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Final Exam Review

by: Taylor Strickland

Final Exam Review HIST 102 011

Taylor Strickland
GPA 4.0
European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century
Dr. Daniel Snyder

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About this Document

It's the end of the semester which means that the final is right around the corner. Here is a study guide that covers both the book review and the essay discussion that we had in class along with a...
European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century
Dr. Daniel Snyder
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Strickland on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 102 011 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Daniel Snyder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 12/03/15
HIST 102 FINAL STUDY GUIDE Test Overview 20 MC from last 5 chapters of Merriman Choose 2 Essay Prompts from 10 discussed in class will be subdivided into 2 groups where 1 essay will be chosen from each Merriman Review for Final Chapter 26 World War II Axis powers Germany Italy and Japan Hitler Mussolini and Emperor Hirohito Britain Chamberlain tried to appease Germany let them take Austria and Sudetenland Peace in our time 1938 after Munich agreements until Hitler violates them and takes Poland Phony War little to no fighting in Southern Europe while Finland takes on Russia France falls quickly in 1940 after Belgium and Holland leading to mass exodus at Dunkirk Battle of Britain last standing power against Germany survives air raids and thwarts plans to invade Total war again everywhere Hitler s allies in Eastern Europe tries fails to invade Russia US gets involved after Pearl Harbor on Dec 7th 1941 and fights on both fronts Nazis fascist parties everywhere Final Solution ignored by West puppet governments resistance from nonfascist groups even in Germany Stauffenberg s assassination attempt Allies get together and take back Europe North Africa and DDay and then turn to Japan after Hitler commits suicide at end of April 1945 and Germany official surrenders on May 8th 1945 Yalta Conference with Big Three gets postwar plants established and starts Cold War tensions US defeats Japan by retaking islands starting with Midway in 1942 and nuclear bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima leading to Japan s unconditional surrender on Sept 2nd 1945 In conclusion war ends with more than 50 million deaths begins Cold War and due to new tech the feeling that total war was inevitable unlike WWI being war to end all wars Chapter 27 Rebuilding Divided Europe End of WWII devastation economic boom refugees population boom urbanization ethnic cleansings in Communist nations Churchill Truman and Stalin meet at Potsdam conference to determined postwar arrangements Cold War tensions birthed by redivision of territory alongside creation of UN Punishments for war crimes leads to Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Genocide Convention to prevent such atrocities in the future doesn t really work but Continent of displaced person 50 million refugees struggle for millions to get home Collaborators and war criminals punished to a point and at times years later Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan lead to rapid economic recovery in much of Western Europe Britain took a little while longer than rest OEEC becomes OECD brings economic cooperation to Europe at US insistence which leads to ECSC and the Treaty of Rome EEC and Euratom Baby boom Green Revolution and establishment of stable democracies in the West Germany divided by Potsdam Conference has democratic Western half and Communist Eastern half with Berlin being divided in two first by no man s land and later the wall Soviet Union satellite states Eastern Europe Stalin s purges end with his death in 1953 Consumerism and technology boom leads to more cynical thinkers Orwell Sartre and existentialism abstract theater antiAmericanism Alfred Hitchcock but not in USSR Women get more rights Catholicism starts to decline urban life and general quality of life increases Oil becomes cornerstone of global market visible with OPEC oil embargo in 1970s Chapter 28 The Cold War and the End of European Empires Iron Curtain divided Germany as focal point nuclear weapons proxy wars Greece China Korea and most notably Vietnam Uprisings during thaw following Stalin s death in Hungary Czechoslovakia Poland Warsaw Pact counters NATO negotiations to decrease nukes fail Cuban Missile Crisis KGB and CIA face off in spy war SinoSoviet tensions lead to division of major communist powers USSR and China Leaders Stalin Khrushchev Brezhnev Arms Race starts to decline with SALT I and SALT II Decolonization movements coincide with this notably India with Nehru and Ghandi Hindu India becomes largest democracy with Pakistan and later Bangladesh making up the majority of the Muslim population of the former British colony Britain relinquishes control in Middle East gradually Suez Canal Crisis speeds this up France loses all African countries over decades after WWII with Algeria being bloodiest loss and Vietnam being most prolonged proxy war for US and USSR SubSaharan Africa decolonizes after Asia with most notable being Ghana Nigeria Sierra Leone Tanganyika Uganda Kenya Senegal Ivory Coast and Cameroon South Africa Angola and Belgian Congo gain independence with latter becoming another proxy war elected Lumumba offed