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Early U.S. History with Dr. Andrew Lang
Final Exam Study Guide
December 8, 2015
I. The Settlement of Virginia
I. Introduction: Virginia and the American Tradition (Summary)
A. 1607 first American settlement by the English: Jamestown colony
B. Virginia would eventually become one of the most, if not the most, powerful of the american colonies.
C. Founded for the sole purpose of profit.
D. KEY QUESTIONS
1. Why was Virginia founded?
2. Did the Jamestown colony succeed or fail at its primary purpose?
3. How do we see the principles of liberty arise as well as slavery?
II. Private Enterprise Capitalism: Private Companies for profit
A. Elizabeth I, 1558 1603
1. Queen of England. Fascinated by the Western world itself and English interests in it. Gave charters to businesses that wished to make money off of the New World.
B. Sir Walter Raleigh We also discuss several other topics like What are the steps of hypothesis testing?
1. One of the first colonists of Virginia territory. Ships landed in an area near North Carolina and named the land Virginia after the virgin queen, Elizabeth.
2. Created a colony that failed miserably due to poor conditions (weather and illness). The Lost Colony (15871590) disappeared and Sir Raleigh lost his entire fortune in the
C. Joint Stock Company: Modern Corporation
1. A group of investors that pooled their money with the idea that more money and more investors would increase a colony’s chances of surviving.
If you want to learn more check out What are the gross investments of a business?
2. James I, 16031625
a) Successor to Elizabeth I. Granted charters ( Rights of Exploration) to two JSCs.
(1) Virginia Company of Plymouth (settled Plymouth, MA)
(2) Virginia Company of London
(a) Settled Jamestown. Planned to reinvest all profits into the
company for 7 years before pulling profits as their own.
D. Jamestown Colony, 1607
1. Situated on the Chesapeake Bay. Primary intention was to make money for the company via trade and natural resources. Secondary intentions existed in that England would gain a foothold in the Americas.
a) The “governing body” of the Jamestown colony (The Royal Council) remained in
London. They had no direct oversight of the colony’s daytoday affairs.
b) The colonists were largely hired hands that had no money in the game and, as a
result, did not care too much about the success of the colony.
c) Communication was extremely difficult and it was impossible to make changes to
daytoday functions of the colony from across the Atlantic.
d) Climate and landscape was drastically different from England. Hot, humid,
mosquitoes. The ocean water and river water mixed together in the lake they Don't forget about the age old question of 1,3-dibromopentane has how many stereoisomers in its family?
used, which caused salt poisoning which made the colonists sluggish.
e) Relationships with the Native Americans were decent at first, no actively
antagonizing each other. Eventually the relationship became hostile and the
estimated 14,000 Natives stood against the mere 200 or so colonists. The sides
tolerated one another at this point but both viewed the other as savage.
E. Years of Survival
1. John Smith
a) After a year in the fledgling colony there was still no leadership that worked well
and the colonists were failing to work for the common good. John Smith rose up
as the leader of the colony and began to get order into the situation. He
established a relative peace with the Native Americans and was able to get the
colonists to work.
2. The Starving Time
a) The winter of 1609 was the worst the colonists had ever seen, in the colony or in
England. John Smith had returned to England due to severe injury and the
settlement was left without leadership again. At the beginning of the winter there
were around 490 colonists. By its end, only 60 were left. The remaining settlers
then packed up and sat on the beach waiting for the next ship so they could
return to England. They declared Jamestown a failure.
b) The ships that came, however did not bring them back. Instead they said that Don't forget about the age old question of What is hammurabi’s code?
new colonists and positive changes were coming.
F. Charter of 1609
1. Brought changes to the function of the Virginia Company of London and the Jamestown Colony itself.
a) Anyone who wished to invest in the company was allowed to do so.
(1) An element of self government was added this way
b) The Royal Council was now composed of members elected by the Stockholders
for the sole purpose of getting the Jamestown colony to succeed.
c) Jamestown was given a governor.
(1) Lord De La Warr: Came with the new ships, Jamestown’s first governor,
was militaristic and harshly punished any who broke the laws. Ex:
ordered a man tied to a tried and a stake drove through his tongue
because the man stole food.
G. Charter of 1612
1. Further amended the Charter of 1609
a) Stockholders now met 4 times a year Don't forget about the age old question of What is a class of procedures for representing perceptions and preferences of respondents spatially by means of a visual display?
H. Results of the Jamestown Colony
1. The Jamestown Colony was able to survive.
2. The Virginia Company of London was failing miserably.
3. England gained a foothold in the Americas.
III. Final Years of the London Company, 16161624
A. Reforms of 16161619
1. Final set of reforms to try and save the dying company.
2. Had a great impact on American tradition.
3. Headright System Any person who paid their own way to Jamestown would be granted 50 acres (regardless of the fact that Natives might be living on the land) by the divine right of the King. We also discuss several other topics like Bailor has right to expect bailee to what?
4. Diversified Economy The colony would now base its profit margin on multiple crops and resources instead of a single one of either.
5. General Assembly A Bicameral legislature that oversaw the functioning of the
Jamestown colony with the governor. Composed of the Council (wealthy, elite
landowners; more powerful) and the House of Burgesses (elected, common people’s
body; less powerful) the General Assembly laid the foundation for the design of the
B. Discontent with the London Company
1. Though the reforms were effective and made Jamestown significantly better, the London Company was failing too badly for it to be saved. It had not run any sort of profit, no one wanted it anymore and ¼ of settlers were killed in a Native raid, settlers became
disillusioned by the reality of the world they were now in, and the wealthy elite and Council members had bought all the good land, which began the sharecropping system.
a) Due to all the above reasons, the King revoked the charter of the Virginia
Company of London, officially dissolving the Company, and repossessed the
colony for the crown because he saw the value of the tobacco that had begun to
IV. Virginia as a Royal Colony, 1624 1776
A. Continuation of Self Government was allowed by the King, so the General Assembly and the Governor remained in their appointed positions. Colony kept its right to operate its own daily affairs. B. Tobacco
1. The crop that made Virginia powerful. Tobacco had such a huge demand on the global market and Virginia’s soil was so well suited to growing it that it quickly became the
backbone of Virginia’s economic power.
2. Indentured Servitude and the Rise of Slavery
a) Tobacco production required significant labor forces to cultivate it effectively.
Originally indentured servants (individuals who were indebted to serve for a term
of 57 years in order to pay off their debt) were used. Bacon’s Rebellion changed
(1) Bacon’s Rebellion
(a) Virginia had become a settler magnet. Many of these settlers
became indebted to plantation owners and became so in debt
that they were “indentured for life.” Dome who made it out of
their debt realized that no land was available to them to have
so by 1676, ¼ of all planters were actually landless. The
problem got worse when Governor Berkeley passed laws that
aided the already wealthy and powerful landowners and made
life harder for the indebted. The poor moved westward in
search of better opportunities but they were attacked by the
Natives. When they asked for aid, Berkeley refused them so
they turned to Bacon. Bacon issued the demands of the
settlers and condemned Berkeley’s unfair laws and restrictions.
When this was ignored Bacon and his group stormed the
plantations and nearly destroyed te entire colony. This
illustrated the power that the mobmentality would have as
Berkeley conceded. This, however, only allowed slavery to
become even more prevalent.
b) As Bacon’s Rebellion essentially put an end to the use of indentured servitude,
plantation owners looked for new cheap labor. Slavery was by far their “best”
option and as such, the use of slavery quickly became widespread and
eventually intrinsic to the point that it laid the foundation for America to become
the largest slaveholding empire in the world.
II. Puritanism in New England
A. Puritans were a religious sect that argued that the Church of England was corrupt and did not go far enough in its teachings to be considered “pure.”
B. Puritans settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony as a refuge from the religious persecution they felt at home.
1. Intended to create a “City On A Hill” as a model to the rest of the world in how to live. 2. It was a settlement in applied theology. It was an attempt at making the “Holy Place” a reality.
C. Key Questions
1. Was the birth of the Massachusetts Bay Colony focused on religious liberty?
2. Did the colony succeed or fail at its primary purpose?
II. Puritan Theology
A. John Winthrop
1. The “human embodiment of Puritanism.” First person to cite the desire to create a “City On A Hill.” First governor of the colony.
B. Purpose of the colony was stated to be preceded by the idea that everyone else in the world, but particularly the Church of England, was doing something wrong religiously except for the Puritans themselves.
C. John Calvin
1. A 16th century Protestant who was the “father” of all Puritan ideals. Believed that all souls are born evil and condemned to hell except in the case that God has given a chosen few entry to heaven. This concept became known as Predestination.
D. Covenant of Grace and “The Elect”
1. To be considered a soul destined to heaven, individuals would present their Covenant of Grace (a religious experience in which they realized their heaven bound destiny) to a
group of men who “judged” the authenticity of the claim and determined whether the
person was lying or telling the truth and became one of “The Elect” that God chose to
keep in Heaven.
III. Puritan Opposition to the Church of England
A. Teachings and Episcopal Government
1. The Puritans viewed the hierarchical nature of the Church of England (the Bishops and the King) as wrong and unnecessary as there “was no inbetween to reach God.”
2. Puritans believed that free will did not exist and that the Church of England was lying to its followers by telling them it did.
3. Puritans did not agree with the ritualistic nature of the Church.
B. Split in Puritans
1. The Puritans wanted to change the way religion was done but there rose three factions with different ideas on how to go about this change.
a) Presbyterians: largest portion of the Puritans. Mostly conservative and wished
only for minor changes such as the removal of the Bishops, election of leaders
from one’s own church body, and saw those who were not one of the “Elect” as
b) Separatists: The faction that became the Pilgrims. Broke from the Church in 1620
and founded the Plymouth colony. Favored Congregationalism (each group
c) Non Separatists: The faction that founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Did
not want to break the Church of England, just change it. Believed they had the
only “right” way of doing things.
IV. Puritan Dilemma
A. The Puritans believed that there was only one way to God, their way. But breaking off from the Church would mean conceding that there were two ways to God. Separation also would mean civil war against the King and the Puritans viewed government and religion as in a “marriage” so they wouldn’t do that. If they separated that would also mean they would have to tolerate other religions, which they refused to believe in. As a “compromise” they fled to the Massachusetts Bay Colony to start there.
V. “The City On a Hill,” 1630
A. The Puritans were granted the rights of exploration via the charter given to the Massachusetts Bay Company established in 1629.
B. Rule by The Elect Theocratic Government
1. The only people who were allowed to members of the Church were those who were among the Elect. The government ran by allowing the male members of the Elect to vote, established precedent for voting. They established the General Court, which was the
legislative body of the government and was responsible for both making and enforcing the laws (often religious in nature).
2. Maintaining Religious uniformity was viewed as necessary to the system as any dissent would mean there was a flaw in the system itself. Dissent was not tolerated in any way
and was often punished severely.
a) Roger Williams
(1) A separatist that dissented extremely with the mainstream Puritans.
Sought to establish absolute purity, tolerance, and freedom of
conscience. He was very cynical about the Elect as he had no way of
knowing who was and who wasn’t. Said Mass. Bay was corrupted and
needed to be restarted. The General Court was in uproar over his ideas
but not mad enough to do anything about it yet. Then, he said that the
land they had settled was NOT theirs by right and that it rightfully
belonged to the natives. That was the final straw and the General Court
banished him to Rhode Island.
