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Final Exam Study Materials BIOl 1020-003
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOl 1020-003 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Zhong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
Final Exam Review 60 New Material post exam 3 40 Old Material I Old Material 1 Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions aThey maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them bThey maintain a constant pH when bases are added to them but not when acids are added to them c They fluctuate in pH when either acids or bases are added to them dThey maintain a constant pH when acids are added to them but not when bases are added to them 2 What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds a Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms ionic bonds involve the sharing of protons between charged atoms bCovaent bonds involve the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms ionic bonds involve the sharing of single electrons between atoms c Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between charged atoms dCovaent bonds involve the transfer of electrons between charged atoms ionic bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms 3 Which of the following is NOT a polymer a DNA bceluose c ATP dstarch e RNA 4 Lactose is formed when aGucose is joined to galactose by a peptide linkage bGucose is joined to glucose by a glycosidic linkage c Glucose is joined to maltose by an ester linkage dGucose is joined to fructose by a glycosidic linkage eGucose is joined to a galactose by a glycosidic linkage 5 Which molecule is amphipathic a Fat bPhosphoipid c Steroid dRNA eATP 6 Cellulose is a a Polysaccharide stored in plant cells bPolysaccharide made of aglucose c A polysaccharide made of modified B glucose units dStarch made of aglucose e E Starch made of amylopectin 7 Citric acid makes lemons taste sour Which of the following is a functional group that would cause a molecule such as citric acid to be acidic aamino group 8 9 b hydrocarbon c carboxyl group dhydroxyl group ecarbonyl group Dehydration synthesis link monomers in proteins by link components in lipid by aester linkages peptide bonds bglycosidic linkages ester linkages c phosphodiester bonds peptide bonds dpeptide linkages phosphodiester bonds e Peptide linkages ester linkages All of the following are components of the modern cell theory except aAl living organisms are made up of one or more cells bThe smallest living organisms are single cells and cells are the functional units of multicellular organisms c All cells arise from preexisting cells dBacteria cells are eukaryotic eAll of these are true 10 All the following are important functions of the cytoskeleton EXCEPT aStorage of food molecules bSupport of organelles c Movement of organelles dMaintenance of shape e Maintenance of organization in the cell 11 Why are cells generally small in size 12 13 14 membrane while the environment aTo enlarge the surface area to load surface proteins bTo maintain sufficient surface area for the exchange of nutrients and wastes with the external environment c To enlarge surface to carry out photosynthesis dTo minimize the surface area for efficient exchange of nutrients and wastes with the external environment eAll of the above are the reasons portion of the cell membrane is responsible for the isolating functions of the portion regulates exchange and communication with the a lipid protein bcholesterol lipid c protein cholesterol dcarbohydrate lipid e None ofthese The force driving simple diffusion is while the energy source for active transport is a phosphorylated protein carriers ATP bthe concentration gradient ATP c the concentration gradient ADP dtransmembrane pumps electron transport eATP ATP What best characterizes the role of ATP in cellular metabolism 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 aThe release of free energy during the hydrolysis of ATP heats the surrounding environment bThe free energy released by ATP hydrolysis may be coupled to an endergonic process via the formation of a phosphorylated intermediate c It is catabolized to carbon dioxide and water dThe AG associated with its hydrolysis is positive eThe charge on the phosphate group of ATP tends to make the molecule very water soluble Which of the following most closely matches the correct order of main events of cellular respiration aglycolysis pyruvate oxidation Krebs cycle oxidative phosphorylation bglycolysis oxidative phosphorylation pyruvate enters mitochondrion Krebs cycle c Krebs cycle electron transport oxidative phosphorylation glycolysis dglycolysis Krebs cycle pyruvate oxidation oxidative phosphorylation eoxidative phosphorylation pyruvate oxidation Krebs cycle pyruvate oxidation Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis a6 C02 6 H20 gt C6H1206 6 02 bC6H1206 6 02 gt 6 C02 12 H20 c C6H1206 6 02 gt 6 C02 6 H20 Energy dH20 gt 2 H 12 02 2e e6 C02 6 02 gt C6H1206 6 H20 Which wavelengths of light are the least effective in driving photosynthesis agreen color bred color c blue color dpurple color eyelow color How many chromosomes does one human egg cell have a 23 b 45 c 46 d 47 e 22 Metaphase is characterized by a Kinetochores b cytokinesis c separation of sister chromatids d Aligning of chromosomes on the equator e splitting of the centromeres