Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSY 4930
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by jjb13n on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 4930 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Wen Li in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Affective Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
Final Exam Study Guide Week 13 Remembering Fear Definition of Memory 0 Memories for emotional events have a persistence and vividness that other memories seem to lack Memories are constructed NOT a copyreproduction of past Involves complete reconstruction that draws on various information Medial Temporal Region especially hippocampus is involved in consolidation PFC involved in encoding and retrieval 0 LTM Long Term Memory 0 Explicit declarative I Episodic biographical events I Semantic words ideas concepts 0 Implicit nondeclarative I Procedural skills I Emotional conditioning I Priming effect I Conditioned re ex Sensory organs Eper ue ip n E ij gl HEW Stages and MechanismsNeural Substrates O 3 Stages 0 Encoding I Perception temporooccipital processing I Attention OFCcingulatecaudate processing I InterpretationElaborationrehearsal PFC processing 0 Consolidationstorage I Hippocampus I Sensory Cortex o Retrieval PFC Search process Information recovery and reactivation Retrieval monitoring Subjective experience 0 MTL Memory System Hippocampal complex memory consolidation Hinguan n quotv A a nhtnl y will suleus MTL Memory syste FilippaEmmi P 9 g Neocortex vs Hippocampus Stimulus inputs to neocorteX Hippocampus stores new memories NeocorteX recalls recent memories NeocorteX 0 Slow learning 0 Integrate new and old info 0 Permanent storage Hippocampus 7quot s quot 3 A F 39 i39 ELM nip1439 Ill Fa 3 539 v I I 339 r l39a 4 i I 515quot 39rI m IE Fast learning Little integration Temporary storage new info overwrites old 0000 Capture episodic memories and repetitively allows neocorteX to integrate these memories with eXisting associations Emotion modulates Memory and Neural Underpinnings o Emotion modulates memory at all 3 stages 0 Arousal is more relevant than valence both positive amp negative events are remembered better than neutral events 0 Emotion can modulate both implicit and eXplicit memory Processes O Motivationalaffective value guides encoding I Threat grabs attention then perception I Affective schemas shift encoding of info to maintain negative selfview depressives tend to miss the event details and recall overly general episodes 0 Motivationalaffective value guides storage I People rehearse emotional events more resulting in stronger emotional memory storage I Emotion regulation reappraisal and moderated interpretation can shift the reconsolidation and restorage of memory 0 Motivationalaffective value shifts memory retrieval I Affective congruency Recalled pain levels of the past shift in the direction of the current pain level I Goal congruencey We retrieve info consistent with our schemas and core beliefs 0 Underpinning Systems of Emotional Memory 0 System for Controlled Emotion Processing I vaFCOFC representing motivational value I ACC goal orientation and maintenance I Lateral PFC volitional emotion regulation cognitive reppraisal 0 System for Emotional Memory Processing I Amygdala I Basal Ganglia striatum substantia nigra glubus palidus subthalamic nucleus Staes and Mechanisms wquot quot Ennaulidatinn El Retrieval Mf t f g Thrnugh mnmlidatim hemmes enduring LTITM Thrnugh retrieval 3 mamaW Es Subject tn twa fates recnnasnlliidlatiimn Gr fUrgettingf mnd if catimn Fanget ng HEEGH DHdHWD Consli dlatin an reconsliation ceneel iatie 3 Eneeding Retrieval 1 quot Liability rate e E We Heeeneeflidetieh Fergetting fmedli eetien 4 IEetinetien during the tritieell eried leede te unleeruing wiping eut merme14r in the eeneew system Reconsolidation Labile Period Memory Erasure O