(a) Religious Freedom he founded Providence in Rhode Island
and established that the church and state should remain
separate. He also said that the government should protect all
VI. Weakening of the Puritan Experiment Due to more failures than successes the colony’s charter was revoked in 1684, 50 years after the colony was founded.
A. Internal and External Influences
1. Coming of Age the second and third generation Puritans were not as fiery as their parents and that made having a theocracy harder as they were harder to control.
2. Community Prosperity Massachusetts Bay was a huge economic win. Shipbuilding, resources, etc. were all extremely profitable.
3. Change in England the Puritan’s intention was to reform the Church of England, but nothing had changed back home except a little more religious toleration.
4. Salem in 1692 The Salem witch trials of course did not help anyone’s view on the colony. VII. Significance of Puritanism
A. Four New England colonies had been established by the Puritans Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Massachussetts itself. England empire was growing rapidly.
B. Puritan Individualism and Democracy The nature of the colonists to be self reliant and their insistence on a democratic society was established.
C. Religious Freedom Roger Williams established the precedent for religious freedom and the Separation of Church and State.
D. Education Established Harvard University to train priests. Puritans believed that education was a necessary part of life.
E. Puritan Economic Effort formed the idea of contributing to the common success by doing everything you can.
F. Tempering Excess The Puritans believed that all of life’s pleasures should be enjoyed but not to excess.
III. The Old Colonial System
A. The Colonial System is viewed as in effect from 1660 1763.
B. Key Questions
1. How was the English Empire formed?
2. How did the Empire break down?
II. Idea of an English Empire
A. Charles II, 1660 The Restoration
1. Between the 1640s and the 1660s back in England the monarchy had collapsed in a vicious civil war. It resulted in Charles II being put on the throne. He relaunched the
colonization effort and began to define the relationship between the crown and the
B. Second Wave of Colonies, 1660 1690
1. Purposeful, calculated system in which colonists were fully accepting of the King’s rule but maintained their desire to govern themselves.
1. The entire purpose of the colonies was economic power. Mercantilism established that every nation should have a favorable balance of trade value of a nation’s exports
exceeds the value of its imports. England needed more money and the colonies had some of the most valuable products on the market so England used them as a proxy. But in
order to have control over the situation they had to regulate trade so they created the
a) Navigation Acts, 16601663
(1) All goods imported or exported to/from an English colony had to be on
an English ship.
(2) Certain colonial products (the most valuable ones) were labelled
“enumerated articles” and were viewed as unique to the British Empire
and were subject to a tax and any shipment of them had to first pass
through London, where the tax would be collected.
(3) Colonists are not allowed to directly import anything, they must go
b) Problems of Enforcement
(1) The Colonial Economy was completely separate and could survive on
its own but was being made to pay for its own existence, which made
people mad. The colonies reached levels of economic power that
rivalled England itself and began to ignore these laws, especially
(2) New England Evasions more money could be made outside the
system than from within it. Colonists began to skip taxation and started
smuggling goods. They said that the laws interfered with business and
were arbitrary anyway. This was such a problem in Massachusetts that
this was the reason their charter was revoked. The Navigation Acts
were the weakest aspects of the colonial system.
D. Dominion of New England, 1686
1. James II was put on the throned and he had no patience for the problems with the
colonies. He blamed the problems entirely on the colonies and tried to do a restart of the system. He wiped out the idea of individual colonies and created the “Dominion of New
England” and put Edmund Andres at its head.
a) Andres was punishing and heavily enforced the new laws and regulations.
Demanded that colonists pay back taxes, suppressed town meetings, told
Puritans that they must allow nonPuritans in their church pews, he essentially
took away many of the rights that the colonists had established themselves as
E. The Glorious Revolution, 1688
1. James II was overthrown and a third restart of the colonial system was enacted by William and Mary. This “restart” actually just returned the colonial system back to what it was
before James II was on the throne.
III. Reorganization of 1696
A. Navigation Acts of 1696 England still wanted control over the situation but loosened their control some in order to maintain good relations with the colonies. The Acts were revised and “Writs of Assistance” were established. These were essentially search warrants and those found to be offenders of the law were tried before the British Royal Navy instead of other colonists.
B. Additions to Colonial System, 1696 1763
1. Prevention of Colonial Manufacturing
a) Woolens Act of 1699 and the Hat Act of 1732
2. Limited Imports of Foreign Products
a) Molasses Act of 1733
IV. Salutary Neglect
A. Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of England, said that “salutary neglect” was necessary and that the current system was effective as is. This “neglect” consisted of ignoring petty evasions and he stated that as the British were sloppy enforcers anyway, they might as well live and let live. V. Colonial Effects
1. British became the single largest economic power in the global market. The colonies themselves were profitable and increasingly powerful on their own.
1. There was relatively lowkey conflict between the Crown and the Colonists. The colonies remained loyal to the King and were allowed to do their own thing.
2. Colonial Assemblies vs. Royal Authority
a) The seeds of democracy were set in the colonies.
C. Summary The colonists established a bond with England and were allowed to maintain their own political power and selfgovernment.
IV. The American Revolution
I. Colonial Relationship in 1763
A. The relationship between the New England Colonies and England was still fairly wellfunctioning at this point despite its tense overtone. The colonials still saw themselves as British citizens and were
happy to obey for the most part. In 1763 Parliament and the King had consolidated their power and were controlling but they were not yet oppressive.
II. Explaining the Revolution
A. Causes, 1763 1775
1. Treaty of Paris, 1762: At the end of the French and Indian War, also called the Seven Years War, England had final, decisive victory over France, but the victory was almost
“too complete.” England had spent so much in their efforts to win the war that they had run up an enormous debt for the time period and didn’t see a way to pay for it with their
2. Problems in New England
a) Trade Regulations Colonists continued to evade the laws, even trading with
France out of their own selfinterest. Eventually the Crown and Parliament
realized just how much money they were losing to the illegal trade system the
colonists had and tried to start enforcing the laws again but simply didn’t have the
manpower or resources to do so.
b) The West from the edges of the colonies to the Mississippi River there was
“new” territory that had been given to England as a result of the War. Englishman
flooded into the area but did so without authorization from the crown and found
that they did not have the protection they were used to.
England simply couldn’t provide enough soldiers to protect all of them.
(1) Pontiac’s Rebellion The Native Americans of the Midwest resisted
Colonial expansion. A man named Pontiac incited a native rebellion that
extended from modern day Pittsburgh to Detroit, an enormous area, and
killed huge numbers of settlers. The colonists began wondering if the
British simply weren’t capable of protecting them.
(2) Proclamation Line As an attempt to stop settlers from continuing to
settle the Midwest, Parliament passed a law called the Proclamation
Line, which created an imaginary line on the backs of the established
colonies from the north to the south. The colonials simply ignored it as
an antagonizing, pointless, and impossibletoenforce law. Parliament
had simply failed to grasp the scope of the colonists ambitions and the
growth that was occurring within them.
c) Debts and Taxes Britain’s debt was over 120 million pounds, which was
impossible to comprehend in the time period. The native citizens of England were
already taxed enough so the Crown and Parliament looked to the colonies to pay
instead. They viewed it as only fair since the war was fought on their behalf
(1) Revenue Act of ‘64 In order to deal with the debt crisis, a group was
sent to the colonies to determine how best to tax the colonies. They
found that customs collections was costly in and of itself. So they
passed the Revenue Act, which taxed goods made within the colonies.
The colonials didn’t care because this had already been established
anyways. This didn’t help England so the passed the Stamp Act.
(2) Stamp Act of ‘65 This Act taxed anything in the colonies that was a
paper product. The colonists were in uproar over it in unprecedented
ways, they began to form mobs. Massachusetts led the charge against
the Act by creating the Stamp Act Congress. This organization gathered
a Declaration of Rights and was the first place that determined that
there should be “no taxation without representation.” British merchants
were financially damaged, England’s finances were hit by resistance to
the Act, mobs were increasingly dangerous and powerful. By passing the Stamp Act, Parliament had caused a crisis that no one would have predicted. In ‘66 the Stamp Act was repealed by way of the Declaratory Act, which was nothing more than a statement of power. Stated that Parliament had the right to tax but the colonists really didn’t care for this Act because it didn’t change anything they didn’t already know. The British learned nothing from this venture though and arguments began over representation in Parliament. England’s response was that the colonies were “virtually represented.” The colonies called bullshit.
(3) Townshend Duties, ‘67 Charles Townsend was Parliament’s finance secretary. He took the protests of the colonists seriously and said that the Stamp Act should be repealed. His solution to the problem of the taxes and the colonists was to simply raise taxes on items which were already being taxed. The Colonists were still violently disapproving of this as they still were not being represented in Parliament. These taxes cause massive boycotts, which crippled many merchants and damaged the economy severely. Parliament decided to repeal all the tax
increases but one, the tea tax.
(4) The Boston Massacre, ‘70 In the aftermath of the Stamp Act, Parliament sent a standing army to the colonies to protect English interests. There was a regiment of guards in Boston that Samuel Adams and others decided to begin harassing. The taunting escalated fast and when a piece of ice struck a soldier, he opened fire. The result was the deaths of five civilians and outrage from both sides. Both sides were shocked by the event and both sides withdrew from one another for three years.
(5) Tea Act, ‘73 This was a tax on tea that was intended to help a British tea trading company remain alive. The Act allowed the company to sell directly in the colonies, which resulted in what was essentially a
government authorized monopoly. The colonists were infuriated by the idea of their government catering to the needs of a merchant company at the expense of the colonists. This resulted in the Boston Tea Party, in which Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty masqueraded as Indians and attacked the ships of the company, dumping millions of dollars worth of tea into the harbor. Parliament’s response was the passage of the Coercive “Intolerable” Acts. The Act closed Boston Harbor indefinitely until the colonists paid back the price of the property they destroyed. It also forced colonists to permit the quartering of soldiers in their homes. The colonists saw this and understood that their rights were being trampled.
d) First Continental Congress The representatives of the colonies met to decide on what the best course of action would be to resolve the dispute between Parliament and the Colonies. Together they passed resolutions that were sent to Parliament. The resolutions simply stated that the colonists only wanted that the system return to its state of 1763, before these events. Parliament declared no concessions and decreed the colonies to be in a state of rebellion in order to justify war preparations.
(1) Lexington and Concord, ‘75 By the time the First Continental Congress had acted, many colonies were already taking steps to independence. In the spring of 1775 more British troops arrived in Boston with the
purpose of arresting dissidents and seizing colonial arms and
ammunition. There was an armory in Lexington that the British went for
and they were resisted by local militia, Minute Men who by some
offchance managed to push the British soldiers all the way back to
(2) Second Continental Congress, ‘75 As a result of the events of
Lexington, a second Continental Congress was called together to
determine the response of the colonies. They decided that war was
quickly becoming inevitable and began to organize and prepare for it,
putting George Washington as General of the new Continental Army.
Despite their decisiveness, they were all aware of the profound stupidity
of their actions in that they were both committing treason and declaring
war on the most powerful empire in the world at the time.
(a) Olive Branch Petition War was not the Congress’ first course
of action. They first wrote out a list of their grievances and sent
it directly to King George III in an attempt to get him to reason
with Parliament on the colonists’ behalf as the colonies’ issue
was with Parliament, not the king. The King refused and
declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion, beginning
the efforts for war.
