See up closes by allowing the lens to let the suspensory ligaments relax An inherent elasticity in lens allows it to become rounder and this allows near sight The lens are elliptical meaning they are at but are made rounder to see better When the lens loses that elasticity it causes the condition Retina Has 2 major types of sensory cells 1 Rods are long rodshaped sensory cells are 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than cones sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light result in low acuity in monochromatic Convergence when a lot rods or cones are sending the signal to only a few ganglion cells gives lower resolution 2 Cones 3 types of cone types 1 S cone Associated with short wavelengths of light Responsible for the blue coloration spectrum 2 M cone Associated with medium wavelengths of light Responsible for the green coloration spectrum 3 L cone Associated with long wavelengths of light Responsible for the red coloration spectrum Require a higher frequency of light to be stimulated and so will function poorly in low frequency Cones will be concentrated in the fovea center portion of the retina called the fovea centralis in the macula a part of the eye responsible for sharp image Macular degeneration is a condition where the cones in the eye die and the ability to sharpen image or see to a degree is lost resulting in vision loss The cone convergences provide higher resolution Middle Ear Fish don t have inner ears Most will have poor hearing Use the saccule or lagena to hear Some rely on sound waves in the vibrations on their bodies to hear because they don t have external ears to gather sound Have a swim bladder a hydrostatic organ that regulates air inside the lungs to move around is located on top of the vertebrae Some can form Weberian ossicles these are modified ribs and vertebrae that are connected to the swim bladder and when vibrations hits the gasfilled organs that information will travel up into the inner ear functioning as the middle ear are located between the ear and swim bladder have evolved independently ultimately have 3 methods of communication 1 Direct soundwave vibrations in the water 2 Weberian Ossicles 3 Extensions of the swim bladder In tetrapods The inner ear begins to replace some gill slits with the tympanic membrane usually 10X larger than the oval window in order to amplify the sound calumella also known as the stapes extracalumella Bullfrogs the males will have bigger ear drums than the females have external tympanic membrane that will capture those sounds and cause the stapes to Vibrate sending that message into the inner ear In amphibians the operculum rests in the oval window Will have a muscle that links the scapula to the calumella called calumella s muscle Will have muscle that links up to the operculum and the scapula called operculum s muscle These muscles allow frogs to hear and feel Vibrations on the ground have the Amphibian Papillae a specialized sensory receptor that is sensitive to low frequency Vibrations Salamanders lack the tympanic membrane ear drum their ear links up to the squamosal bone and this allows them to use the jaw as a tympanic membrane to ear Vibrations in the ground All reptiles except snakes and birds Have a calumella set up like the amphibians Snakes connect their calumella to their quadrate bone so like the salamander hear out of their jaw only mammals have 3 ear bones 1 Stapes 2 Incus 3 Mallus All will have a dentary and Skeletal System Intramembranous Bones Dermal Bone Bones developed from embryonic cells directly to bones ex parietal bone Originate from skin phylogenically Endochondral Bone Cartilage Replacement Bone Bone developed from within cartilage meaning that is if cartilage then develops into bone Axio Skeletal System Develops in conjunction to the CNS skull vertebrae ribs Skull composite structure made up of 3 components Neurocranium Develops initially from cartilage protects the brain and sense organs Sphlanchnocranium Visceral Cranium Develops in association with the pharyngeal arches and jaws Originates as cartilage and the Dermatochranium Originates as bone and forms to surround the neurocranial and sphlanchnocranium elements 4 Groups of ossification centers 1 Occipital centers Supraoccipital on top Exoccipital on the sides Basioccipital on the bottom as they enlarge they grow toward one another and it will for 4 distinct bones 2 Sphenoid Center develops the basisphenoid and the presphenoid 3 Ethnoid Center there isn t a lot of bones that develop here as the cartilage tends to remain cartilage here 4 Optic Center a lot of inner bones are developed here 3 main bones prootic opisthotic and epiotic J aw Suspensions Palaestyly Jaw Found in Agnathans Ancient don t have any support of jaws to brain case Not jawed none of the arches attaches themselves directly to the skull Euaultostyly Jaw Found in placoderms and acanthodians