unofficially by CIA and replaced by dictator Mobutu Lengthened decolonization con icts have led to recent civil war tensions in Mozambique Sudan and Angola leaderswar lords hoard resources while poor starve child soldiers Chapter 29 Transitions to Democracy and the Collapse of Communism 1968 a year of revolutions by grown up baby boomers generation at the social injustices they saw Nationalist movements and student protests challenge many governments including US Canada France West Germany and Italy General shift to centered governments throughout Europe most notably in Germany Christian Democrats with Merkel today and Britain Conservative Thatcher to Labor Party Blair France and Italy experienced this general shift as well Green parties countering pollution and nuclear energy after Chernobyl Southern and Eastern Europe transition to democracy will latter being only after fall of USSR Religious and ethnic con icts with IRA in Ireland and ETA in Basque Spain Helsinki Accords 1975 recognize Soviet domination but forced them to respect human rights Many satellite states began to call for change notably Prague Spring of 1968 but USSR puts them down Leaders Brezhnev chill in relations Chernenko dies Gorbachev reforms until end Three factors lead to end nationalist movements democratic opposition economic crisis Poland and Hungary are first to transfer to parliamentary democracy followed by Germany collapse of Berlin wall Czechoslovakia Velvet Revolution Bulgaria Romania and Albania USSR fully collapses by 1991 after Gorbachev fails to hold it together and Yeltsin creates Russian Federation which the USSR attempted to coexist with but ended when Gorbachev resigned on Christmas Day 1991 Yugoslavia dissolves leading to ethnic con icts that require UN and NATO to step into Bosnia Serbia Albania Kosovo still unrecognized by Russia and Serbia and Macedonia Former Communist countries faced with rebooting economies both public and private question of nuclear weapons establishing new political systems ethnic tensions and Putin s Russia looming as a constant threat Ukraine natural gas supply in 2008 and current tensions in 2014 15 Chapter 30 Global Challenges Fortress Europe European Cooperation and the Uncertainties of a New Age Globalization brings about booming global economy but also financial crisis 2008 Refugees and migrant workers moving to Europe in large numbers from Africa and Asia Governments trying to restrict ow of immigrants issue today with the Syrian refugee crisis Birthrates declining leads to declining populations which are further exacerbated by Europeans afraid of losing culture lead to rising intolerance xenophobia and racism Evolution of the EC becomes EU with Treaty of Maastricht in 1992 over time stabilizes Europe economically and politically Issues with truly creating EU legitimacy lies between European identity and vision Euro becomes official currency in 2002 and has led to on the most part economic stability and opportunity for growth as was the case in Ireland Opposition to globalization seen through protests Greenpeace and its negative side effects are seen through pollution oil proliferation and spread of disease like AIDS Fundamental terrorist also countering globalization have led attacks on Europe and US Terrorism is also seen on both sides of the IsraeliPalestinian Con ict US is sole remaining superpower with fall of USSR which has led to some European tensions in response to events like Iraq Invasion Pt 2 Afghanistan and CIA torture Summary Europe no longer main in uence economically adapting to globalization human rights protection combating genocide but stabilization from EU will 10 hypothetically lead to less war on the continent and will hopefully birth an era of peace and prosperity Essay Prompts as discussed in class wording may change for exam Describe the geopolitical situation at the dawn of the Cold War 0 WWII end occupations States power and interest rest of Cold War Describe how communism went from a series of ideals in the 19th century to its implementation as a governing practice in the 20th century 0 Marxist ideals to ways Lenin adapted communism to Russia In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles lead to the rise of Nazi Germany 0 Treaty points resentment rise of Hitler Distinguish New Imperialism of 19th century from colonialism of the 16th through 18th centuries 0 Industrial revolution scramble for Africa global markets civilizing mission technology culture Where were the historical dilemmas and challenges that the evolution of the EU has been meant to address 0 Tensions economy Balkans Describe the American role in the development of the integration of Europe 0 Marshall Plan Truman Doctrine NATO Cold War decolonization What fueled decolonization and how did that contribute to the Cold War Vice versa 0 Nationalism Interwar Period collapse of the West proxy wars India Vietnam and Africa What are some examples of collaboration during WWII 0 Holocaust puppet governments define occupation moral con ict survival instincts Contrast the belief in progress with the skepticism of it at the end of the 19th century 0 The Scream technology social Darwinism scientific revolution lost generation La Belle Epoque the beautiful era vs Fin de siecle the end of the century How do the fundamental ideas of the French Revolution express themselves in 20th century economic politics 0 Nationalism Liberalism and Socialism


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