B. Changes: Institutionalizing the Revolution
1. Declaration of Independence, ‘76 This move by the Second Continental Congress was not approved by the majority of colonials, who still viewed themselves as British citizens. As a way to encourage separatist ideas, Thomas Paine published “Common Sense,” a pamphlet which argued for the breaking of the bond between the colonies and England. Paine also attacked the King himself by referring to George as a “brute.” Jefferson read both the pamphlet and John Locke’s “Natural Law,” which argues for rules that simply cannot be broken since they were made by nature itself. He used these documents as inspiration for the grievances stated in the Declaration. The Declaration itself announced the arrival of a system of government that had only ever been discussed in theory the Republic. This decision was to represent a clean break from everything British.
2. Radicalism of the Revolution Although the Revolution was initially conservative (meaning that the colonies simply wanted to go back to the old ways while Parliament wanted to change how things worked) the act of declaring independence meant a far more radical change had to be accepted. This change would come in the form of acceptance of the Republican form of government, wherein the power of the government was derived exclusively from the will of the governed. In this form of government, the old system of inherited titles and wealth was abolished. The only problem with Republics that were intended to be implemented was in the fact that they had to be governed by “virtue.” In this case virtue means that the individual must put aside their own selfinterest in pursuit of the common good. This was, at its very best, an ideal only and could not last simply due to human nature.
3. Social and Economic Reform
a) Social Relations Prior to this point, the colonies had been looseknit and operated fairly independently from one another. At and after this point, they had to work together simply in order to survive. The ideal of equality began to spread (even though it was nowhere near true equality in any sense of the word).
b) Aristocracy The inheritance of power and wealth that was accepted prior to this point was no longer allowed to continue. Laws protecting its existence were
abolished and the gentry class became almost nonexistent.
c) Religion Where nearly every other system of government had refused to
acknowledge or accept any religions besides their own, this system grew with the
idea of religious tolerance and separation of church and state.
d) Slavery and the Status of Women Racial slavery boomed at the same time the
“all men are created equal” rhetoric was being passed around. This hypocrisy
was far reaching; however, the North slowly began the emancipation process,
mostly because it was not a profitable way of life anymore. Likewise, women’s
rights remained equally as ignored as they had been before.
4. Establishing a National Government When the process of laying out how the government would work began, the main concern was how to lay it out in such a way that the rights that governments tended to trample might be protected. The first attempt was the Articles of Confederation, which were an absolute failure as they essentially reduced the federal government to a powerless “oh is that still here?” After 8 years, the Articles were removed and the Constitution we have today was created.
III. The War, ‘75 ‘83
A. The General Nature of the Conflict The Americans only had to wait the British out. They had to inflict enough economic damage and casualties to convince the British to back off. The British had a much, much tougher job in that they had to send troops out, fight a war they didn’t have a passion for, spend money they didn’t have, etc.
B. Keys to the Colonial Success
1. Washington’s Generalship George Washington was born to the elite Virginia gentry and was trained in military combat and tactics.The Second Continental Congress picked him unanimously to lead and at first his humility told him to refuse as he viewed himself
unworthy of such a great cause. After he accepted Washington realized just how much of an issue controlling the new army would be. Washington despised the common soldiers under his command because, as volunteer soldiers, they did not operate in a manner he was trained to deal with. He did learn eventually how to flex the “ideals” card to make
them do as he asked, he also learned how to use their unconventional ways of fighting as a positive. He learned that keeping them constantly on the move toward a goal was how to keep them occupied and also allowed them to win the war.
2. Saratoga, ‘77 The British army had a plan to split the colonists into having a twofront war by splitting New York via Saratoga. They were quite surprised when the colonists
were waiting on them and captured and defeated them.
a) French Alliance, ‘78 Prior to Saratoga the French had simply refused to help the
colonies directly because they thought the colonies had no chance to lose. after
Saratoga the French saw how well the resistance was going and pledged their
full support to the colonies.
3. Valley Forge, ‘77 ’78 The horrible winter took out a huge number of Washington’s men and awful losses were causing huge morale drops. By the time of the Spring thaws, over 2000 of the 50006000 man army were dead. Friedrich Wilhelm, Baron von Steuben was a German military commander who managed to whip the army into shape after the winter until they were an effective, organized military presence.
4. War in the South Previously the British had fought the war almost exclusively in Northern territory. Now they realized that they could probably cause a break if they fought their war in the southern states, where they had more supporters. This move was effective and
eventually Virginia was the last stronghold.
a) Yorktown, ‘81 With the help of the French navy and his newly trained army,
General Washington defeated the British army led by Cornwallis at Yorktown.
The defeat was so shameful to Cornwallis that he sent a representative to hand
over his sword instead of actually going.
IV. Results After 2 more years of fighting after Yorktown, the British finally gave up fighting the colonists because they could no longer afford any more men or money. The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783 and granted the Americans all the land previously denied them, out to the Mississippi River.
V. Confederation and the Constitution
I. Wasn’t here for this part due to sickness, sorry.
II. Constitutional Convention
A. Road to Philadelphia Each of the states sent representatives to philadelphia to scrap the Articles entirely and make a new system. The Founders, as they were called, included Washington, Madison, and Hamilton.
B. Balancing Power and Liberty In order to not infringe on the rights of the citizenry there had to be some way to ensure that the government did not put too much power in one place. The result was the split of the government into three separate branches: Judicial, Executive, and Legislative.
C. Problems and Compromises The Founders did not agree on some things and as a result there had to be several compromises that were reached before the Constitution was sent out to be ratified.
1. Great (Connecticut) Compromise The issue over representation in the legislature was a fight between the larger and smaller states. The larger states wanted representation by
population size while the smaller states wanted a fixed number. The compromise, made
by Richard Sherman, established that the lower House of Representatives would be
elected by population size while the upper Senate would be a flat number (2) for
2. ⅗Compromise The issue of how slaves would be counted for tax and population size measures was also determined. The decision was that slaves represented only threefifths of a person.
1. Stronger National Government than was existent during the Articles.
2. The powers that did not get explicitly given to the Feds went to the States.
3. The democracy was reduced and the market was more contained as measures to keep things running smoothly.
E. View of Constitution Some viewed the Constitution as a betrayal of the original purpose of the revolution, which was to throw off the shackles of an oppressive government. The new laws and regulations did not seem better to some people, they seemed to have just restarted this problem. III. Ratification, ‘87 ‘88: Had to be ratified by 9 of the 13 states
A. Federalists vs. Antifederalists
a) Viewed as one of the first political parties.
b) Followed the fiscal and political policies of Alexander Hamilton.
c) Wanted a strong federal government and the ability to intervene directly in the
a) Not a true political party.
b) Opposed the strong federal government and got their views from Jefferson.
c) They were not favorable towards the growing market and generally opposed the
growth of slavery.
B. Ratifying and the Federalist Papers
1. Ratification in 1788 the document was ratified by the necessary 9 states and was
passed. The problem came with the fact that two of the most powerful states, Virginia and New York, abstained over questions about the individual rights of citizens. As a response
to these doubts and due to the need for the states’ support the Federalist Papers, a
collection of 85 essays detailing reasons for supporting the Constitution, were published. a) Federalist 10 and 51 Two of the most well known documents were written by
James Madison. Federalist 10 was a discussion about the danger that factions
posed to a new government and how factions can never be truly removed but
they can be contained. Federalist 51 addressed the concern about the
centralization of power in the government by explaining that power was diffused
into the three branches, which in turn checked each other.
b) The Bill of Rights As a final way to assure the states and citizens, a set of 10
Amendments, known as the Bill of Rights was passed to explain what the
government is explicitly forbidden to do to its citizens. This was never before
seen as it restricted the government’s own power.
VI. Securing the Republic
I. Questions Facing the US in 1789
A. Would the new national government be strong enough to deal with the remaining problems left by the war?
B. Would the US be able to command respect as an independent nation?
C. What defined the relationship between the government and its citizens?
D. Would political parties emerge and would the government be able to withstand their infighting? II. Launching the New Government
A. First President The first President had the extraordinary job of bringing legitimacy to the nation. Their leadership would show the world how the nation was going to be. George Washington was unanimously approved as the first President of the United States. He and the new government inherited what can only be described as an absolute chaos situation but they were adamant about maintaining the rules and laws of the Constitution to fix it.
B. First Congress The first thing Congress ever did was raise taxes to pay off the debt from the war. This was was followed by the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established the structure and functioning of the lower Courts. They also created much of the Executive Organization, namely the Cabinet and also the Departments of State, Treasury, and War.
III. Hamiltonian Federalism
A. Alexander Hamilton as the Secretary of Treasury
1. Alexander Hamilton was born in the British West Indies but violent storms forced him to go to the colonies. There he was very poor initially but he was brilliant and married into one of the wealthiest families in New York.When he became the Secretary of the Treasury he
was granted what was, at the time, possibly the most important position available.
2. Purpose He had an absolute obsession with the centralization of power in England and viewed it as the epitome of how the government should function. He believed that the
states should be nulled and that a central US governmental entity was necessary to the
survival of the nation.
3. Philosophy Hamilton had no faith in the common man and even detested the lower classes that he had once been a part of. He was an adamant elitist and gladly told
everyone else this. He thought that only the wealthy were valuable to society and
considered the poor to be part of the “mob.” He said that the government could capitalize on the natural greed of humanity by turning that private greed into public good with a
B. Report On the Public Credit 1790 The government was in great debt and the money issues were rampant so Congress ordered Hamilton to propose solutions to the problem. The only problem was that Hamilton knew absolutely nothing about what he was doing and relied solely on his own brilliance.
1. Decisions Federal Government would absorb the debts of the States, the US would establish credit as he viewed debt as something not necessarily bad (Funding &
Assumption if the debt doesn't have to be paid off at once then use taxes to pay off the interest and fund the debt), wanted a stable currency and market and suggested that the US should become an industrial economy.
2. Reaction James Madison, the then Speaker of the House, was fearful of the massive increase in power that Hamilton wanted the government to have and started to side with the States and Thomas Jefferson. Madison could’ve held the report up but he understood the need for a strong national government and allowed the Report to circulate through
Congress. They passed the resolutions Hamilton made on the grounds that the national government would be moved out of the North, from New York at the time to its current
location in D.C.
C. Report on the National Bank 1790 The question of who would manage the money came to light and very few people trusted the idea of banks at the time. Hamilton’s solution was the National Bank, to be chartered by the government, run by citizens, and centered in the North. There was immediate uproar in opposition to this as it was believed that doing this might be Unconstitutional. The problem was that the Constitution didn’t say you could do it but it didn’t say that you couldn’t. This led to a debate over Constitutional Interpretation.
1. The difference between the two factions in this debate was of Strict and Broad
Interpretation. The Strict view stated that the Constitution must be followed directly along its very narrow scope while the Broad side said that some assumptions can be made. The two sides were not willing to cooperate until Hamilton used Article I Section 8 to convince George Washington to his side, who then promptly twisted a few arms in Congress to get the proposition passed.
D. Report on Manufactures 1790 Hamilton’s ambition did not stop with the establishment of the National Bank. He wanted to make sure that the US became an industrial nation because he hated Agrarian society and used the “powerhouse” explanation to try and convince Congress that his was a good idea. They did not agree with him on this point and refused to allow the government to support big business.