The mandibular arch is suspended from the skull by itself without help from the hyoid arch Hyostyly Jaw Found in the modern day shark The mandibular arch is attached through the hyomandibula Modified Hyostyly Jaw The sympletic bone helps in the suspension Metautostyly Jaw Mostly found in reptiles birds amphibians and turtles Jaws are attached to the braincase directly through the quardrate The hyomandibula plays no part in the supporting the jaws but actually becomes the stapes and allows hearing while the hyoid supports the tongue Craniostyly Jaw Found in mammals The entire upper jaw is incorporated into the braincase while the lower jaw is suspended from the squamosal bone The lower is suspended from the dentary bone The quadrate bone becomes the incus The articular bone becomes the mallusThe columella bones becomes the stapes These three bones will fuse to join up with a singular jaw bone Number of vertebrae Some snakes and legless amphibians Have over 200 vertebrae ultimately increasing agility Frogs Have about 9 vertebrae which reduces agility Lizards When their tail breaks off it does so within the vertebrae Salamanders When they shed their tails it does so between the vertebrae Birds The body is fairly rigid except for the neck because they more cervical vertebrae which gives them more mobility and allows them to increase neck length Fins Median Fins 1 Dorsal fin formed in the medial dorsal septum 2 Caudal fin incorporates modification of the hemal arches as they become enlarged hypurals and they also incorporate vertebral column Functions to increase swimming effectiveness Includes both hemal and neural arches Supported by rays 3 types of caudal fins 1 Heteceral Found in sharks Long axis development upward Asymmetrical both outside the fin and inside it 2 Diphycercal Found in lungfish Symmetrically across the vertebral column both outside and inside of the fin 3 Homocercal Found in gold fish and bass the round part that meets the fin is the caudal peduncle and along With the hypurals or enlarged hemal arches Will support the rays 3 Anal fin o articulates With hemal arches o In tetrapods guppies had modified anal fins gonopodium to transfer sperm 4 Adipose fin associated With fat deposits not attached Appendages Birds Use feathers to modify true ight The Autopodium is a singular unit with joints present B ats Modify ight by increasing the surface area with the an elongated phalange and the skin extended over it Blue Whale Have and increase in the number of phalanges but very little cell death in between them so instead of separate phalanges will have the ipper Mammal Modifications 3 different stances 1 Plantigrade o Seen in the hind legs of raccoons and rats 0 Lower surface of all 3 regions of the autopodium will touch the oor 0 The ankles in the rats will touch the oor 2 Digitigrade o Seen in cats and dogs 0 Animal will walk on digits with the heel off the ground the sole of the foot and the palms won t touch the ground 3 Unguligrade o Seen in horses 0 The animal will walk on the tips of the digits 0 In this stance the claw modifies to decrease the number of digits they have 0 2 different types 1 Artiodactyla have an even number of toes examples are cows deer antelope 2 Parisodactyla have an odd number of toes ankle bones are elongated allowing for better spring action Digestive System tube that extends from the lips to the anus or cloaca a large pocket that the digestive reproductive and urinary tract that empties out to before leaving the body the cloacal opening is called the vent has 3 primary regions 1 Buccal Cavity Originates at the lips some animals have lips that extend as far as the jawbones so they don t have cheeks Mammals o Evolve cheeks to cover the mouth portion and prevents food stuff from falling from the mouth Different Dentitions Polyphydont Includes frogs and salamanders have multiple teeth replacements Diphydont Includes most mammals has to sets of teeth baby or deciduous teeth and permanent teeth Monophydont Includes armadillos have 1 set of teeth that are never replaced Homodont Includes most snakes frogs whales and dolphins all the teeth look the same and while they may vary in size they will serve the same function Heterodont includes cats and dogs the teeth look different and serve different functions Attachment Some crocodilians have teeth that grown down from sockets some amphibians lizards and snakes have pleurodont dentitions meaning the teeth are set upon the side of the jaw Some fish have acrodont dentitions meaning they have teeth resting on the top of the jaw Some carnivores like dogs cats and jackals have cheek teeth that will shear instead of grind and have carnassial teeth that will enlarge to shear like scissors Teeth Homodont VS Heterodont Homodont teeth look alike and have similar functions Heterodont teeth look different serve different functions and are located in different locations