Final Exam Review!
Final Exam Review! GUS 0821
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauryn Smith on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GUS 0821 at Temple University taught by Dr. Ryan Burns in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see Digital Mapping in Geography at Temple University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
Final Exam Review Sheet 1 What are maps used for What kinds of maps suit these purposes gt Reference General orientation Relative geographies Navigation 0 Open street gt Thematic Propaganda Land use planning Single theme Choropleth color gradation gt Special Purpose Market analysis Weatherclimate Disaster management 2 What is a Mental Map How can one be used gt Where you think things are your knowledge of surroundings your quotmodelquot of the world In uence by family media amp other maps gt Used in daily routine directions word events schematic diagram collective identity insight to inexclusion of maker in social groups gt Think about What is Represented What is Omitted The proportions The placement What is the Centercore What is In the semiperiphery 3 What are the crucial map elements Aesthetics gt Crucial Title Scale bar Legend Labels North arrow gt Aesthetics Color ramp Contextual info Contrast Framing 4 How do latitude and longitude work How are they different from decimal degrees gt Coordinate system on map or globe gt Latitude Parallel lines including Equator run N to S 90 gt Longitude Lines including Prime Meridian run E to W 180 gt Measured angle from the center of the Earth degree minute second gt Decimal degree better for exact location What is the shape of the Earth What is a geoid Ellipsoid Graticule gt Not actually a sphere Geoid3D model that is the closest we can get to actual shape of the Earth Ellipsoidljidealized surfaces perfectly smooth designed to approximate as close as possible to the actual geoid Used to relation geographic location to a standard reference system Geoidal variation different ellipsoids used in different parts of the world Select the ellipsoid that best ts the geoid in region of interest Graticulele grid of horizontal and vertical line such as the network of lines of latitude and longitude that make up a coordinate system such as the one used on the Earth What is a map projection What are the three types gt 2D representation of 3D object Trissot39s indicatrixlj circles all the same size on globe show distortion when laid at gt Elements Ellipsoiddatum Developable surface Figurative light source gt Types CyHnd cal Conical Planar What are the different types of distortion What is a common method of minimizing distortion gt Distortion Area Shape Distance Direction gt Standard parallellj surface that touched the ellipsoid least amount of distortion gt Minimizing Secant case 2 standard parallels where the projection touches the ellipsoid to preserve scale at 2 points What are the four types of data What does each of them say How cancan39 they be used What might each type of data be good at showing gt Nominal name Gender race names gt Ordinal rankings lsr 3rd 157th gt Interval ratio assuming arbitrary 0 Range percentile 504 02 gt Ration ration assuming true 0 Exact elapsed time age grade gt Understand data by nding range and mean median and mode standardize deviation 9 What is scale How is it measured Represented How do geographers describe scale gt Types Bar scale Verbal scale Representative fraction 0 Both sides of ratio same unit of measurement 1quot24000quot Helpful conversions o 12quot1ft 1mie 5280ft 1 kilometer1000 meters 1ft 3048 meters 1meter 328ft gt Large scaleD more zoomed inmore detail gt Small scaleD zoomed out less detail 10What is spatial resolution Why does it matter What are two types of resolution gt Two Types Vector for roads rivers or boundaries Raster for images gt Detail and accuracy are scale based amp dependent gt De nitionsl The detail with which a map depicts the location and shape of geographic features The scale at which data were collected 11Degree Minute Second converted to decimal degree and back gt DSMDDD DDDM60S3600 Example 37 203917quot DD 37 2060173600 37333005 gt DDDDSM Example 39923N D 39 M923 X 60 5538 S38 X 60 23 12What is the US Census What purpose does it serve How are census geographies organized Census purposes 0 Congressional seats Distribute gov39t funding 0 Community services 0 Geographical data Census geographiesspatial units RegiondivisionDstateljcountytrackblock grouprlocks 13What are qualitative data In what ways do they differ from quantitative data What are some uses of qualitative data About collecting ordering amp representing knowledge about the world Examples 0 Fear Evocann Deliberation Curiosity WHY Authoritative Politically powerful Gain insight into social processes 0 Geographical info is embedded w values and norms Methods Interpretive Discourses Contextual Antiabstraction Qualitative data preserves the context complexity amp richness of human expedence 14What are the 3 classes of thematic maps name a few examples of each For what purposes can each type be used for Point Dot Density shows distribution of data with uniform dots point data such as population livestock radio stations Proportional Symbol shows distribution of data by variably sized symbols any pointlike graphic that is scalable LineD Flow line connections ows movements values shown by varying the width of line or arrow exports migrations river discharges lsoline join points of equal value topographical Areal lsopleth ll areas w colors related to collected data based on spatial units choropleth Area Class Maps zones of constant attributes nominal data Cartograms map in which the variable value determines land area 15What are the steps required for creating a choropleth Why is classi cation dif cult What is 39normalization39 and why does it matter De ne spatial units country state city county track Collect and analyze quantitative data data normalization Divide data into categories classi cation 0 Natural breaks maximize the difference between classes clusters of like data 0 Equal interval range of intervals is constant while number of observations varies 10 men