E. Results of the Hamilton Programs The US became financially stable, the federal government had achieved the significant national power it required, and the Federalist Party had been founded. IV. Jeffersonian Republicanism, ‘89 ‘92
A. Mr. Madison’s Party Jefferson and Madison organized the DemocraticRepublican party together. The party consisted of those who were concerned with the states’ inability to stop the growing power of the national government.
1. Political Philosophy Jefferson was very much against the increasingly strong federal government. He did not agree with the idea of the National Bank at all and wanted very much to lessen the amount of federal power being given to the government.
2. Agrarianism In the aspect of the US’ future he was the opposite of Hamilton. Jefferson despised the growing market and industry itself and preferred that the US remain in a farm based economy.
3. Strict Constitutional Interpreter Jefferson believed in keeping rigidly to the letter of the Constitution.
C. Republican Party The DemocraticRepublican party became the Republican party under Jefferson.
V. Foreign Policy and Party Politics
A. Jefferson and Hamliton differ on Foreign Policy
B. Problems of the French Revolution
1. Neutrality Would the US remain outside of the conflict or come to the aid of the nation that helped them against England was a big quesion.
2. Citizen Genet The French ambassador to the US. He gathered support for the French and began to use US ships as privateers to attack British ships. Eventually his actions
forced President Washington to ask that his status as an ambassador be rescinded.
C. British Violations of Neutrality The British were stopping American ships heading to France and seizing their goods despite the fact that America was a neutral party in the conflict. This added on to the problem that was the remaining British forts that were still active in the US, which also purposely irritated the Native Americans against the settlers. This instance damaged the Federalist party because they had a preference for English ways of doing things and the Republicans used it to lash out since the French revolution had damaged their own credibility. The Federalists knew that they couldn't declare war to finish this so they decided to send an ambassador. They didn’t have a set ambassador at that time so they sent John Jay, the Chief Justice, to negotiate the terms.
1. Jay’s Treaty, 179495 Jay was told by Washington to go to England to “negotiate
American interests from a position of strength.” He was told that the issues of maritime
crimes and the forts had to be solved. The treaty that was agreed to decided that England would remove its forts from the US if they were granted “favored nation status.” This term made the US an international partner with England against France. Jay returned to see himself burning in effigy by the Republican party who viewed the treaty as them now being lawfully beholden to England.
D. Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 Congress placed a high tax on whiskey to help pay for things. Out in the western areas it was harder to enforce, so many distillers in Pennsylvania simply ignored the law. The federal government realized this and, in response, Washington raised a 12000 man militia to march into Pennsylvania to claim the taxes that the government was due and enforce the laws. 20 men were arrested and 2 were set to be executed but Washington pardoned them. Federalist party used this rebellion to flex its power and show that it had the right and ability to levy and enforce a tax. The Republicans once again attacked this action with the argument that the government was overstepping its bounds again.
E. Washington Farewell Address, 1796 At the end of his second term, Washington had come to despise the presidency and all of the political infighting that was inherent with it. Though the 22nd Amendment had yet to be in place, he stepped down from the Presidency in a move that shocked many people as there were almost no prior instances of someone in a high level of power relinquishing it. In his farewell address he encouraged the nation to stay out of the politics of the constantly warring Europe and said that if the political parties remained then the system would fail. His leaving did not help the situation. Instead, he was the only things holding the system together at some level and him leaving allowed the parties to be at each other’s throats even more fiercely than before.
VI. Adam’s Administration, 17971801
A. John Adams won the election that took place after washington, which left the Federalist Party still in power. There was dissension in the party along the faultlines of Hamilton, who wanted Adams’ position, and Adams, who had to deal with Hamilton’s strong political allies.
B. XYZ Affair, 1797 Due to the French not seeming to care about US neutrality, diplomatic relations between the two countries were broken off. To try to reconcile this, Adams sent three ambassadors to France. The three waited for months without hearing from anyone but then three individuals who referred to themselves as X, Y, and Z showed up and agreed to negotiate if they were given 10 Million dollars. Adams was furious and the Republican party was ashamed over this incident but Hamilton was quite happy about the idea of going to war with France.
C. Undeclared Naval War with France, 1798 Since there were no longer any diplomatic relations protecting the situation, both sides began to attack one another’s ships and steal their goods. The
whole fiasco split the parties even more and allowed the Federalists to launch a smear campaign against the Republicans. As a final act against the Republican party, the Federalist led Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, which made it a criminal offense to speak against the government. Most individuals were immune but Jefferson, who was the explicit target of the new laws, which carried a punishment of 2 years in prison and a 2000 dollar fine. The Republicans shouted about the fact that it was unconstitutional but they were the minority party and could do nothing. In an effort to solve the problem, Jefferson and Madison tried to solve the problem of Constitutional Interpretation once and for all. The went to the states of Virginia and Kentucky to argue that the states could declare an act of Congress unconstitutional and, following the Compact Theory that says that the states that made up the Union could control it, said that the states didn’t have to follow an Act of Congress if they saw it as Unconstitutional.and illegal. Virginia and Kentucky agreed with the idea and refused to follow the laws.
D. Election of 1800
1. Issues What is the role of the Federal Government? What kind of identity is the US trying to form?
2. Results and Significance Jefferson won. This meant that the political party controlling the White House switched hands due to the public will. The parties conceded to the change and so it was established that the parties, no matter how divided, were not strong enough to totally collapse the system because they would always have a common interest in
maintaining said government.
VII. Republicans in Power, 18011815
A. First Term, 18011805
1. Revolution of 1800 Jefferson declared his election a Revolution, which was kinda dumb since it didn't really change anything at all.
2. Struggle with the Federal Judiciary At this point nobody still had any real clue as to what the Judiciary was for but Adams had made sure to pack the lower courts and the Supreme Court with Federalists before he left office. Jefferson began to see a problem when they began to make political speeches even though they were supposed to be apolitical. His
biggest issue was with the fact that the new Chief Justice was John Marshall.
3. Marbury v. Madison 1803 When John Adams left office he made what are called
“midnight appointments” before he left. These appointments to the Federal Judiciary were done so late that their enaction overlapped with the presidencies of both Adams and
Jefferson. Mr. Marbury was one of the men that Adams had ordered an appointment for, but he did not get his appointment letter as it had landed in the hands of Jefferson’s
Secretary of State, James Madison, who kept the letter under the order of Jefferson
himself. Marbury sued for his appointment and worked the case all the way up to the
Supreme Court. The Supreme Court had a very convoluted Opinion in this case as they stated that Marbury deserved the appointment he had been given but also that the Court could and should not assume the right to decide the matter as it placed more power in
their possession than was necessary. This was in direct conflict with the Judiciary Acts,
which said that the Supreme Court could, in fact, do that. This resulted in the Court
declaring that section of the Acts to be Unconstitutional. This decision, and the case that brought it before the Court, was what established the idea of Judicial Review.
4. Louisiana Purchase, 1803 The enormous amount of land that the French had under their control was impossible for them to effectively control so Napoleon agreed to sell the land to the US for a miserly 15 Million dollars. This action was in direct opposition to Jefferson’s prior stance for strict interpretation of the Constitution and he received a lot of criticism for his flipflopping. Regardless deal gave the US a HUGE amount of land.
5. Lewis and Clark Expedition Jefferson, who was fascinated by the new land, ordered an exploration of the area. Lewis and Clark set out from the area that would become St. Louis
and went all the way to the Pacific. They sent several samples and collections back to Jefferson along the way.
B. Alternatives To War, 18081809
1. England and France had resumed fighting each other again and, once again, neither nation respected nor cared for the idea of US neutrality. The British escalated the problems with the action of Impressment.
a) Impressment English ships would land on American soil and essentially force American citizens to work for the British Navy. They would do this to ships as
well and it became a horrible and massive issue on the international scale as it made it apparent that England still viewed the colonies as their possession.
(1) Chesapeake Affair, 1807 The ship Chesapeake was stopped and teh
captain of the ship refused to be forced into British service. This event
infuriated the American people and war became a big topic even as
Jefferson understood that they would not be able to afford another war.
b) Embargo Act As an attempt to “punish” the two nations, the US passed laws that banned trade with them. This was an attempt to economically damage the countries. It backfired horribly as it only really damaged American merchants and allowed England to have a monopoly on trade and eventually the Acts were
C. Election of 1808 Though the Republicans should have lost due to the whole international scandal, Madison won.
D. Drifting to War, 18091812
1. Continued Economic Coercion While the Embargo Acts got repealed, the problems with England got worse and worse until the two countries broke diplomatic relations in 1811. 2. War Hawks The new generation of Republicans were very enthusiastic about a war with England under the pretense of protecting American interests and commanding respect. E. War of 1812
1. Military Failures Entire territories of the US were seized and the British had massive gains in control.
2. Federal Opposition to the War Those against the war blamed the Republicans for causing it and wasting resources and lives. In protest, those opposing the war met at the Hartford Convention of 1814 where they laid out a series of resolutions and demanded to end the war or their states would secede.
3. Treaty of Ghent, 1814 Eventually the war just became pointless and a failure on all accounts. England made three big offensives and lost two of them, both sides had wasted huge amounts of time and resources so Parliament declared the war to be over and both sides agreed to meet in Ghent, Belgium to settle. The agreement made was that the state of things would go back to what it was before the war had ever started, essentially it was as though the war never happened.
4. Death of the Federalist Party After the war the Federalist party as an institution simply ceased to exist, leaving the Republicans as the only active party.
5. Andrew Jackson Jackson had gathered a mercenary militia to fight for him in what would be called the Battle of New Orleans. It was a fight that the British should’ve easily won but in the end Jackson’s troops decimated the British 700 British casualties to around 20 Americans. Jackson became a war hero.
6. Hamilton Hamilton died during this time period after he insulted Aaron Burr and refused to formally apologize. In response Burr challenged him to a duel, which Hamilton accepted. Hamilton shot into the air to signify that he was willing to talk it out but Burr still shot him. Hamilton later died at 49.
F. New Questions
1. Would the US be strong enough without becoming oppressive?
2. Would the US remain to be run in an aristocratic manner or not?
3. Would the US be able to maintain its independence and respect on the International Stage?
4. Would political parties manage to rip the country apart?
VII. Nationalism and Sectionalism, 1815 1824
I. Nationalism After the War of 1812 The imaginary victory over England increased the national pride while a boom in technology and several social changes altered the social atmosphere.
II. Economic Nationalism
A. Growth of the US As people moved into the new Louisiana Territory the economy boomed. The Southern states remained agricultural and plantations became even more common and influential. Boats and eventually trains made transport through the nation easier and increased trade.
B. Market Revolution Prior to this point farms existed for the sole purpose of survival as people would consume what they made. With mass transport the market system grew rapidly and the idea of cash crops and specialized farms grew, which in turn increased the power of the market even more.
C. New Republicans The new generation of Republicans were different from their predecessors. They favored the new market system and appreciated the war the occurred.
1. Tariff of 1816 A tax was placed on imported goods. This made those goods more
expensive than those produced by local manufacturers. The tax was created for the sole purpose of encouraging local purchases to better the economy.
2. 2nd Bank of the US The 1st Bank’s charter had run out so it had to be renewed.