Reconsolidation O Extinction can overwrite or update a fear memory if it occurs within the window following retrieval of the memory 0 Each time we retrieve a memory it is reconsolidated protein synthesis inhibitors can block this process 0 Immediate extinction de cit Maren 2013 I Administering extinction trials soon after Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats mice and humans results in minimal fear suppression I Brain systems involved in encoding and retrieving extinction memories function suboptimally under stress 0 Later Extinction I Update fear memory upon retrieval and reconsolidation o Labile Period 0 Continually undergoing a chemical physical or biological changebreakdown 0 Memory Erasure O Reactivation of fear memory using single CS 5e 0 Extinction training immediately after CS 0 Reevaluation of CS as nonthreatening I Rats didn t show spontaneous recovery renewal or reinstatement O Unleaming vs inhibition of fear erasing fear memory by modifying the content i Erasm fear tiring reconsolllatlon I llliE grav shading a co nteitt a blue shadingzco nteat HE Attenuation of fear rnenrorillr preeenting a einglle isolated retrieval trial followed hv an extinction eeeeion prevante renewal a Rats were fear conditioned in content A Twentvfonr hours later thev we re enpoeecl either to an isollatecl one retrieval trial or content onlv in content 3 followed it hour later lav extinction training in content E Twentv ionr houre after extinction thev we re teateci for LTl v l in content E E Hate iron1 both experimental groups froze equivalentlv chiring the LTle teat Wll39lEi39l their were placed hack in the acquisition contentI the hlo Het grou p blacch thowed fear renewal hot the Hat group llreclli did not relative to their respective teats Montiia 2009 l Erasing frr during reconsoliation 39 Eatirictien can everynitrite at update a fear mammary it it etcdra within the widddw tellewimg retrieval ef the WEITMUW 39 Each time we retrieve a memem it is reaemaelidated preteiin awitheaia inhibiter a earl bleak tlhia preteaa Immediate eatinetiem deficit Materi 2013 t ed miniater39ng eat39iynct an tr39aa E i l after Paelen ian tear aanditiening in rate mite and lim mans reeuita in minimal tear eupreaaien 139 Brain systems invaleed in amending and retrieving eatinatien memariea tunct idn eubeptimall v Sunder atreaa Later eatimtiem 1 Update tear mamdry apen tetraval and recenaelidetiaa Human Applications 0 Exposure therapy following a single trials effect in humans lasted at least a year 0 PTSD and Anxiety disorders 0 Augment extinction pharmacologically or With reconsolidationbased therapy 0 Childhood Traumas O Erase fear memories brain plasticity 0 Drug Addiction 0 ExtinctionReconsolidation manipulations 0 Depression and other disorders 0 New therapeutic approaches Remembering Fear II Basic Biochemical Basis of LongTerm Memory 0 NMDA Receptor 0 Calcium entry triggers protein synthesis critical for LTM I 1 Glutamate binds with NMDA receptor gt Calcium in ux I 2 gt Protein synthesis signaling I 3 gt RNA transcribed to protein I 4 gt structural changes more AMPA receptors 0 Glutamate O Neuronal ring causes release of glutamate which binds W AMPA receptors in NaK in ux and postsynaptic depolarization I The changed membrane potential forces out Mg2 and channel is no longer blocked and so Ca2 enters the cell Key neurotransmitter for memory Glutmate an NMDA receptor NMDA Heeepter rid d Fi H39 iiuillilai I rmllug i aim I39I il Ir k a r Tl quot 7 I fee e ee eiie e e n 19939 i 39Vi Dir rem ee Tm i in JUEEt39qfr idZli39iC map 3quot mixer 39339 M in 1aa r9 3 Crquot e rater eeii Elyutemeteie Reie irl LTF39 Neuremel firing causes release eigiutemete whieh hiij with emm reeeetersi resulting in Ne it influx and peetey eetie depeierieetiem The changed membrane pete ntiel fereee eut WEB and eheenei is net ieriger Eileeked and 5e 332 enters the