Polyphydont vs Diphydont vs Monophydont Polyphydont vertebrates like amphibians and salamanders will replace their teeth through out their lives Diphydont vertebrate mammals like humans will have 2 sets of teeth deciduous and permanent that will ot be replaced after the permanent set if lost Monophydont vertebrates like armadillos have only one set of teeth that won39t be preplaced if lost Theodont vs Pleurodont vs Acrodont Theodont attachment is present in crocodilians and will result in the teeth being set individually in different sockets Pleurodont attachment is present in lizards snakes and amphibians and will result in the teeth being set around the sides of the mouth attaching to the jaw sides Acrodont attachment is present in some lizards snakes and fishes and results in the teeth resting on top of the jaw Snakes Fangs are elongated teeth found on the tip of the posterior maxillary bone The venom goes from the mouth through small groove on the outer surface of the tooth to the victim Have 4 types of fangs 1 Opisthoglypha Present in cobras crates cotton snakes Located in the rear of the maxilla The venom will run through the channel found in the tooth and can be neurotoxic 2 Proteropglypha Located in the front portion of the maxilla and fixed in place Are enlarged but not too enlarged 3 Solenoglypha Present in Vipers pit Vipes copperheads These fangs are enlarged and have a cavity that runs through the fang The teeth are fixed the maxillary bone which is shortened and has a loose connection to the cranium so that when the snake strikes the fangs that at rest lay against the palate will distend and move forward for the attack 4 Aglypha If a snake doesn39t have fangs it is termed aglypha Mammals The tooth shape varies and will also vary in root length Brachyodont teeth Have short roots in comparison with the roots which are large found in humans and pigs Hypsodont teeth Have tall crowns and short roots found in deer cattle horses Crowns will be worn and shortened in grazing animals Bunodont teeth Will have low rounded cusps that are covered in enamel Found in humans and pigs Lophodont The cusps on these teeth are formed are ridges The ridges will be covered in enamel the rest of the tooth is dentin Allows the tooth to stay rigid to grind the food Found in horses and rodents Selenodont The enamel is found in triangular shapes scattered throughout the teeth Allows for teeth to wear unequally for better grinding of vegiatation Found in deer cattle grazing animals Dogs and cats Have special cheek teeth called carnassial teeth The cusps serve to sheer the food Tusks modified teeth NarWhals Have a single tusk that is an elongated upper left incisor All males have it but only some females have it Largely made up of dentin and has some enamel Elephants Typically paired Tusks are elongated incisors Walrus Tusks are elongated upper canines Hogs Tusks are elongated canines Anirnas that lack teeth Whales Have baleen conelike plates that come off the palate Esophagus Amphibians have cilia present in the esophagus to help food movement Sea Turtles Modifies esophagus by lining the esophagus with keratinized projections esophageal papillae that protect the turtle from being stung by the jellyfishes it eats and helps prepare food for digestion Egg Eating Snakes Have a modified esophagus that is pleated to allow expansion over the egg which is wider than them completely and has teethlike projections in it called hypotheses which will slit the egg open as it travels down the digestive tract allowing the snake to have access to the yolk Birds Have a crop a sac like extension of the esophagus that is used for food storage The crop allows the bird to survive longer periods of time without hunting Pigeons and Doves the crop becomes granular so the lining epithelium layer produced uid called pigeon milk from the crop contents This is given to the baby bird by either the female or male parent bird Stomach Birds Crocodilians the stomach becomes 2 distant regions 1 Proventriculus granular produce secretion to soften food 2 Gizzard highly muscular the muscle breaks up foodstuff and stores it in gizzards birds of prey lack gizzards Intestines Small Intestine Teleost Fishes Have a ring of blind ending sacs called the pyloric sphincter that within it has pyloric caeca which lay on the stomach lining secreting enzymes and increases surface area for absorption Sharks Have the spiral valve a mucosal lining the stomach that spirals down creating a funneling effect that increases surface area for absorption Is present in cartilagenous fish Mammals Have villi fingerlike projections that extend inward on the lining that will fold inward to increase surface area for absorption Respiratory System Oxygen to get to the cells for combustion to make metabolic water Oxygen is the last acceptor in the electron transport chain Has respiratory membranes Where oxygen enters