Homologous chromosomes a Carry information for the same traits b Are identical c Align on the metaphase plate in meiosis H d carry the same alleles e Separate during meiosis Which of these is a way that the sexual life cycle increases genetic variation in a species a by allowing crossing over B by allowing an increase in cell number b by increasing gene stability c by decreasing mutation frequency dby conserving chromosomal gene order 22 A recessive gene is one aThat is not expressed as strongly as a dominant allele bWhose effect is masked by a dominant allele c That appears only in a heterozygote dThat produces no effect when present in the homozygous condition eThat must be lethal in the homozygous condition 23 Which of the following statements is true of linkage a Linked genes are found on different chromosomes bThe closer two genes are on a chromosome the lower the probability that a crossover will occur between them c All of the traits that Mendel studied seed color pod shape flower color and others are due to genes linked on the same chromosome dThe observed frequency of recombination of two genes that are far apart from each other has a maximum value of 100 24 Which of the following is correct about the DNA replication aThe replication fork exists in eukaryotes only bThere are no Okazaki fragments formed on leading strands of both proka ryotes and eukaryotes c To get efficient replication process both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have multiple origins along the chromosomes with multiple replication bubbles d DNA is a double helix structure with only one strand being used as template during replications eSemiconservative model give daughter DNA synthesizing direction from 5 3 on leading strand but 3 5 on lagging strand 25 Nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides The structural backbone of nucleic acids contains the following repeating pattern a basesugarbasesugar bphosphatesugarphosphatesugar c basephosphatesuga rbasephosphatesugar dbasephosphatebasephosphate e phosphatephosphatesugarphosphatephosphatesugar CHAPTER 17 GENE EXPRESSION Gene Expression the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins Two stages of Gene Expression Transcription and Translation I Genes and Proteins A J 1902 Archibald Garrod suggested genes dictate phenotypes through enzymes that catalyze specific reactions in the cell Beadle and Tatum worked with bread mold to support the idea that the function of a gene is to dictate the production of a specific enzyme Review Vocab i Monomer a single unit ii DNA and RNA monomers nucleotides consist of P sugar nitrogenous base iii Genes hundreds or thousands of nucleotides iv Polypeptide primary structure of a protein consists of many amino acids v Amino acids monomers of proteins uses info in DNA to synthesize RNA i DNA forms a template ii mRNA messenger RNA carries genetic info from DNA to proteinsynthesizing machine iii In Eukaryotes it takes place in the nucleus and is followed by a process called processing to modify the mRNA before it is transported to the cytoplasm for Translation info in mRNA synthesizes a polypeptide i Translates language into amino acid sequence ii Because in bacteria chromosomal DNA is not separated from ribosomes by a nucleus membrane translation can begin while transcription is happening Flow of genetic information DNA 9 RNA 9 Proteins Francis Crick developed the central dogma i If each kind of nucleotide base were translated into an amino acid there would only be four amino acids ii Instead triplets of nonoverlapping nucleotide bases are the smallest units of uniform length that can code for all the amino acids iii The series of words in a gene is transcribed into a complementary series of non overlapping threenucleotide words in mRNA and then is translated into a chain of amino acids iv For each gene only one DNA strand template strand is transcribed This is the same strand that is ALWAYS used as the template strand v Rules matching same for DNA C G RNA contains the sugar ribose which has an extra oxygen than deoxyribose vi The triplets in mRNA are called They are written in the 5 9 3 direction vii Duringtranslation UAA UAG And UGA indicate the end oftranslatioZDNA 39l39Qmmla39l39Q l rzn l AUG initiates translation 3 ACCAAACCGAGT 5 539 TGGTTTGGCTCA 339 539 UGGUUUGGCUQLQ TrpPhe GySer Tramsla nn D rnfgim mRNA Fmdmm HNA mlm iith strands Tranerrinfinm K There is redundancy in genetic code but not ambiguity Two codons can specify the same amino acid but there aren t any codons that specify more than one amino acid Looking Closer at Transcription A pries the two DNA strands apart and joins RNA nucleotides complementary to the DNA template strand i Does not need a primer ii The DNA sequence where RNA pol attaches and initiates transcription is called the iii In bacteria the sequence that ends transcription is called the iv The stretch of DNA downstream from promotor the transcriptional unit i Start point the nucleotide where RNA synthesis begins ii Transcription factors in Euks mediate the binding of RNA pol and initiation iii a nucleotide sequence containing TATA about 25 nucleotides upstream from the start point Helps the transcription factors iv After RNA pol binds to the promoter the DNA strands unwind and the polymerase initiates RNA synthesis at the start point on the template strand i The new RNA