3. Internal Improvements Government funded infrastructure (roads, bridges, etc.) There was resistance to the idea as strict interpretation did not allow the Feds to do that. They
failed to get most of it passed at first.
4. American System Henry Clay combined all the above three ideas into the idea of the American System. Clay was an ardent nationalist but his ideas were viewed as Sectional (state focused) and mostly shot down.
III. Political Nationalism
A. James Monroe won the election of 1816 because there was no one to run against him; however, as it was believed that George Washington should forever remain the only President to receive unanimous approval for office the Republicans threw in a trash candidate to save Washington’s status. As the Republicans were the only party active it was called the “Era of Good Feelings” since there was theoretically no problems with each other.
IV. Judicial Nationalism
A. John Marshall, a Federalist, was still Chief Justice. McCulloch v. Maryland was a case where the state of Maryland tried to tax the National Bank in its state out of existence under the idea of the Compact Theory. Mr. McCulloch, who worked for the bank, sued the state up to the Supreme Court. Marshall issued that the Compact Theory had no grounds and was a worthless argument and states had no power to overrule the Federal Government.
V. Diplomatic Nationalism
A. FloridaInternational Treaty The US desperately wanted Florida from the Spanish for its location and trade aspects and to decide what to do about the runaway slaves that went there to escape their slavers. Andrew Jackson, who was now a General, was set on the FloridaGeorgia Line and got annoyed with the whole thing and just decided to invade Florida.He won the area easily and did so without permission from anyone even though he said he did. Monroe sent John Quincy Adams to Spain to try to stem the situation but instead Adams said that Spain might as well just give Florida to the US since they couldn’t even protect it well anyway. Eventually the point was made that the Latin American colonies of the Spanish were gradually achieving independence anyway.
Adding to that point was the American concern for the idea that these newly independent nations would be readily latched onto by other European nations.
B. Monroe Doctrine, 1823 Due to the escalation of the above situation, Monroe declared that the entire Western Hemisphere was now under the explicit protection of the US and that it would be totally closed to further European influence. The US could not actually achieve this idea but it was held anyway due to the huge boost in national selfesteem that rose from the “victory” of the War of 1812.
VI. Economic Collapse and Sectional Conflict, 18191821
A. Panic of 1819 The Boom and Bust Cycle of the market system that America had entered itself into had passed its Boom phase and was now in the worst economic depression in the nation’s short history up to that point. The Boom period was caused because of the rapid expansion of the nation and the increase in agricultural production of cash crops like cotton. The demand for cotton on the world market skyrocketed but eventually that demand faded and the economy that was built around its production tanked. The problem with this was in that the US Bank had loaned out HUGE amounts of money to farmers who had planned to make money off of the increasing market but instead got taken down with it when the market crashed. The new Westerners were hit the hardest by this particular effect as they had taken out the most extensive loans to set up on the new land. Following the American tradition, they blamed the government for “forcing” them to take out those loans and became upset with the East as a whole for “allowing” such a thing to occur. This began the issue of West/East Sectionalism.
B. Missouri Controversy and Compromise, 1820
1. The most politically violent and dangerous exercise in government power to that point. At this time the debate between slave states and free states was at an alltime high as there had been a massive explosion in the use of slavery as the nation grew westward. The
Founders had expected slavery to die out of its own natural course but that, of course, did not happen. They had tried at first to set up ways to end it in the future but the southern states wouldn’t ratify the Constitution with those provisions so the Founders conceded and left those ideas out. By 1819 there were 11 Free States and 11 Slave States in the Union, but when the territory of Missouri asked to join the Union as a Slave State both sides
erupted into chaos. The North saw the admission of a new slave state as a way to tip the balance of political power in Congress towards the South (due to the ⅗Compromise,
which would increase the state’s population size and thereby increase their representation in Congress) and their resistance was viewed as a breach of Constitutionality by the
South. A New York Congressman proposed the idea that MIssouri would be allowed to be a slave state, but it could not bring in any more slaves and the children of slaves already there would be freed on their 25th birthday. This proposal infuriated the South as it was a very transparent attempt at making Missouri a free state at some point in its future.
a) Questions from this Problem
(1) Could Congress restrict slavery’s expansion? South said no because of
Constitutional Compromise over the issue but the North said they could
because the Founders had never imagined the huge expansion slavery
managed to get.
(2) Wasn’t there a moral problem in this? Many viewed slavery as wrong
but the southerners, by majority, did not and worked hard to reconcile
their acceptance of the Constitution with their acceptance of slavery.
2. Compromise Henry Clay proposed his own way to end this issue and allow both sides a “win.” Missouri would be admitted as a slave state as long as Maine, a new state to the
North, would be admitted as a free state. This was done in order to ensure that the
balance of power in Congress would not be tipped one way or another. The Compromise
was accepted and was held as a “sacred trust” between the two sides of North and South but simultaneously inspired HUGE political backlash.
C. Protective Tariff and Southern Opposition
1. The Tariff of 1816 was increased even more and the South, already riled up by the
Missouri issue, lashed back more violently than ever. Southern identity grew alongside the Northern and both sides now transferred their nationalistic feelings into sectionalist as they favored their respective sides of the issue.
VII. Election of 1824
A. The Republican party was still the only true political party but now the sectionalist conflict allowed for several candidates to vie for the office. Nobody received the necessary majority (though Jackson received a plurality and Adams got the second most) in the Electoral College and as such the vote for the Office went to the House of Representatives. The only problem with this was that one of the candidates, Henry Clay, was the current Speaker of the House. To prevent backlash, Clay stepped away from the election and manipulated enough support for J.Q. Adams that he got the Presidency.
1. “Bargain and Corruption” Jackson’s supporters were infuriated by this as up to this point every President had been the Secretary of State of the former President. That former Sec. was Henry Clay, and even though they didn’t like Clay either they did like the tradition. In response the “Jacksonians” made Adams’ life a living hell.
1. Henry Clay Kentucky Senator, famous for securing the Missouri Compromise and his creation of the idea of the American System.
2. William Crawford Unimportant, from Georgia, oldschool Jeffersonian (Compact Theory and Strict Constitutional Interpretation)
3. John Quincy Adams Son of John Adams, very intellectual, follower of Henry Clay,
believer in National Power and Supremacy
4. Andrew Jackson The “people’s man,” not a politician in ANY way, war hero, no set political ideology, had a tremendously influential and favored personality.
VIII. Rise of American Democracy, 18241840
I. Emergence of Democratic Republicans
A. By the end of J.Q. Adams’ presidency, the Republican party had died out just like the Federalist party before them. They were actually replaced with the Democratic Republicans though, unlike the Federalists who just kind of vanished. Their death was caused almost entirely by the Jacksonians themselves.
B. Jacksonian Image Jackson became what was essentially a folk hero as he and his followers crafted his reputation and image into that of the “people’s man” and his party as the “people’s party.” They made sure to make out that they were removing the aristocratic style that the system had possessed for so long. Their intention was to bring the “common man” into the political world.
1. Jackson His father died before he was born. His mother died when he was 15 years old and he grew up a proud, gritty, brawler. During the Revolution he had his face scarred by the saber of a British officer who sliced his face after Jackson refused to shine the officer’s boots when he was captured. Held staunchly to the belief that you must be able to
command respect and even fear. He engaged in several duels, won all of them and had
several men who died by his hand. He was even shot in the heart once and survived. In
essence he got shot at and threatened A LOT but still survived. One man even
attempted to assassinate him but when the hammer froze (in both the main gun and the
backup apparently) Jackson chased the wouldbeassassin down and proceeded to beat him with his cane. He even engaged in a race with another steamboat and when the other
boat began winning he took out his gun and began shooting at it. All in all, Andrew
Jackson was a very charismatic and eccentric man who took nobody’s shit.
2. Martin van Buren A New Yorker with massive ambition and favor towards Jackson’s political ideas.
3. John C. Calhoun The Warhawk New Republican from South Carolina who became Jackson’s righthand man.
II. National Republican Party
A. The entire party was unable to get anything done as the Jacksonians opposed every idea and proposition made by their rivals. Due to continued stress on Congress, the Jacksonians managed to break the Republican party and their influence until the party itself was dissolved.
III. Election of 1828
A. The Election of 1828 was the first “modern” election, in all its mudslinging, epic stupidity. It was, up to that point, the most bizarre election to ever occur.
B. Jackson vs. Adams Jackson’s image of a charismatic war hero vs. Adams’ image of a studious and brilliant aristocrat. Jackson ran around the nation riling up the populace against Adam and his intellectual nature. This was shocking to many as the people had never been directly involved in the election process but now Jackson was saying they could be and this idea won him a HUGE following. The two sides attacked each other brutally in the media but Adams’ ways were far less effective as they tended to backfire, such as when he called out Jackson’s “hitlist” of the men he had killed in duels with the intent of tarnishing Jackson’s image, instead the people loved this. In response Jackson started the rumour that Adams, who had been the diplomat to Russia, had secured the Tsar an American pleasure girl.
1. Popular 56% went to Jackson, which was the most popular support achieved by a President up to that point.
2. Electoral 68%
3. Inauguration Jackson invited the “American Public” to his Inauguration Address and the Party following it. 10,000 people showed up and trashed the place in what became a
massive violent and drunken party. People stole paintings, the entire estate was
IV. Jackson as President, 18291837
A. Spoils System Jackson began a practice that tarnished his image on both sides of the aisle, the Spoils System. In this practice, Jackson handed out political appointments to his friends and supporters, regardless of their qualifications for those positions. This made people lose faith in the electoral system.
B. Indian Removal Jackson was welldocumented as violently hating Natives. As a response to pressure from Southern farmers wanted the land that some of the Native Nations held, Jackson initiated the infamous “Trail of Tears.” This action was the forced removal of five of the Great Native Nations: Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and Cherokee from their lands towards a “reserve” of sorts in an area that Jackson thought no white people would ever want to live Oklahoma. This entire process destroyed these great Native peoples and earned Jackson contempt and love in equal measure.
C. Tariff Continued with South Carolina
1. The Protective Tariff that was made to ensure that Americans bought American was causing more and more issues as time went on. The Tariff really only helped the
industrialized North while it damaged the South and the West. Somehow, South Carolina equated the Tariff with a threat against slavery and argued for the purpose of criticizing the majority/minority power struggle. Calhoun spoke up for South Carolina even though he was an ardent nationalist as he was politically shrewd and knew that he would lose his
office if he did not follow the will of his electors.
2. Tariff of 1828 This increased the Tariff even higher than the last increase. South Carolina was having none of this and began to discuss secession from the Union as a viable option for resisting this.
3. South Carolina Exposition and Protest, 1828 Calhoun responded to ^this^ with an anonymous letter that stated the Compact Theory as active and that the states could nullify Federal Law and that if the Feds didn’t concede then the state would have the full right to secede. He did, however, say that nobody should do anything until Jackson’s election if they wanted to avoid secession. South Carolina calms down but the theory was put out there and began to take hold of many minds. jackson himself suspected Calhoun of being the author of the letter and the relationship between the two started to crumble as Jackson was a massive proponent of the Union and National Supremacy. One man, Robert Haynes, tried to mollify both sides at one dinner and Jackson responded with “the Union must be preserved” while staring directly at Calhoun. Calhoun responded to that pointed address with “the Union, next to our liberty.”