and leaves the body Respiratory membranes bust be both thin and moist to diffuse oxygen There is a variation in the amount of oxygen that can be extracted from air and water Ventilation The movement of air in and out of respiratory membranes Plays part in evolution from aquatic animals to terrestrial animals Skin Allows for transcutaneous respiration when used as a respiratory membrane Salamanders Rely solely on skin to get oxygen Gills Important because they produce large surface area for respiration External gills Found in larval fishes toads and tadpoles Internal gills Found in adult fishes Fish Have gill arches Provide structural support Have gill raches and gill filaments Gill filaments consist of projections exiting from the gill arch made of the primary and secondary lamellae that both increase surface area for oxygen absorption Primary lamellae large projections large blood vessel and capillary exchange occurs here Secondary lamellae Crescent projections The oxygen enters the secondary lamellae then the primary moving water ow in one direction While oxygen is moved the opposite direction This creates a 39counter current arrangement39 increasing circulation to increase absorption Air has more oxygen than water There is more oxygen in cooler water than there is in warm water Water separates the lamellae allowing the exchange to go on so When fish are out of water and the lamellae are compressed the fish does not get enough oxygen to survive Some fish have modified their operculum to store water for a While and are able to be out of the water for a small period of time Gill arches Gill arch modifications Lampreys have a branchial pouch and an uncovered lateral opening of the gill chamber Sharks have septal gills connecting the dorsal and ventral surface Individual ap valves are formed from individual gill septa guard each gill chamberHave lamellae but the gills are exposed Imost fish gills are covered by the operculum Homobranch Vs Hemibranch o Hemibranch only one gill side has primary lamellae o Homobranch both sides of the gill have primary lamellae Auxiliary Respiratory Structures Fish gill To modify bimodal breathing 0 Super branchial air chambers develop above gills and the lamellae grow into pouches this allows them to go to the surface 0 The air that is sucked in goes to highly vascularized lamallae to extract the oxygen an example of this are betta fish Extension in gut tube allows for the modified mucosal lining to increase the surface area in the lining to absorb oxygen Gas bladder If the gas bladder is used for respiration it is referred to as lungs if used for buoyancy control then it is referred to as a swim bladder Lungs Evolve from tetrapods and develop embryonically Usually paired In small vertebrates it is not uncommon for the animal to only have one lung due to the small body area such is the case of snakes lungfish lung is a bilobial structure Swim Bladder A balloon like structure developed under the vertebral column Most fish use lungs as a swim bladder to develop a neutral buoyancy in the water they are in Fish esh is more dense than skin making them sink A swim bladder filled With gas reduces fish density helping them oat By adjusting the pressure in the swim bladder the fish can oat Without expanding energy Lizards and Snakes use aspiration pump to fill lungs expanding the cavity around the lung to press air into the lungs using the ribs rely on faveoli to breathe have circular smooth muscles surrounding to help pump Crocodilians Have prominent transverse septum portion developed to serpentine lungs from the abdominal cavity and becomes invaded With in creating the diaphragm In mammals there are distinct muscles Which contract to create negative pressure to breathe Also the diaphragmatic muscle pushes down on the lungs to expire contracting the muscles forces air out Tetrapods 0 Air ow to lungs leads from the pharynx to the glottis opening of the respiratory tree to the larynx to the trachea to the bronchi Amphibians they are endotherms so they have a low metabolic rate and in turn require low amounts oxygen Breathe by a buccal pump In order to get air into the lungs they Will push air into them with circulatory muscles that are associated With the nostrils When the nostrils open the oor of the oral cavity drops It opens the glottis brings up the oral cavity pushing the air into the lungs It does the opposite when exhaling uses transcutaneous respiration under water Turtles have modified aspiration pumps Can39t expand or contract the thoracic cage Ribs are immobile impeding body expansion Muscles alter body pressure to shift organs allowing for the area around the lungs to expand to absorb oxygen Birds Use aspiration pumps are isotherms so they require high metabolic rates and more oxygen needs to the enter the body but ventilation rates are 25 lower than mammals of comparable size Their respiratory system