molecule pulls away from the DNA template strand and DNA double helix reforms i Differs in bacteria and Euks ii Bacteria transcription proceeds through a terminator sequence in DNA This causes the polymerase to detach and release transcript iii Euks RNA pol transcribes a sequence on the DNA called the polyadenylation signal sequence which specifies a polyadenylation signal AA UAAA in the premRNA Bound by certain proteins in the nucleus that cu tit free from the pol RNA processing in Eukaryotic cells A both ends of the primary transcript end product of transcription are altered Certain interior sections are cut out and the remaining parts are spliced back together B 539 Cap the 5 end of the transcript receives a modified form of G C PolyA tail added to the 3 end 50250 A i The 5 cap and the PolyA tail facilitate export of the mature mRNA from the nucleus protect the mRNA from degradation by hydrolytic enzymes and help ribosomes attach to the 5 end of the mRNA once it reaches the cytoplasm D cutting out noncoding segments of the RNA and splicing the coding segments back together i Accomplished by a large complex made of proteins and small RNAs called ii RNA molecules that function as enzymes Looking Closer at Translation A Translation is directed by RNA to produce a polypeptide B Process a cell quotreadsquot a genetic message located on mRNA in the form of codons and translates it into the form of amino acids creating a polypeptide C tRNA the translator who actually does the work of transferring amino acids from the cytoplasmic pool to the ribosome where they form a chain i A cell39s cytoplasm has a wellstocked pool of all 20 amino acids ii The ribosome39s function is to add each amino acid to the growing end of the polypeptide chain tRNA molecule single RNA strand of about 80 nucleotides long It can fold back on itself looking 30 1 end has a specific amino acid attached to it The other end has the Anticodon the nucleotide triplet that base pairs to a specific mRNA codon i tRNA can be used repeatedly a family of enzymes that make sure tRNAs match up with the right amino acids the base pairing between a codon and an anticodon are very flexible in the 3rel nucleotide facilitate the specific coupling of tRNA anticodons with mRNA codons during protein synthesis Consists of a large subunit and a small subunit made up of proteins and one or more ribosomal RNAs rRNA i Each ribosome has a binding site for mRNA and 3 binding sites for tRNA ii P site holds the tRNA carrying the growing peptide chain the last tRNA that dropped an amino acid iii A site holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain iv E site where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome v Process A 9 P 9 E vi The growing peptide leaves through the exit tunnel 3 steps of translation i Energy is required in the form of GTP the hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate 1 brings mRNA and tRNA with the first amino acid together with the smaller subunits of a ribosome a Followed by the attachment of a large ribosomal subunit b Initiation factors required to bring these things together c Polypeptide always synthesized in one direction i Initial methionine nterminus 9 final amino acid at carboxyl end cterminus 2 amino acids are added onebyone to the previous amino acid at the cterminus of the growing chain a Each addition involves the participation of several proteins called elongation factors b The ribosome and the mRNA moves relative to each other 3 elongation continues until a stop codon in the mRNA reaches the A site of the ribosome a A release factor binds directly to the stop codon in the A site This causes the addition of a water molecule instead of an amino acid to the polypeptide chain b The bond is broken between the polypeptide and tRNA in the P site Polypeptide exits through the exit tunnel c Requires hydrolysis of 2 GTP molecules A gene determines primary structure and primary structure in turn determines shape of a protein Posttranslational modifications additional steps that may be requires before the protein can begin doing it39s particular job in the cell CHAPTER 222 DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION Endless forms most beautiful A 3 key observations about life 1 Organisms are suited for life in their environment 2 Many shared characteristics unity of life 3 Diversity of life B Charles Darwin The Origin of Species C Evolution descent with modification a change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation 1 Pattern of evolution facts and observation about the natural world 2 Process of evolution the mechanisms that produce the observations Coming to the idea of evolution A Aristotle 1 Viewed species as fixed unchanging 2 Scale of nature each form of life is a rung on a ladder B Linnaeus 17071778 1 Developed binomial format for naming species 2 Grouped species in broad similarities C Georges Cuvier 17691832 1 Created paleontology 2 Observed disappearance of species 3 Opposed evolution 4 Believed catastrophic events washed out species D James Hutton 1795 1 Earth s geological features are explained by gradual mechanisms E Charles Lyllel 17971875 1 Same mechanisms of the past are used in the present 2 Influenced that slow and subtle change produces biological change F Lamarck 1809 1 Use and disuse parts used a lot became stronger those not used deteriate 2 Inheritance