4. End of JacksonCalhoun Alliance The rift between the two was being encouraged by the massively ambitious Martin van Buren, who wanted to replace Calhoun as Jackson’s righthand.
a) Peggy Eaton Affair John Eaton was an early ally of Jackson and his present Secretary of War. The widower met the daughter of a barkeep, whose husband was a Navy man. The two had an affair so Eaton kept it quiet until the husband died at sea. Four weeks later the two got married. Everyone saw this as
extremely odd and saw it for what it was, the result of which was an insane rift in Jackson’s cabinet. The wives of Jackson’s cabinet members had always met but Calhoun’s wife refused to be in the same room as Peggy and riled up her friends as well. Jackson insisted that everyone accept her and even called an official
Cabinet meeting to discuss the matter. van Buren was the only one unaffected by this as he did not have a wife involved in this and suggested that Jackson fire his entire Cabinet and start over. Jackson conceded and, in doing so, left Calhoun without a single ally as he was still Jackson’s VP. This was the nail in the coffin as Calhoun no longer had a reason to stop his state from their secessionleaning actions.
5. Tariff of 1832 Congress, being the stubborn individuals they were/are, passed another tariff that increased the tax even higher than it had been before. Predictably, South Carolina lost their minds and immediately voted to nullify the action. The problem with them doing this was also in that they did so alone instead of having the support of other states. Jackson was furious and responded with a rebuttal of the action saying that while the Compact Theory had credibility in the idea that the states made up the Union, it was wrong in every aspect as the states could not claim to be part of the Union and also be able to pick and choose the laws they wanted to follow. South Carolina decided their response to this was going to be raising a militia to protect against the US Army. Obviously that did not go over well with Jackson or Congress and Congress responded by passing the Force Bill, which allowed Jackson to use any means necessary to subdue them.
6. Compromise Tariff, 1833 During this huge power struggle, moderate voices began to become more influential. Henry Clay again showed up with a Compromise for the whole thing. His idea was that a tariff be put in place that would steadily decrease over a span of 10 years. Both sides of the aisle agreed and it got passed as both sides viewed it as a personal victory.
D. “War” with the National Bank
1. The National Bank was set to be rechartered in 1836, at the end of Jackson’s second term. The Bank was much more stable at this time than it had been previously and was
able to hold itself.
2. Nicholas Biddle The current head of the National Bank. Jackson hated him, mostly for the fact that he was part of the Bank, and so did many people in the population. The Bank was viewed as an establishment built to serve the aristocracy and the Northeastern
3. ReCharter Bill of 1832 Four years before the Bank’s charter was set to expire, the Republican led Congress thought it would be a good idea to send out the proposal for its rechartering early. Their idea was that if Jackson signed it everything would be fine and if he didn’t they would crucify him in the press, or at least attempt to, before the next
election. The idea backfired, Jackson vetoed the Bill and even stated that the Supreme
Court was wrong in McCulloch v. Maryland as he said the Bank was Unconstitutional.
Jackson managed to get popular support for this decision as he spun the idea that the
Bank was built for the elite. The reason it was a backfire was that Congress was unable to override his veto, which started a whole snowball of crap to come.
E. Election of 1832 The Jacksonians praised Jackson’s veto of the recharter as a “second Declaration.” This was of course worth some sideeye but the Republicans didn’t know what they were dealing with. The Republicans, doing what no politician should ever do, assumed that the American people were intelligent enough to see past emotion and look at the facts of the situation. They tried to use the economic explanations and detailed information to convince people that the Bank was necessary. Meanwhile, the Jacksonians were again running around, riling the people up and essentially winning Jackson the vote. Jackson won the election extremely easily and credited his success to his veto and dealing with South Carolina.
F. Completion of “War” Against the Bank
1. Jackson ordered his Secretary of the treasury to withdraw all government deposits from the Bank. The Secretary, knowing that this was an absolutely insane decision, refused
and Jackson fired him and replaced him with Roger B. Taney. Taney did as he was told and the money was distributed to “pet banks” across the country. These were horrible and dangerously badly run but that’s not on the test. By 1836 the Bank was effectively nothing and Biddle blamed Jackson for everything.
G. Economic Boom and Speculation Immediately after Jackson got rid of the Bank, America had a boom period as the cotton market rose again and people again headed west. This was attributed to the Bank thing though, which was completely unrelated.
V. Election of 1836
A. Jackson was so powerful and influential by the time he left office that he was able to effectively handpick his successor. Of course, he went with Martin van Buren who ran, even though he didn’t have to, under the pretense of being Jackson’s “third term.”
B. Whig Party The Whigs were a looseknit band of OldRepublicans that were broadly nationalistic and feared the states rights’ movement for what it could potentially do to the Union.They were large proponents of Henry Clay’s American System and the big problem with them was that they couldn’t really sum themselves up beyond being against Jackson.
VI. Van Buren and the Panic of 1837 The demand for cotton tanked for a second time and the short boom period was gone. The problem now was that, with the Bank gone, there was no way to regulate the huge depression that occurred. This tragedy damaged the Democrats massively and the Whigs used this opportunity to wait for the next election.
VII. Log Cabin Campaign, 1840 The Whigs selected William Henry Harrison, one of the Virginia wealthy elite, as their candidate and spun his background into a lie about a harsh life that made him into the wellrespected war hero he was at the time. The Whigs, because they wanted to seem like they could be nonpartisan, chose to “balance the ticket” by putting a man that opposed everything they believed as the VP,
John Tyler. Harrison was woefully unqualified for the presidency and Tyler was an adamant states rights’ proponent so this was a big fup on the part of the Whigs. The biggest issue came in the form of what would known as the Whig Fiasco of 1841.
A. Whig Fiasco For whatever reason, Harrison had decided that he wasn’t going to wear a coat or anything to protect him from the weather during the freezing, rainy day that his inauguration got. The moron caught pneumonia and died a month later. This put Tyler, a man who stood for everything that the Whigs did not, as the President. This complete and utter backfire threw the whole set into chaos. Tyler and his supporters stalled and negated every idea and project that was not favorable towards their own interests and as such the Whigs got exactly the opposite of what they wanted.
IX. The Antebellum South and North
I. What caused the Civil War?
A. Everybody has an opinion, some more informed than others, but the result is that there is little consensus on the reason for the Civil War’s occurrence.
II. Cultural Similarities Between the North and South
A. Nationalism Both sides believed deeply in the American Revolution and in the idea of the Union itself. They both believed in the new idea of Exceptionalism, which stated that America was something new and great and different from all other nations.
B. Religion The predominant faith was Protestant Christianity but there were no real clashes between those of different religions either. Their faith worked in Nationalist favor as it was viewed that God favored the Union.
C. Political Culture Both sides were predominantly run by Republicanism and the idea that the people had true sovereignty.
D. Capitalism Both sides favored the Capitalist ideals for they both believed in the idea of rising above your original status via the market. The only difference between the two was in that the North believed in that idea for anyone where the South viewed that as something necessary for the gentry instead of the lower classes.
E. Slavery Slavery was still a national system as the North was economically complicit in its existence. The South used slavery to make their crops and then the North acted as the financial managers and traders for slavelabor made products. By 1860, Slavery had become the #1 industry in the Union, its value in today’s money would be around 70 Billion.
III. Differences in Political Culture
A. Power vs. Liberty The Power of the Central Government and its relationship to the liberty of the people were very passionate topics. Every person had a different viewpoint on the relationship but it was more common in the North to view the Government as more needed while the South viewed personal freedom (for white males at least) as paramount.
IV. The Antebellum South
A. Alexander H. Stevenson’s Confederacy The former Georgia Senator became the Vice President of the Confederacy and made a speech to Virginia about the nature and necessity of slavery. B. The White Southern Worldview
1. AntiModernism The South generally held disdain for the “corruptive” influences of the modern market culture. They feared that progress in society would undermine stability.
There was a high suspicion of education as it would allow those of “lower class” to better themselves and be discontented with their lot, again a threat to the stability of the social
2. Agrarianism This idea stemmed from Thomas Jefferson and focused on the idea that rural life was noble and it removed oneself from corruption. Viewed as a way of moving up the social ladder via being able to make yourself better on your own.
3. Honor The reputation of individuals governed the society itself.
C. An Agricultural Region
1. Economic Underdevelopment Everything in the South was focused on Agriculture instead of the industry that was so heavy in the North. This was essentially a Plantation Culture where all available resources went into farming the exceptional soils of the South and West.
2. Cotton Economy The most valuable crop ever produced. The South was the biggest global supplier and due to this it had an economic value in its cotton that exceeded nearly every other nation on earth if the South stood alone.
3. Mississippi River Valley The epicenter of the Southern economy. The most fertile land available in the entire region. The cotton industry moved here and as it expanded so did slavery. As slavery and the cotton economy moved into the area so did the political power of the South. This area became the wealthiest in the nation with Adams County being the wealthiest County and Mississippi itself the wealthiest state.
D. South As A Slave Society The society was built entirely on the slavery culture. It was ruled by the Slaveholding Class that represented only a miniscule portion of the society’s number but nearly all of its wealth.
E. Proslavery Ideology
1. Faith in the Societal Order There was the idea that society was built on a set of particular functions and that if any of them were violated or removed then the whole of society would collapse.
2. Biblical Religious argument for the idea that since slavery existed in the Bible then it was acceptable for it to exist in the society.
3. Historical The “It’s Always Been Done” argument. This was hard to work with the spirit of the Revolution and Jefferson himself.
4. Economic The most impersonal argument, which merely stated that since the economy was built on slavery’s existence, its removal would collapse the economy.
5. Necessary Evil Stated that slavery was an awful institution but it was necessary for the “proper” functioning of the society.
6. Racial Inferiority The idea that blacks were naturally beneath whites in every conceivable way.
F. White Southern Yeoman The roughly 75% of the white population that did not hold slaves and were largely separate. They were kept in control because the planters, who they hated for being wealthier than them, told them that they were at least not black, which made them hate the planters less and the blacks more. In essence the slaveholders said “at least you’re not black” and the Yeoman agreed, which let those in power stay in power because the ones below them were busy fighting against the other people below them.
G. Conclusion Slavery was an enormous institution and the powerhouse of the Southern economy and, to some extent, the national as well.
V. The Antebellum North
A. Approaching the Antebellum North Slavery had once existed in the North but it died out as it was not economically profitable. Northern skepticism of slavery also grew from the religious aspect in viewing it as the cruel and disgusting thing it was.
B. The Market Revolution
1. Scale of Economic Change There was a significant change in the relationship between people and money as well as the market itself. There was a more diversified and powerful market.
2. Free Labor and Mobility The Market was viewed as a way to defend the common man as able to move up or down (economically) in society as he chose. Believed in the ability to change one’s own status. This differed from the South in that mobility was attributed to the Market instead of slaveholding.
3. Progress The makeyourself idea grew. Manifest Destiny came about and when the two sides (North and South) moved to the West together their ideas didn’t mix very well.
C. National Change to National Reform The time period of 1815 to 1840 saw signiciant and rapid societal change. This kind of rapid change tends to make people nervous.
D. AntiSlavery Movement The Democratic society gave the majority of people that supported slavery more control over the system than the minority of people who wanted to see it gone. 1. Problem of AntiSlavery and Race The movement was built on factions of ideas. Nobody could ignore the fact that since this was racial slavery they would have to address whether the races were equal or not.