is more efficient than that of a mammal They can be in areas of low oxygen because of their one way air ow When air from the bronchi goes into the lungs it bypasses the air into sacs large bones in birds have airsacs Anterior and posterior air sacs but they have multiple in the body ranging from 612sacs present in the average bird Complex ventilation System 2 step cycle for complete ventilation 1st Inhalation 0 air enters into the respiratory tree by passing lungs 0 Most of the air enters the posterior air sacs 1st Exhalation 0 Air from the posterior air sac is pushed into lungs themselves 2nd Inhalation 0 air is brought in and the precious air moves through the lung tissue Where gas exchange takes place and is pushed into anterior air sacs 2nd Exhalation 0 Air from anterior air sacs is pushed out of the body Mammals Breathe via aspiration pumps Will use the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles Respiratory tree air enters the glottis then goes down the larynx the trachea then bronchus Can constrict bronchial tree to limit air to lung tissues have mucus lining and Will have alveoli Heart 0 Develops embryonically into 4 chambers in most vertebrates sinus venosa atrium ventriculus and bulbus cordis corus arteriosus bulbus arteriosus Sinus venosa initiates heart contraction is the pacemaker of the heart sends blood to the atrium atrium Will subdivide creating the left and the right atriums Receives blood from the sinus venosa and sends it to the ventricle ventricle Will subdivide into the left and right ventricle Will receive blood from the atrium and send it to the bulbus bulbus cordis the 4th heart chamber Will be called the bulbus cordis only When referring to an embryo in sharks it Will be the conus arteriosus and it called as such because it becomes invaded With cardiac uscle in teleost sh it is called bulbus arteriosus doesn t become invaded with cardiac muscle Hagfish Heart 0 has 3 chambers sinus venosa atrium and ventricle o No bulbus 0 has accessory hearts little smooth muscle pumps that lack cardiac muscles and are associated with heart and tail that pump blood to the body Lamprey 0 has the typical 4 chambers sinus venosa atrium ventricle and the bulbus Cartilaginous fish and bony fish 0 Typical 4 chambers Lungfish 0 have a double circuit system 0 have a single atrium present but it becomes subdivided by interatrial septum Right chamber is larger that the left 0 only some lungfish have pulmonary veins that will carry the blood towards the heart 0 sinus venosa has atrioventricular plugs that help direct blood ow to the ventricle o ventricle is subdivided by intraventricular septum o conus has a spiral valve that helps direct blood ow into pulmonary circuit and a systemic circuit Frog Heart 0 pulmonary veins go into the left atrium carrying highly oxygenated blood 0 lack ventricle separation but have projections that extend off the ventricle to produce cavities that will catch the blood that goes by and separate the highly oxygenated blood from the lowly oxygenated blood these are called trabeculae o conus 4th chamber is a tube that houses the spiral valve which directs blood ow regulated by pressure into its appropriate chamber D Crocodilian Heart 0 have cavum that allow blood to travel in appropriate directions 0 conus modifies into multiple tissues D Turtles and Lizards 0 have cavum Vertebrate Kidney Embryo holonephros kidney 0 type of kidney that has a tripartite kidney setup 0 Is present in larval hagfish and in the limbless amphibians o Takes up much of the length of the body cavity Pronephros kidney 0 anterior portion of the kidney functions mainly in embryos with the exceptions of salamanders Mesonephros Kidney 0 found it in amphibians opistosnephron of most amniotes called quotback kidneyquot Metanephros Kidney o develops into the adult kidney of amniotes These kidney types fall under the tripartite kidney type which includes a pronephric ductpersists throughout embryo and into adult life pronephric tubules Archinephric duct Mesnephron metanephric diverticulum and archinephric diverticulum develops into ureter which only amniotes have Urinary Bladder Fish 0 The urinary bladder is small in the function is not well understood cartilaginous fish 0 The duct will open into the cloaca so there is not much of a urinary bladder Amphibians o the urinary bladder is large and bilobed a transitional epithelium allows it to expand Amniotes o The urinary bladder develops from the allantois o Develops initially to help shed nitrogenous waste 0 The allantois enlarges to form the bladder Birds 0 lose the bladder o Ostrich have urinary bladders snakes and crocodilians 0 lack a urinary bladder Mammals o the urinary bladder is present but cannot absorb water from i Uterine types mammals o opossum uterus includes the infundibulum paired oviducts where the eggs are the uterus links into the vagina the vaginal sinus formed