Midterm Exam #3- Wednesday, December 9th
Midterm Exam #3- Wednesday, December 9th Comm 2331
Popular in Strategic Communication Principles
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hageman on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 2331 at Ohio State University taught by Erik Nisbet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see Strategic Communication Principles in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
COMM 2331 Study Guide Midterm #3 December 9 th 1) Index Number- (percentage of users in a demographic segment/percentage of population in the same segment)*100 Category Development Index- (percentage of total product category sales in market/percentage of total U.S. population in market)*100 Brand Development Index- (percentage of brand to total U.S. sales in market/percentage of total U.S. population in market)*100 Comparing all these numbers can tell an advertiser how many people out of a specific population are using your product and also help advertisers to understand what category of brands and specific brands are doing best in the market to help with future planning. 2) Advertising scheduling methods: a. Continuity- continuous advertising i. Advantages- constant reminder, builds awareness, very effective ii. Disadvantages- high cost, potential overexposure, media availability iii. Best products bought on a regular basis (food, household products) b. Flighting- intermittent periods of advertising and no advertising i. Advantages- good for seasonal products, cost effective ii. Disadvantages- increased likelihood of wearout, lack of awareness during off-times, vulnerability to competitors during off-times c. Pulsing- combination, continuity is maintained but at certain periods advertising is increased i. Advantages- combined continuity and flighting advantages, consumer response processes that begin with attitudes and target valued customers often require only pulsing ii. Disadvantages- expensive, some overexposure, not appropriate for highly seasonal products iii. Best used for products that have little sales variation from period to period, but might see some increase at certain times (cold beverages in hot summer months) 3) Reach: number of different/unique audience members exposed at least once in a time period (actual audience) Frequency: number of times the receiver is exposed to the media vehicle in a time period (opportunities to see the ad) Marketing affects: Increase frequency- high usage cycle, high competition, new brand Decrease frequency- high brand loyalty, high ability to process Message affects: Increase frequency- new campaign, image advertising, complex/varied messages Decrease frequency- continuing campaign, single message, uniqueness, potential for wear out, advertising units Media affects: Increase frequency- amount of clutter Decrease frequency- alignment with media content, continuous scheduling, fewer media, level of attention achieved, repeat exposures 4) Cost of print media- (cost of ad space/circulation)*1,000 Cost of broadcast media- (cost of commercial time/program rating) 5) TV households- # of households that own a TV Program rating- % of TV households in an area that are tuned to a specific program during a specific time period (households tuned to show/total US households) Households using TV- % of homes in a given area where TV is being watched during a specific time period Share of audience-% of households using TV in a specified time period that are tuned to a specified program (households tuned to show/US households using TV) 6) TV: Advantages- mass coverage, high reach, cost effective, attention-getting, target selectivity, high creativity Disadvantages- fleeting, high absolute cost, audience distrust, message avoidance (zipping/zapping), increasing clutter, not useful for small markets Radio: Advantages- lower cost, good for smaller markets, higher receptivity, selectivity, and flexibility Disadvantages- more limited communication, less status and prestige Magazines: Advantages- segmentation, high receptivity, high info content, permanence, multiple readers, high quality reproduction Disadvantages- visual only, long lead time, limited frequency and reach, high competition, high clutter, declining circulation Newspapers: Advantages- high penetration and flexibility, geographic selectivity, high involvement/credibility, lower cost, matching ads with editorial, short lead times and timely, closely tied to sales coupons Disadvantages- low production quality, short lifespan, low attention getting, selective reader exposure, clutter, declining circulation 7) Internet: a. Advantages- targeting marketing, message tailoring, interactive capabilities, information access, sales potential, creativity, exposure/speed, complement to IMC b. Disadvantages- measurement problems, clutter, potential for deception, privacy, irritation 8) Web 2.0- a new interactive technology shifted power of media from publishers to consumers, enhanced creativity, info sharing, collaboration among users, blurred boundary between interpersonal and mass communication - More focused on interacting with consumers and getting constant feedback and opinions - Creates a pull environment instead of a push environment - Feature entertainment- people immerse in persuasive narratives - Website as a lifestyle - Uses games to engage users 9) Cognitive Response Model- focus on ad execution thoughts and source oriented thoughts develop and attitude toward an ad which in turn influences the attitude toward a brand ELM- focus on individual involvement, motivation, and ability (need for cognition) Personal factors that determine effectiveness of brand: - Involvement - Perceived interactivity - Flow (immersion and control) Website/brand factors: - Actual interactivity - Usability - Modality - Number of functions - Degree of fit with brand image - Type of product 10) Bought media- advertising (pay per click, display ads, retargeting, paid influencers, paid content promotion, social media ads Earned media- sharing (mentions, shares, reposts, reviews) Owned media- web properties (websites, mobile site, blog site, social media channels) 11) Seven types of social media functionality: a. Identity- data privacy controls, and tools for user self- promotion b. Sharing- content management system and social graph c. Presence- creating and managing the reality, intimacy and immediacy of the context d. Relationships- managing the structural and flow properties in a network of relationships e. Reputation- monitoring the strength, passion, sentiment, and reach of users and brands f. Groups- membership rules and protocols g. Conversations- conversation velocity, and the risks of starting and joining Facebook- focuses most on relationships, then on presence, identity, reputation, and conversations, least of all they focus on sharing and groups YouTube- focuses most on sharing, then on reputation, groups, and conversations, and least of all they focus on relationships, presence, and