in each interval how many states doesn39t matter Quantile intervals vary but number of observations stay constant 5 states in each class range of male pop changes Choose a color scheme Sequential low to high value of the same color Diverging starts with one color as extreme moves to low value when you get to meanmedian value then moves to different color as you move to polar extreme 16What is correlation What are 2 ways correlation can be characterized What is 39global data What is 39big data Positive Nega ve If the line of best t is not where most of the data clusters then you have a high standard deviation Global Data Gini coef cient measure of wealth or income inequality 0 Un Human Development Index 0 UN Gender Inequality lndex Big Data Volumedata size Velocityspeed of change Varietydifferent forms of data sources Veracityuncertainty of data quotthe scienti c method is deadquot Chris Anderson Dana Boyd target knew she was prego b4 her dad did Automating research changes the de nition of knowledge Claims to objectivity amp accuracy are misleading Bigger data are not always better Not all data are equivalent Just bc it is accessible does not mean it is ethical Limited access to Big Data creates new digital divides 17What is remote sensing What are some of its applications and why is it helpful What is Google Earth What are some of its limitations and problematic issues w remote sensing and google earth Remote Sensing the use if satellite and airborne sensors to capture spatial data Active Sends out a signal to receive data 0 Sonar 0 LiDaR 0 Radar Passive just receives data gt Aerial photographs Landset canopy coverage What does it show 0 Radiation o Visible light o Information detectible from a distance What doesn39t it show 0 Qualitative Data Google Earth gives a general perspective Why is it partial 0 Doesn39t answer quotwhyquot questions 9 Can39t understand structural social and political forces o Provides only one perspective of earth 18What is qualitative literacy Why are we talking about it in class on mapping What are two moments when mapbased quantitative information is transformed in what ways do these moments in uence how information is conveyed Consider the Following Walmart says full time employees average 1249hour o Non managers including part time make 848hour 9 Median salary is 22400 below poverty level for family of four 9 Men make 25 more than women San Diego a metropolitan area of over 3 million people has only 3 light rail lines True or false False people are more likely to believe a map39s information than word of mouth Change people39s perspective of their community using maps as leverage Arthur Robinson came up with the Cartographic Process Your interpretation of maps is not without biasin uence Availability bias 0 Derived from personal experience gt After 911 TSA monitoring airports bc USA feared threats gt Everything ltered through fear of terrorism 0 Mental maps can be in uenced by this 9 Stereotypes based on this 0 Con rmation bias o Tendency to acknowledge data that con rm prior beliefs 0 Awareness amp Apophenia o It is easy to miss something you39re not looking for 0 Seeing patterns in randomness Apophenia Author Visual graphic 0 Conventions people follow 0 Truncated yaxis o Compressed xaxis 19What are some ways we can think critically about maps impacts on society How does the history of mapping continue to have impacts on today39s world What is quotopensourcequot quotCrowd sourcingquot How do maps in uence the way we see the world and the way we see ourselves in it Maps and the state 0 Power over individuas manage populations quotsovereignquot map E mashups Bringing maps to 21St century 0 Open sourcing crowd sourcing hyperlinking 0 Open source software or platform that can be modi ed by the public 0 Crowd sourcing large task delegated into smaller chunks to be completed by many people quicker Wikipedia kickstart dailykos open street map ushahidi people loving people o Hyperlinking provide sources and references to back up your working Is Google Maps an open source 0 For gt Public APl access gt Anyone can contribute 0 Against gt No access to data itself gt Restrictive license gt No ownership gt Not meant to be 39public Copy rights limits knowledge quotdemocratizationquot 20What is net neutrality How does it relate to digital mapping How does surveillance relate to privacy Again how does it relate to digital mapping Net Neutrality all internet data should be treated equally Big cable companies trying to make a twospeed system Surveillance Google Earth CCTV cookies iSEE NSA drones data routing quotEverybody has something to hidequot Kafka39s 39The Trial39 Privacy is not about hiding things it39s a relationship between government and person about who controls personal information Internet mob justice 21What is digital humanitarianism What are some of the new technologies and practices What new challenges does it raise for humanitarianism and emergency management What are its underlying assumptions Humanitarianism providing aid resources and assistance to areas and people when local provisions are insufficient The digital humanitarian ecosystem integrate social media and humanitarianism What are new quotsensorsquot being used c Crowd crafting twitter and other social media micromappers digital humanitarian network How are the data useful 9 Tell moodemotion damage reports using media posts What might be required for these to be useful 0 Verify true or false participation geodemographic digital divide communication and language adaptable policy and work ows Participationdigital divide 0 Different access to internet and data 0 Broadband affordability 9 IP address pings geodemographics Communication amp Language 0 Can lay people be the source of useful information 0 People send sensational information o Nuances in language satire sarcasm neologisms emoticons generational shifts Work ows amp Policies 9 Adaptable to existing policies of humanitarianism gt Which are stopping digital humanitarianism from being used gt Which need to change to allow for digital humanitarianism gt Someone outdated and lled with paperwork
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