of acquired characteristics organisms pass these modifications to their offspring 3Thought evolution happens because organisms have an innate drive to be more complex 4 Recognized match of organisms to environment G Darwin 1 Voyage of the Beagle 2 Species adaptation to the environment and survival 3 Origin of new species quot 4 Natural selection individuals with certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce more 5 Life s diversity is the product of evolution H The Origin of Species Three observations of life result from descent with modification b natural selection 1 Artificial Selection i Humans alter species by selecting and breeding individuals that posses desired traits 2 Natural Selection i Members of a population often vary in inherited traits ii All species produce more offspring than their environment can support iii Individuals with traits that give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing leave more offspring iv Unequal survival ability leads to accumulation of favorable traits in a population 3 Descent with Modification i Descent of all organisms from an ancestor long ago unity of life ii As organisms live in different habitats they accumulate diverse adaptations to fit the environment organisms match environments and diversity of life Scientific evidence of evolution A 4 types of data that explainback up evolution 1 Direct observations 2 Homology 3 Fossil Record 4 Biogeography B Direct Observations 1 Ex Beak length in soapberry insects i The bug s beak was the same length as the seeds in the plant When the plant started dying out and the bugs started living off of another plant their beaks shortened to the length of the new plant 2 Ex drug resistant bacteria i Bacteria surviving by adapting cell walls to resist enzymes in drugs C Homology 1 Homology similarity resulting from common ancestry 2 Homologous structures the same structural theme that has been adapted to different functions 3Vestigia structures remnants of features that served a function in the organism s ancestors 5Convergent evolution independent evolution of similar features in different lineages different ancestors i Adapted to different environments in similar ways D Fossil Record 1 Documents the pattern of evolution showing that past organisms differed from present day organisms and that many species have become extinct 2 Show evolutionary changes 3 Show origins of new groups of species E Biogeography 1 the scientific study of the geographic distributions of species 2 Influenced by continental drift Pangeaislands have plants and animals endemic found nowhere else but endemic species are closely related to other species at nearest mainland CHAPTER 23 EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS 1 Genetic Variation 9 Evolution A Genetic Variation genetic differences among i Genetic variation at the whole gene level is described by the average percentage of loci B Nucleotide Differences i Provide the basis of genetic variation ii Originate when mutation and gene duplication produce new alleles and new genes iii Organisms with produce new genetic variants faster iv Crossing over independent assortment of chromosomes and fertilization in sexually reproducing organisms all result in genetic differences v Many of the differences in nucleotide variability occurs in introns noncoding segments of DNA Of the changes that occur in exons coding regions of DNA very little change affects the amino acid sequence thanks to the redundancy in codons C Microevolution a change in allele frequencies in a population over generations i 3 main causes i Natural Selection ii Genetic drift events that alter allele frequency iii Gene ow transfer of alleles from one place to another D Sources of Genetic Variation i Formation of New alleles a Mutation change in nucleotide sequence of an organism s DNA i We cannot predict which segments will be changed or how ii In most animals the majority of mutations occur in somatic cells and are not passed to offspring b Neutral variation differences in DNA that do not confer a selective advantage or disadvantage i Redundancy in genetic code ii Noncoding regions of DNA ii Altering gene number or position a Chromosomal changes that delete disrupt or rearrange loci b of genes due to errors in meiosis slippage during DNA replication or the activities of transposable elements iii Rapid reproduction a Mutation rates low in plants and animals but lower in prokaryotes But prokaryotes have a short generation span so rapid reproduction produces quicker genetic variation iv Sexual Reproduction a Most sexually reproducing organisms have genetic variation resulting from random assortment crossing over and fertilization i Crossing over during meiosis homologous chromosomes cross over sharing info ii Random Assortment random distribution of chromosomes and alleles into gametes iii Fertilization any possible sperm egg combination II Hardy Weinberg equation i Tests Whether a population is evolving or not B Population a group of organisms belonging to one species C Gene pool all copies of every type of allele at every locus in all members of the population D HardyWeinberg equilibrium allele and genotype frequencies will remain constant i pA qa p2AA q2aa 2pqAa E How to calculate allele frequencies i Ex AAred owers aawhite owers Aapink owers i Note that red owers carry two red alleles white