2. Colonization and Gradualism As part of the AntiSlavery movement, there became a concept that freed blacks should be returned to Africa in an American effort at
colonization. This idea was headed by the American Colonization Society and was
created and composed of leading statesmen including John Marshall, James Monroe, and Henry Clay. The people who favored this idea were becoming fearful of the growth of
slavery as well as the slave revolts that were occurring, such as the Haitian Revolt that
overthrew the French and established their own government, the Denmark Vesey
Rebellion, and Nat Turner’s. There was also a Gradualist sentiment as it was believed that it would be impossible to end slavery all at once. The change would have to be slow.
E. Abolitionism The radical and opposing view to the AntiSlavery movement. Refused the idea of colonization and wanted slavery’s end to be immediate as it was a moral issue.
1. Roots of Radical Abolitionism The religious arguments of Protestantism and Evangelism that were for the helping and protection of other people aided movement. The people who were Gradualists learned that the South would never succumb to a slow change and they would never be willing to change their society. Great Britain had become completely
committed to the abolitionist movement and slave revolts were also a key factor.
2. William Lloyd Garrison Arguably one of the most important Abolitionists. He was a Gradualist till he realized the South’s stubbornness. He created the newspaper The
Liberator and it ran until a week after the passage of the 13th Amendment. He was known for publicly burning copies of the Constitution for the fact that it allowed slavery to exist.
F. AntiSlavery vs. Abolitionism It was realized that only political action would work against an institution like slavery and doing so would be difficult due to Congress and the legality of such action.
1. Contemporary Impact of Abolitionism There were many murders of abolitionists, chaos and violence escalated and there was a growing hatred for those who worked around the law.
2. Historical Impact of Abolitionism Garrison himself understood that he should continue shouting because his ideas would take root somewhere no matter what. The idea was that slavery was wrong enough to prevent its spread and America could not hold two positions on the issue anymore.
X. Territorial Expansion and War, 1841 1848
I. Foreign Policy Under John Tyler Very much an expansionist viewpoint.
A. Settling Problems with Great Britain Initial expansion into the West was just the solving of old arguments, mainly the AmericanCanadian Border. A Treaty created the modern border and there was still an argument over a small area of the Oregon Country (Far Northwest).
B. Texas The biggest focus of the Tyler administration at that time. The problem was that since the Republic of Texas (which had declared its independence from Mexico but was too weak to protect itself) had asked for stateship but was so huge it extended over the 3630 Line that determined a state’s status as to slavery.
1. American Settlement Texas had been settled by American settlers (in some areas) but Mexican rule claimed control over the area.
2. Revolution from 183536 the Texas military fought against the Mexican military and lost a lot due to not being anywhere near as well trained or equipped but still made themselves independent.
3. Question of Annexation Mexico never recognized Texas’ independence and continually invaded the area and seized land holdings. Americans wanted to expand but Texas would cause an issue about slavery and the 3630 line. After 8 years of arguing a Treaty was
created that set Texas as a Territory until Calhoun supports its full annexation due to it
being “essential to expand slavery as a moral necessity.”
II. Expansionism and the Election of 1844 Polk won because he understood Manifest Destiny’s power and the expansionists.
A. Henry Clay The Great Compromiser of the Whigs. He was opposed to the annexation of Texas but not other regions.
B. James K. Polk Viewed as the newer Jackson but with less national appeal. He was the Democrats runner and the embodiment of the expansionist ideals.
1. Manifest Destiny The idea that westward expansion was ordained by God.
C. Texas Annexation of 1845 Texas was admitted to the Union and the Democrats counted it as a victory but the issue grew even more tense.
III. MexicanAmerican War, 184546
1. Texas Mexico had never recognized Texas as independent and neither side wanted to fight first but there was a huge problem over the boundary lines.
2. California The Mexican owned territory held huge interest for Polk as it was a massive increase in land and a way to jump the economy due to its access to the Pacific.
B. Diplomacy Neither side wanted a war over Texas at first. An American Ambassador was sent to Mexico to reopen negotiations and offer $25 Million for the land but the Mexican government was having issues at the time and couldn’t really do much with the ambassador. Once the newer government was formed, they refused to negotiate at all and the ambassador was sent home, furious. Later there was a small group of Mexican soldiers who fought a small American cavalry and when American soldiers died it was a spark for war.
C. Conduct of the War There was a huge call for volunteers and a large number came. Lincoln and his allies accused Polk of lying about the fight so that he could justify the war but there was pretty much nothing they could do. The Army was smaller and less trained than the Mexican Army but still managed to win. Eventually Mexico City was seized in 1848 and the war ended.
D. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 The Americans got what they demanded, including Texas and all the territory west of it. In return Mexico got $15 Million.
E. A “Dose of Arsenic” Before the war even started Ralph Waldo Emerson stated that the US would beat Mexico but the whole thing would poison America because of slavery and the oversized concept of Manifest Destiny.
XI. Crisis and Compromise of 1850
I. Territorial Expansion and Expansion of Slavery Three main questions to think about: How would the Crisis be dealt with?, Should the Compromise even be considered a Compromise? the answer is no but anyway, and Does political Compromise ever even work?
A. Five Positions on the Issue Arose
1. Wilmot Proviso, 1846 before the war even began a Congressman went to the floor and proposed that any potential territory would be closed to slavery. the proposition failed due to Southern Opposition.
a) Natural Limits of Slavery It was believed that slavery couldn’t survive in the west
because the area wasn’t the right land for agriculture. The argument against that
idea was that slavery was flexible and the needs for it would change and adapt to
the new area.
2. Southern Stance They saw the efforts being made against slavery as attacks on their honor because they made the point that slavery was wrong. Jefferson Davis picked up
Calhoun’s mantle and said that Congress was made by law to protect the property of its citizens.
3. Northern Stance Most in the North did not want to violate the Constitution by directly attacking slavery; however, they did interpret the Constitution as allowing Congress to
control what happened in the territories and block it there. They were fearful that the
wealthy, southern aristocracy would buy up all the land and expand slavery that way.
4. Extension of the 3630 Line There were some in both the North and South that agreed that Sectionalism was becoming a big problem. Their way of ending the conflict was to
simply extend the 3630 Line all the way to the Pacific so as to end the argument logically. 5. Popular Sovereignty There was a Political Ideology rooted in “Americanism” that stated that it would be better for the people to decide for themselves. The flaw in this was the fact of popular stupidity and whether the ”loser” would actually concede defeat. These issues prevented the idea from actually being carried out.
II. Election of 1848
A. Someone was needed to take control of the situation but this election completely avoided the big question about slavery and the candidates ran on mere image.
1. Lewis Cass The Democratic Candidate who ran as a war hero.
2. Zachary Taylor One of the premier generals of the MexicanAmerican War and a
member of the Whig Party. He won the election but not the sectional vote.
3. Free Soil Party A Party composed of moderates from both sides, it was a looseknit group that didn’t like how the other parties weren’t addressing slavery. In response they created a Party that would respond to the question.
III. Crisis of 1850
A. California and New Mexico The Gold Rush of California pushed huge numbers of people into the territory and eventually the territory wanted statehood but the slavery fight prevented it for the time being. Mexico and America were still in disagreement over the western border of the ceded Texas territory and both sides were ready to fight over it.
B. Taylor’s Solution Taylor told California and NM to skip the step of being a territory and just go ahead and write their State Constitution and send it to Congress to be agreed on. They did just that and the problem was that both explicitly banned slavery. This caused a huge and violent debate the South blew up over this and many united in Nashville to discuss Secession from the Union. C. Other Issues
1. Slavery in Washington D.C. There were slavetrading houses in the Nation’s capital at the time and it was a woeful contradiction. It was agreed that slavetrading must be
abolished in that area.
2. Fugitive Slave Law Allowed slaveholders to enlist the aid of Federal Government Officers to “reclaim their property.”
IV. Compromise of 1850
A. Henry Clay’s Proposals Henry Clay wanted to stop a war from occurring because he despised the idea of war after his son died in the MexicanAmerican. He was still a Senator and offered a series of proposals to end the conflict.
1. Admit California to the Union as a Free State
2. Take all of the New Mexico Territory and halve it. The halves will be Utah and New Mexico.
3. Texas boundaries would be redrawn to shrink Texas and in return the US would pay off Texas’ public debt.
4. The slavetrade in Washington D.C. would be ended.
5. The Fugitive Slave Law would be strengthened.
B. Jefferson Davis Davis read out the statement of an ill John C. Calhoun, which stated that the Compromise would mean war and he welcomed the idea.
C. William Seward A staunch antislavery advocate who countered Calhoun and said that while they submitted to law, he submitted to God’s law. He said that having to Compromise on slavery was against God’s law and could only go to war over it.
D. Millard Fillmore The new President that took the place of the dead Zachary Taylor. He favored Clay’s proposals but was moderate on the issue. He used his executive power to push the proposals through.
E. Era of Compromise Many people were bitter over the Compromise because they didn’t get everything they wanted.
V. Continuing Sectionalism
A. Armistice of 1850 Some would refer to the Compromise as more of a ceasefire instead of a complete compromise.
B. Opposition to the Fugitive Slave Law The hidden problem of the law was growing because its new version was much more powerful as it had no statute of limitations and federal law demanded that slaves be returned if found. Many Northerners who previously didn’t care were now directly involved in the slavery issue because they were considered culpable if a fleeing slave wandered onto their property. The Anthony Burns case was the biggest one. Burns had escaped to Boston and lived there as a freedman until he was seized by Federal Marshals. The prison they put him in was attacked but to no avail. There was a massive public uproar and a crowd gathered to watch him be ushered onto the slave ship that took him back to Virginia.
C. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852 Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the novel attacked slavery without attacking slaveholders and added the human element to the conversation. Many of the readers were turned against slavery and the Laws that permitted it. Formerly passive individuals were now charged against slavery.
XII. The Union Dividing, 1854 1858
I. KansasNebraska Act
A. Stephen A. Douglas A good politician who took up the issue of Compromise. He was an oldfashioned Northern racist who feared what slavery’s expansion would do to the Union’s integrity. He proposed the Nebraska Bill in order to settle the remaining territories in the Lousiana area for the purpose of a transcontinental railroad. He though Popular Sovereignty was the best answer and contradicted the Missouri Compromise and favored its repeal.
B. Nebraska Bill It was passed and created Kansas and Nebraska. This tore the Whig Party apart and resulted in massive protests as both sides of the slavery issue flooded into the area to try and win majority. In Kansas they fought over it until somebody just decided to start a whole separate government.
C. Republican Party They formed from the remnants of the Whigs and were a small party with their sole platform being preventing the expansion of slavery. They were a very sectional party aligned with the North.
II. Chaos of Popular Sovereignty and “Bleeding Kansas”
A. Territorial Elections In Kansas there was such an uproar over the election of a proslavery government that a separate government got established and the two fought with one another for control.
B. Violence and John Brown The passionate and violent abolitionist started violent protests and he and his sons cut some proslavery people apart with broadswords.
C. Violence in the Senate
1. Charles Sumner In a two day speech he attacked proslavery people and even his own colleague in the Senate, Andrew Butler
2. Preston Brooks The nephew of Andrew Butler, Brooks heard of the argument and
attacks on his uncle and violently assaulted Sumner with a cane.