cell Emotionrelated Hormonal Modulation in Memory FormationConsolidation O Adrenal stress hormones modulate consolidation of recent info 0 EpinephrineNorepinephrine I Release of NE Within amygdala is essential in mediating the effects of epinephrine and glucocorticoids on memory consolidation 0 Glucocorticoids Cortisol I Glucocorticoids released by emotionally arousing training enhance storage of recent experiences 0 HPA I The amygdala triggers the release of stress hormones by way of the HPA aXis Which feed back onto memory consolidation and storage sites as well as the amygdala itself to enhance memory over longer time intervals 0 Amygdala mediates these hormonal effects increased arousal level and increased sympathetic response release of epinephrine can modulate amygdala involvement in memory Entry of calcium tritrs protein synthesis critical for LTIVI l3 efe re lL T P After lL TP Kiri ill in I l a glutamate ll annals FFESjmr le Cell Festsynzantie Eel M NMDWH 3993 1 Glutamate binds with areas Heeepter Calcium influs 2 Pretein synthesis signaling 3 RNAtranserllserl tel pretein rs1rillllttlral changes lee rnere AMPA reeeptersi Implicit vs Explicit Memory Amygdala vs Hippocampus 0 Double Dissociation Dissociable contributions of the amygdala and hippocampus to fear mentorsi Eardilemma Declarative mumarr all intact factual knowledge regarding 3 Emmi n quotf g the stimulus contingencies but no skin quot a I conductance responses SCH to 5 WE the W i I opposite dissociation an inability to quot3 LI Impaired Facile 39 U acquire tactuai knowledge but intact l l39T le 39ilzirnliilue learning conditioned tear responses 39l p m gg lesion e g l E Therefore amygdala is important for gm E El 2 m implicit lemotionail memory whereas a i hippocan i pus is important for explicit A I a J ep i so d icr39 sent a nticl memo re F WE Hippoquot lesioin 39rlx 39 3 395 quot l I l IYIV i39Ti39 r1 1 39slf FL peagoiiuclo E Iniirlitwrewii Huronroll in iugiil a Immiou j39smrmi f lgllillli39ilil39uh SM Eaciusive and complete bilateral amEgdala destruction since late childhood as a consequence of an eatrerrielir r rare genetic condition known as Urhaclh Wiethe disease pmvadala 95mm Hippocampus lesion o Hippocampus O Explicit memory about the emotional situation contextual memory 0 Amygdala o Implicit emotional fear memory 0 Amygdala regulates consolidation of explicit LTM by modulating neuroplasticity in other brain regions The Neurobiological System Modulating Emotion Memory 0 Paths mediating the in uence of emotion on memory llllllllll 4J J Nleuroiological system regulating emotion memory formation UF39F39C Eirt i39l ii lesrhihgi Eirtir ietieni me39rnertr quot Semahtie rrierr39ioriiir Pathway for emotional influence at memew gr Hippeearnpal E iml s ii I Deelerstive rrieirheriir Cehtesttisl fear menser HF39A airs quots Sensory cortex quot V 7 117quot V i Neurehermohal Storage ell emotiorial WEITICFW Memory medulstien E lha ti i ernetiehell memory The amyg sls triggers the release of stress hermenes by way not the HllFs i saris which feed hack ente rnernery consolidation and storage sites as well as the sm ygrlsls itself to enhariee memery ester longer time iritrus ls Week 14 Notes Key Concepts 0 Physiological modulators O Catecholamines Via Autonomic system mainly sympathetic system O Glucocorticoids Via HPA O Allostasis process of adaptation to maintain stability homeostasis through change 0 Allostatic load costburden wear and tear that the body sustains due to repeated cycles of allostasis and the inef cient turning on or shutting off these responses Allostasis in the Brain 0 Hypothalamus and Homeostasis O Homeostasis process by which a steady state of equilibrium or constancy in the body with respect to physiological functions and chemical compositions of uids and tissues is maintained I Emotion serves homeostasis I Homeostasis drives emotion O HypothalamusA