by the paired vagina is coming together the lateral vagina The penile gland is bifurcated so it39s blitz during copulation o Kangaroos includes the same structures as the possum but the vaginal sinus extends creating a central vaginal canal Has three vaginae placentals 0 have four primary uterine types 1 Duplex uterus The uteri are swollen It has one vagina and has paired uterus each With its own cervix found in many rabbits and rodents 2 Bipartite uterus Two types of embryonic ducts come together and the cervix creates a partition in the uterus found in Carnivores cats dogs Whales and dolphins 3 Bicornuate uterus is To uterine horns are present One single large uterine body With the cervix that extends into the vagina are present Found in some bats moles and toads The urethra comes in forming a urogenital sinus 4 Simplex uterus The two malaria and ducks to fuse into a large uterine body The small ovaducts empty out into the uterus The urethra dumps into the urogenital sinus Found in primates humans bats sloths and armadillos Only has one cervix Copulatorv organs Bony fish Most have external fertilization The egg is cast outside of the body Some have internal fertilization Present in the guppies or Mollies Have modified anal fin to become gonadapodium large projection The male guppy insert the gonadapodium to ejaculate sperm The fins rays modify to support that gonadapodium J awless Fish Lamprey and Hagfish 0 Practice external fertilization Amphibians o Frogs Most practice external fertilization Practice amplexus a type of mating behaVior in which a male grasps a female with his front legs as part of the mating process and at the same he fertilizes the female eggs as they are released from the body When they eggs have been fertilized they will be coated in a jelly like substance Few frogs practice internal fertilization Those that do use the cloacal kiss 0 Female and male press their cloacae together the male ejaculates and sperm is pushed into the cloaca when they detach it makes a kiss sound Tailfrog Practices oviparous don t retain the eggs inside of the body Do not actually have a tail it is an extension from the cloaca Practice internal fertilization is the only frog that does this The males have a modified cloaca that protrudes from the cloaca to directly insert the sperm in the female s cloaca and is accid when not in use and engorges with blood when used 0 Salamanders Few groups practice external fertilization Most practice internal fertilization None have intermittent organ but those who do have live births and have spermatophores D A pyramidal capsule or mass enclosing spermatozoa that is extruded by the male and is transferred to the reproductive tract of the female Females have crisps in their cloaca that store the sperm which can last from days to weeks to years Most are oviparous Reptiles Tuatara The only reptiles Without a penis they use the cloacal kiss Crocodilians and Turtles All oviparous Have a true penis that develops embryonically from the cloaca and resides there When not in use Requires hydrostatic pressure to enlarge and enter the female Have a sulcus spermaticus Squamates Lizards and Snakes Have a phallus hemipenes Hemipenes are paired copulatory organs developed form the cloacal wall 0 They are saclike structures that are everted from the cloaca 0 Can have spikes to help attach to the female 0 Require lymphatic system and blood for erection Can be oviparous ovoviviparous and viviparous Live birth has evolved greatly in these animals Birds Are oviparous Most have internal fertilization by cloacal kiss Some have a true penis with a sulcus spermaticus True penis found in ightless birds like the ostrich and the emu Do not have a urethra Rely on hydrodynamics and lymphatics for erection o Mammals All have internal fertilization Monotremes Platypus and the Echidna 0 Have a true penis that develops embryonically form the cloacal wall 0 The penis only carries sperm not urine 0 Practice oviparity Marsupials Kangaroos and Opossum 0 Have a true bifurcated glans penis 0 Carry both urine and sperm 0 Have live birth but the connection between the mother and the embryo is slight so the young are underdeveloped 0 Have evolved to have rapid ovulation Placental mammals Have a true penis with a urethra Relies on a hydrostatic system of blood to engorge the penis 0 Corpus Spongiosum erectile tissues that holds blood during an erection and functions to protect the urethra 0 Corpus Cavernosa erectile tissues that holds some blood during an erection and prevent the urethra from pinching closed maintaining the urethra as a viable channel for ejaculation All use internal fertilization which happens high up in the body cavity Because ovaries are not covered by the oviduct an ectopic pregnancy a pregnancy that does not occur in the uterus or a uterine structure could happen


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