III. Sectional Politics and the Election of 1856
A. Republicans John C. Fremont They ran with an abolitionist viewpoint and their platform was to end slavery’s expansion and popular sovereignty. The party had a very strong showing that shocked the South awake.
B. Democrats James Buchanan They endorsed the Fugitive Slave Act and the Compromise of 1850 and only won because they were a national party.
IV. Dred Scott Decision, 1857 The US Supreme Court’s arguably most infamous decision ever made. A. Background The enslaved man Dred Scott was born in Virginia and taken to LA then Illinois then Wisconsin. His master died there and as he was in a free state he sued for the fact that he was a free man.
B. Decision Chief Justice Robert B. Taney’s Opinion stated that Scott had no standing as he was not a citizen. He said that Scott’s location didn’t matter because slavery had to be protected. He struck down the old Missouri Compromise by saying that it was Unconstitutional that people couldn’t bring their “property” across the line. The Republicans attacked the decision vehemently as it was viewed as minority ruling the majority.
V. Emergence of Abraham Lincoln
A. Early Career, 1809 1854 he had been a onetime Congressman who thought he was done. He joined the Republican Party in 1854 and got thrown back into politics by the Dred Scott case because it flaunted minority power.
B. Stand on Slavery and Race He was not an abolitionist and didn’t believe in the equality of the races but he had a practical worldview.
C. Senate Campaign, 1858 (LincolnDouglas Debates) He ran against Stephen Douglas for the spot in the Senate but Douglas kept his seat after accusing Lincoln of wanting to start a war. The loss didn’t matter so much because Lincoln emerged as the leading spokesman of the Republican Party
XIII. Election of 1860 and Secession
I. John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry After the massacre he committed he and his sons hid away for a while before gathering 20 men (17 were his sons) and planned to attack Harper’s Ferry. The area was the site of the largest US Armory and Brown intended to get the weapons and arm the slaves for a revolt. The plan failed miserably and it was the last straw for Southerners. Now they hated all Northerners. II. Election of 1860
A. Democrats Divide They held their convention in South Carolina, the hotbed of Secession 1. S.A. Douglas and John C. Breckinridge The South wanted to protect slavery everywhere (John) but Douglas realized that the North would never be willing to go that far.
B. Constitutional Union Party John Bell A moderate party that was screaming for Compromise to avoid war.
C. Republicans Lincoln They had a simple platform that denounced the Dred Scott decision and John Brown. They would let the South maintain control of slavery but wouldn’t let it spread. Tey got the Presidency and the South’s greatest fears were realized.
III. Secession, 1860 1861
A. SC December 10, 1860 South Carolina formally seceded from the Union. Even before Lincoln was sworn into office.
B. Confederate Nation Over the winter, 6 other states joined SC and together they formed the Confederacy. They met in Montgomery and chose Jefferson Davis as their President and
Alexander H. Stephens as VP. The VP then went to Virginia to speak on the inequality of the races and convince Virginia to join the Confederacy.
C. Nature of Southern Separation
1. Why the Lower South They felt as though they were Nationalists who were being
completely shut out and ignored.
2. Revolution of 1861 The South believed that they had become the embodiment of what the Founding Fathers wanted in a society.
IV. Crittenden Compromise, 1861 a Kentucky politician put up a proposal to avoid the Civil war: Congress would pass a Constitutional Amendment for the protection of slavery for all time and extension of the 3630 Line to the Pacific Coast. The proposal failed and for the first time, the political system’s ability to compromise failed. The South refused the notion that they would have to compromise with a “foreign nation” and the North refused to change their position. When Lincoln declared that Secession was inherently illegal and that he would never recognize the South as an independent power, the Civil War began.
A. Lincoln’s View on Secession Lincoln viewed it as an illegal act and a severe violation of democracy. He reiterated that his intention was never to touch slavery where it had existed. B. Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861 The Confederation heard the speech and ignored it. Now there was a problem in the existence of Federal property on the Confederate territory. There was a Fort in the Charleston Harbor that was highly contended as it was manned by the US Army. There was initially months of diplomacy over the Fort until Southern batteries fired on the Fort until it surrendered. In response, Lincoln called for 75000 volunteers to stamp out the Rebels.
XIV. Civil War and Reconstruction
I. Completing Secession, 1861
A. Upper South As more states seceded the Confederacy needed to absorb them to consolidate their power.
B. Border States These were slaveholding states that refused to secede and remained loyal to the Union despite their position on the map.
II. National Purposes Both sides viewed the war as a protection of their ideals. 2.2 Million Northerners and 750800K Southerners fought, in a roughly 85% mobilization rate.
A. Preserving the Union The Union believed that its own preservation was at the center of the war as they needed to maintain the “last, best hold on Earth.” If they failed then nations everywhere would view democracy itself as a failure.
B. Slaveholding Republic in Founding Image The Confederacy was designed to protect the Union as it had was a hierarchical slaveholding Republic.
III. Comparing the Union and Confederacy The Confederacy only had to damage the Union to the point that they could no longer see reason to fight whereas the Union had a much bigger fight in having to subdue a rogue populace.
A. Resources 90% of the Industry in the nation was in the Union and it had a better army and more people to pull from. The South had only their agricultural money.
B. Political Leadership
1. Jefferson Davis He was a plantation owner and an officer from West Point and a former Secretary of War. He approached the Civil War with the understanding that the
Confederation would need an extremely powerful central government.
2. Abraham Lincoln He was a simpleton when it came to war as he had never had to deal with one. At first he was inexperienced to handle this but he never shifted from his
commitment. He suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus and declared Martial Law with the intention of protecting the Union from any possible dissidents. He saw it as necessary to break the Constitution in order to save it.
IV. Legacy of the Civil War
A. Emancipation Proclamation, 1863 Lincoln issued an Executive Order that declared any enslaved person who managed to get behind Union lines would be free. Even though he was not an egalitarian and viewed blacks as inferior he ordered it to bolster the Union.
B. 13th Amendment, 1865 The Amendment completely abolished slavery as the previously enslaved people took the opportunity to help free themselves and joined the military.
C. Preservation of the Union Everything done by the North was to keep the Union together since the Executive Order had no teeth after the war was over and the Amendment was passed to make up for it.
V. Introduction to Reconstruction, 1865 1877
A. Questions Facing the Nation
1. Can a biracial democracy work?
2. What will happen to 4 Million newly free individuals?
3. How do you put a shattered nation and people back together?
4. Just how preserved was the Union?
B. Four Phases There was no precedent as to who would be controlling Reconstruction or exactly how it would be done.
1. Presidential Lincoln began the process of Reconstruction, then Andrew Johnson took it over after his assassination.
2. Congressional Congress got mad that the President was taking control of the situation and especially how Johnson handled it, so they took it over.
3. Republican Governments in the South Power was then transferred to Republican politicians in the South, which caused a great uproar and significant violence.
4. “Redemption” The old Confederate followers then took over again and reestablished the old order, essentially making it as though almost nothing had ever changed.
C. A Failure? It can be argued that, in many aspects, Reconstruction was a failure.
VI. Presidential Presidential Reconstruction was begun by Lincoln while the War was still in effect. A. Lincoln’s 10% Plan Lincoln said that if 10% of a state that had seceded wrote a new state constitution that conceded to Emancipation, then they would be freely admitted back into the Union. B. Congressional Opposition The radical Republicanled Congress refused to be lenient on the Secessionists and wanted to punish them. Three states had already agreed to Lincoln’s plan but when their representatives reached the Capital, Congress turned them away.
C. Reconstruction Under Andrew Johnson, 186566 Johnson continued to approach reconstruction as Lincoln did but he was a Southern Democrat from Tennessee. Despite the fact that he hated the Confederacy and what the Civil War was doing to the South, he was extremely racist and wanted nothing to do with Emancipation and the freedom of the slaves. Under his discretion the Southern states passed Black Codes once they were readmitted.
D. Congress Blocks Presidential Reconstruction After a year of dealing with these efforts, Congress got tired of it and started attempting to block it.
1. Joint Committee on Reconstruction, 1866 Congress sent a committee to the South to see what was happening and they returned with the fact that it was much worse than
expected because of the Black Codes. Congress wanted to punish the South for this.
2. Freedmen’s Bureau Bill, 1866 Congress decided to create a Bill for the creation of a Relief Agency that would help in the transition from slave to freedman. Every time they
passed the Bill through Congress, Johnson vetoed it.
3. Civil Right Act, 1866 The first attempt at protections for individuals but Johnson vetoed it. 4. Proposal of the 14th Amendment Congress proposed a due process and equal
protection Amendment but Johnson had enough sway to convince enough Southern
states not to ratify it.
E. Republican Victory, 186667 Congressional elections. At their end, the Republicans held enough seats in Congress to override any of Johnson’s vetoes, which essentially rendered him powerless.
1. Reconstruction Acts, 1867 Congress erased everything that Lincoln and Johnson had done and divided the South into 5 Military Districts under control of Union Generals that
would ensure that the laws would be carried out.
F. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Congress wanted revenge against the man who stopped their efforts so many times so they impeached him on charges of High Crimes and Misdemeanors, which actually had some truth, but he was never sentenced.
G. Election of 1868 The first biracial election in US history. Nation chose Ulysses S. Grant, a manipulatable war hero of the Union as the new President.
VII. Congressional Reconstruction
1. 14th Amendment With Johnson rendered powerless, Congress easily passed and
ratified the 14th by promising to end the Military Occupation of the South if they ratified the Amendment.
2. 15th Declared all citizens (male anyway) as possessing the right to vote.
B. Reconstruction of the Union? by 1871 (6 years after the end of the war) the Union was physically restored but the mindsets appeared to be no different than they had ever been.
VIII. Republican Government in the South, 1868 1877
A. Leadership and Support
1. Carpetbaggers White Northerners who traveled South in order for Republicans to gain a foothold.
2. Scalawags White Southerners who had never supported the Confederacy and actively helped the Republicans. They were viewed by Confederatesympathizers as traitors to
their race and nation (meaning the Confederation).
3. African Americans The 4 Million newly free individuals supported the party that freed them.
B. Political Corruption The reconstruction of the South involved a high level of corruption and underthetable business deals to fix things.
C. White Southern Opposition It was the pretense of racial equality that most upset Southerners. in response, groups like the KKK were founded to intimidate and terrorize all newly freed people and any sympathizers.
D. Weakening Support in the North After the new Amendments were passed, many in the North saw the fight as over and simply stopped getting involved.
IX. “Redemption” The former Confederates began to end the “black rule” they had been placed under and began the process of Jim Crow Segregation
A. Election of 1876 The election of Rutherford B. Hayes ended Northern interference in the South by final removal of troops.
X. Reconstruction: An Evaluation Not much changed at all.
A. Race Relations Nothing changed at all other than voting rights and no more slavery. There was no structure to enforce these new freedoms though.
B. Laissez Faire Mind of the South They distrusted outside influences even more and left their government as doing nothing, letting them revert back to what they had always been, just now with Black Codes instead of slavery.
C. Unkept Promises the Amendments passed by Congress didn’t vanish. They were simply yet to have an affect on the unchanged nature of the South.
ALL DONE! Good luck on the Final!