nodal point in the pathways mediating autonomic emotional endocrine and somatic functions 0 Interaction between amygdalalimbic and HPA stress hormones Hypothalamic pituitary arenal HP39A axis 1 39 l a E E l I a m a a a I a 394 a a i ifquot ag I a I i f m er quot39 Magaime Feedh 39 quot quot a 9 a g I T 5311 quot r g I l a h 39 I 7 i Eiluwmnn inuida Hypothalamus Pituitary p Aj gnm Emmi EHHI AETH f MrMuuumazmwit ammmamin a I39iEfIII39IIII39quotP HalquotElm l KEEpln lFlhfrlnE r ni E h quotnunHA a Mh4 l wi H w nu umquot d pamm i quotF lama ma HWHBE irisham y 7 m run 7 7 J I 39139 m39 quot53quot 39 331121 glinm39ulnm r II v Ms ra amm j 7 FEst adrenal curtail WEIme r r quot melt f r l 33m r m W Ea Iquot quota alumna la ta I lmmrm i IL Fia l39ana l mrml Ragnar m mum a g Endj n IEI39I39H i Earhart Mgdliim r quot Ema rE iJEul ii A 39mg fl 1 WHEN 3 ma a 7 7L I quot bi lii l1 l EH E ll I5 iiimJEMI1 9 4 39 quot masguinlaa mr L39 EMI JEIE saur l laql R i a I39 a a quotVV kmlmrw rm quot u j I t 1 Erma media1 was l39i l39l39l39lUT TE39E w EEEEE39W i 39 quot W i 4 Immmma a W I s v and activity and fear 9 l A B if Etr EEE Thegidccrcerticeid recepteri i isa rnaih quot T H regulater cat the IiiFi a axis and has been shcnwn tcn 4 1 39 again i influence endecrine and hEhEMiDF ll measures at l h p Fear in aarieus animal studies dimjj is n ER recepters in the amygdala 1 medulate precesses cit Fear cenditicnnihg 2 facilitated estinctich elf ccihditiched fear 3 increase CiFiilI release EH HM39H39P F itmtaiu 1 i AETHJ 1 WWW CHilI and certisel dysregdiatieh in anxiety and ansieus tern he re me ht 1 livinitiet39iir diserders such as FTED are characterized by alteraticrns in the functich at the hapdthalainic pituitary adrenai illIPA axis tel a hyperactive made with reduced basal and stress related certiscnl have is as well as increased suppressien after the esarnethasehe suppressieh test s Ehrehic stress aiscn supresses HPA quotFunctidning 53 FE f a Stressrelated changes in the brain 0 Chemical imbalances 0 Chemical imbalances due to mental disorders gt allostatic load 0 Serotonin and CRHCRF corticotrophin release factorhormone I CRHCRF hypothalamus and amygdala 0 Structural plasticity 0 Reduced neuronal excitability rapid and reversible O Atrophy of nerve cells in the hippocampus Ammon s horn reversible over daysweeks Inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus dentate gyrus 0 Permanent loss of nerve cells in hippocampus due to prolonged and extreme stress 0 Memory 0 emotion e g fear induces stress and arousal gt epinephrineN E and corticoid release gt NE in the amygdala gt amygdala projections to neocorteX hippocampus caudate etc gt modulates memory consolidation Vivid longlasting memories Stress and psychopathology Many patients with depression secrete excess ACTH and cortisol during the day messessis a In 397 r Frien I39HLII s v 5 I I ill I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I ll I Ii i3 5 353quot H I r 39 Misfit MELVIN r E ML 439 iLiiZ39Z 313 it JUHJ I EL i I i In nermai subjects there is a circadian rhythm tn the secretien which peaks at E ass and then decreases pi grESEWEW frern the ea ripF merning heurs inte the evening untii 3 Allin at night USED Bi centrast in depressed patients the piasrna certisei cencentratien is elevated threugjheut rnnch e F the Edi heer peried ef the dayr2 with enhjF a slight decline in the evening 2WD tel DEW The plet shews the mean heerhr plasma certisei cencentratien ever a Eeheer peried fer seven patients with enipeiar depressien cernpared with the mean ter 54 nermal subjects Each peint represents the mean certisei cencentratien eperp Eli minutesquot Week 15 Anxiety Defined An adaptive healthy emotional state and response Debilitating and pathological When exceeding an optimal level Cognition Behavior Physiology Anxiety Disorders 0 Social Anxiety Disorder 0 Speci c Phobias 0 Panic