identity 12) Word-of-mouth- richest form of communication and is most influential. People think since the source is someone like them then the information must be true Social capital- utility derived form social connections to achieve goals - Spreads your message within a network and the audience will do the promotion for you Market mavens- opinion leaders, center of networks with access to a large amount of market information Social hubs- network bridges, people who are well connected and know everyone Strong ties- most immediate social connections (close friends, nuclear family) Weak ties- more distant connections (acquaintances, distant relatives) 13) Viral marketing- marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networking services and other technologies to try to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives - Called viral because it gets spread out and diffused through vast numbers of audiences - Has become synonymous with word-of-mouth but it’s more strategic, get people to talk about the object of promotion but but also get them to continue to spread the “virus” exponentially 14) What makes an effective viral message?- triggers an emotional response a. Aversive- people getting hurt or embarrassed b. Uncertainty- polarized views lead to discussion c. Affirmation/validation/belonging d. Appetitive- funny, cool content Dunbar’s number- cognitive limit to the number of people with whom we can maintain stable social relations - People only pass on message when it’s something new not everyone knows about - Don’t seed too widely - Focus on strategy - Seed among disconnected online groups 15) Viral marketing weaknesses: a. Inability of audience to tie message back to source b. Lose control over message c. Create negative word-of-mouth d. Has to stand on its own 16) Guerilla marketing- unconventional and low-budget brand experiences designed to grab attention and create “buzz” and/or publicity or attention a. Employ creative methods to reach people where they work, live, walk with high impact messages b. Different from viral because doesn’t necessarily aim to persuade but more of a mass communication that just aims to put information out there (“Hey, would you look at that” reaction 17) Public relations- management function which evaluates public attitudes, identifies policies and procedures for an organization with public interest, and executes a program of action to earn understanding and acceptance Marketing public relations (MPR)- build market excitement, create news, introduce new product with little ads, building brand-to- consumer bonds, give info to opinion leaders, defend products at risk - Advantages- cost effective, highly targeted, endorsements by third parties, credibility, breaks through clutter, circumvents resistance to sales efforts, improved media involvement with customers, creates influence among opinion leaders, improved ROI - Disadvantages- lack of control, lack of coordination with marketing department, media time and space aren’t guaranteed, receiver not making connection to source, no standards for effective measurement 18) Internal/associated audiences- stockholders/investors, customers, employees, community members, vendors a. Communicate by newsletters, bulletin boards, direct mail, annual reports External/independent audiences- educators, governments, financial groups, civic and business organizations, the media a. Communicate by public relations ads, press releases, conferences, research reports 19) Public relations tools: a. Interviews b. Press releases c. Press conferences d. The internet e. Community involvement f. Exclusives 20) Measure of PR effectiveness: a. Ratio of positive to negative articles b. Number of impressions over time, on target audience, and on specific target audiences c. Percentage of positive articles over time and negative articles over time d. Percentage of positive and negative articles by subject, publication, reporter, and target audience 21) Publicity- generation of news about a person, product, or service that appears in the media a. Subset of public relations b. Short term c. Originates outside of term Media relations- maintaining a positive professional relationship with the media in general or with media that specialize in covering a specific industry Publicity advantages- substantial credibility, news value, significant word-of-mouth, perception of endorsement by media Publicity disadvantages- timing difficult or impossible to control, inaccuracy, omission, or distortion may result 22) Corporate advertising- does not promote a specific product or service but promotes an organization (image enhancement, assuming a position on an issue or cause, seeks involvement) Goals of corporate advertising: - Establish diversified company identity - Create positive image - Communicate the organization’s viewpoint - Boost employee morale - Smooth labor relations Types of corporate advertising: - Image advertising- general image ads, positioning ads, sponsorship, recruitment, and financial support - Event sponsorship - Advocacy advertising - Cause-related advertising Advantages- good for positioning the firm, takes advantage of benefits derived from public relations, reaches selected market Disadvantages- questionable effectiveness, raises questions of constitutionality and ethics, lack of consumer interest 23) Support media- uses a variety of non-traditional channels to deliver communications and to promote products and services a. Examples- billboards, outdoor advertising, alternative out of home (blimps), aerial advertising, in-store media (aisle displays, shopping cart signage), transit advertising (inside cards, outside posters) Branded entertainment- form of entertainment that blends marketing and entertainment through TV, film, music talent, and technology 24) Billboard advertising success- increase in number of women in the work force, vehicles on the road, and the ability to remain innovative through technology 25) Support media: a. Advantages- wide local coverage, high frequency, geographic flexibility, creativity, creation of awareness, efficiency, sales effectiveness, production capability, timeliness, mood of audience b. Disadvantages- waste coverage, limited message ability, wear out, high cost, measurement problems, and image problems 26) Direct marketing- interactive system of marketing which uses one or more advertising media to effect a measurable response and/or transaction at any location a. Growth because of: i. Growth of consumer credit cards ii. Changing structure of society (money rich and time poor) iii. Technological advances 27) One-step approach- medium is used directly to obtain an order Two-step approach- uses more than one medium Cost per order (CPO)- evaluates the relative effectiveness of an ad based on the number of call generated Customer lifetime value (CLTV): determines the dollar value associated with a long-term relationship with a customer
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