Disorder 0 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 0CD o PTSD Neurobiological Model of Anxiety 0 The conditioning model of anxiety disorders pathological anxiety neurosis develops by way of classical conditioning O 1 the effectiveness of exposure therapy for treating anxiety disorders 2 greater excitatory conditioning to danger cues CS among patients vs controls 0 3 impaired inhibitory learning extinction learning among patients compared to controls Anxiety amplifies tear learning an respnse 33L uff ilttr LIE Eaeie telling earl nrnuletnm EF IIEJaII ruseEDI 14 aiu al anlet all lg Etl EE EH SE W at Eati 525 L5 Ii a39 411 in I U i 139 E quotI 1 Si 1 f 9 5mm 11 31mm gm gi vgd ia EEH39ler nr E5 Fred quot5 31h Eralean tweeRm 39H Maria Erawej Hsglquot unequal 1th far EEi Feed IE5 Eale individuals high in trait anaietiir ahewed increased amyg aia reaiienaiii39itiiF tel Feat CUES This was iinked te stranger initial SEE acquisitien te these was in Su l 15 an 75 Pram C5 Sal39s curing earlr emu nlr mni I H 25 312 IE GI 5 5939 555 Ef e HEEL hhgi EE PE indeaina et ai 212111 Anxiety weakens thi CtliDn lie Inning A E F FLT u 3 EL nae E IVA E55quot intiitritiuaia High in quotili rait anxiety ahewed impaueriehea eFiFi 5 w reapanees i F1 n n n an aquot lezl 539 3939 an quotl39 392 en a Iii 39 W 4 39 55M W39Tl l39 EHHHETE SCENE DI EllPal E TlW I39ii39iv39I iFTE seen 39E39FFC 39E39IE EIHF39I E Elf VIEWSI 39I39EIUE F39FC tillEight E li 39l i EtiIL eapnaure therapy mediated blip eatinetinn learning ren39ivaine tine primary treatment at anxiety diaerriiera lean phehiaa a r uLlI r39rrrI i 2 quotl Dirll l39 ii it 12ir lriu Indexvina et alni l iiiiii Amygdala and Anxiety Assessing threat input Preparing ght ight response projects to brain stem Facilitating sensory acquisition Enhancing arousal and learning longterm emotional memory Anxiety symptoms and Amygdala outputs o Panicphobia I Amygdalacentered circuit 0 ReeXperiencing I Hippocampal stimulation of the amygdala O Avoidance I Amygdala output to periaqueductal grey O Autonomic responses I Amygdala output to locus ceruleus O Endocrine responses I Amygdala output to hypothalamus 0 Breathing I Amygdala to parabrachial nucleus Neural Basis of Different Anxiety Disorder Subtypes o PTSD O Amygdala hyperresponsivity 0 ACC de ciency O Hippocampal de ciency 0 Social Anxiety Disorder and Speci c Phobias O Amygdala hyperreactivity O Hippocampus hyperreactivity O Insula hyperreactivity 0 Panic Disorder 0 Suffocation fear C02 pH valueacidity 0 Brain lactate metabolism 0 Acidsensing ion channel ASIC responding to low pH value 0 Key Symptoms I Obsession thoughts and Compulsion behavior 0 repetitive O Corticostriatothalamocortical circuitry I Striatum is inef cient at inhibiting thalamus and OFC 0 Lower NAA level I OFC is thus hyperactive gt obsessions uncontrollable intrusive thoughts C mpariisun ew33 anxiety idiscnridiers Elwinquotm dmnieinmlunamir n w IpiIHIHE I M ln lai l misaliii Frli iilhrla39iliisil39l lliil ui i i nit lmrnv hr Eh twirl mum Minn CE I Fiyi lm lhir lizi Imliira Ehm39 imi i lll i It ll l Ini 1 awful I l l li a iim MEET mail Email pm l i m39pu liEMEi lustEr II in ll m m quot 1 Inn131 l i39l39i il n lb Eu l m night Edi 11 1h 39i g l Burial inm el Spherilix Rhuhin FE r E H39lu39PEIfbtlii i39 ltinl39l Lznmpanmn subjects w gmlaij HIPherar i39m imm Lp ljl lla 39 mnpuirimnl auhjEtFILJ A Neurosensory Pathway to Anxiety AmydalaEDr efrentm Circuitry in Anxiety A summary er rage Studiee heightened amygdele reeetivity Eruprpr eesed PFC inihTiniitie PTSD umlFFFE hyperespensiviw duriin exthnethem gym stem 3 revectiien metien reign lithe n ette mien regu Lathe n Emir EH ilill39ij39l Ewwnni rem El 411nm i I Lil u lglaiwlginJ PPquot Elwynvigil p quot39l lliln Faintzeal i It LETimam ailiidu Iquot 39 IW 39EI39EFi iGyiraliarii m iquoti iL i W I 11
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