owers carry two white alleles and pink owers carry one allele for each characteristic ii p Red allele frequency 2 of red f lowers 1 number of pink f lowers 2number of total flowers iii pql iv p22pqq2l 111 What directly alters allele frequencies in a population A Natural Selection i Individuals with traits better suited to their environment tend to produce more offspring than those with traits that are not as well suited B Genetic Drift i Most effective in ii Allele frequencies change at random iii Chance events even includes fertilization iv Unpredictable events v Circumstances that result in genetic drift i Founder Effect a A few individuals become isolated from a larger population and establish a new population whose gene pool differs from the source ii The bottleneck Effect a A sudden change in the environment may drastically reduce the size of the population Certain alleles may be over or under represented C Gene Flow i Transfer of alleles from one population to another by movement of individuals ii Ex pollination iii Leads to fewer genetic differences between populations IV Natural Selection 9 adaptive evolution A Relative fitness the of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals B Different modes of natural selection i Directional Selection i Conditions favor individuals exhibiting of a phenotypic range Shifts the curve of the graph in one direction or the other ii Disruptive selection i Conditions favor iii Stabilizing selection i Conditions act against both extremes and C Sexual selection individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than others to obtain mates i Sexual dismorphism differences in secondary sexual characteristics of males and females ii Intrasexual selection Members of one sex compete against one another for a member of the other sex iii Intersexual selection one sex usually female gets to choose their mates of the other sex D Frequencydependent selection the fitness of a phenotype depends on how common it is in the population It may be more fit if it is common but then the minority might also be more fit E How come natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms i Selection can act only on existing variants ii Evolution is limited by historical constraints i Evolution uses existing structures and adapts them to new situations iii Adaptions are often compromises iv Chance natural selection and the environment interact Chapter 24 The Origin of Species I Biological Species Concept A Species a group of populations whose individuals may interbreed and produce viable fertile offspring with each other but not with members of other species B Biological Species Concept i Reproductive isolation the existence of biological factors that impede members of two different species to interbreed ii Hybrids offspring of two different species iii Speciation the process by which one species splits to two or more species iv Macroevolution broad change in patterns of evolution above the species level v Prezygotic Barriers before zygote 1 Block fertilization 2 Impede the attempt to mate 3 Preventing success of attempted mating 4 Hindering fertilization in successful mating vi Postzygotic barriers after zygote 1 Hybrid zygote has been formed 2 Developmental errors reduce survival of embryo 3 Problems after birth leads to infertile offspring or not able to survive long enough to reproduce vii Limitations of BSC 1 Cannot be applied to fossils 2 Cannot be applied to asexual organisms C Morphological Species Concept distinguishes a species by body shape and structural features i Relies on subjective data D Ecological Species Concept distinguishes a species by its ecological niche or role in an ecosystem i Emphasizes natural selection E Phylogenetic Species Concept distinguishes a species by the smallest group that shares a common ancestor II Types of isolation barriers A Habitat Isolation i The two species encounter each other rarely if at all ii Ex Garter Snakes One species lives in water and another species lives onland B Temporal Isolation i Species breed during different times of the year day etc ii Ex Skunks C Behavioral Isolation i Mating patterns or courtship rituals differ ii Ex Bluefooted boobies D Mechanical Isolation i Mating is attempted but morphological differences prevent its successful completion ii Ex snails spiral in two different directions during mating E Gametic Isolation i Sperm can only fertilize eggs of its own species ii Ex sea urchins F Reduced Hybrid viability i Hybrid zygote embryo is endangered during the development process or dies as an infant ii Ex salamanders G Reduced Hybrid i Hybrids are born sterile ii Ex mules male donkey female horse H Hybrid breakdown i Offspring of the first generation are fertile but the second generation offspring are sterile ii Ex rice I Speciation and Geographic separation A Allopatric speciation i Gene flow interrupted by geography that physically divides populations ii Ex plants on Hawaiian islands iii Ex Bahama mosquito fish B Sympatric speciation i Same geographic area ii Less common iii Gene flow reduced by 1 Polyploidy 2 Sexual selection 3 Habitat differentiation iv Polyploidy extra sets of chromosomes a Very common in plants v Alloploidy hybrids that are fertile when mating with each other but cannot interbreed with either parent species Creates a new species vi Sexual Selection causes speciation 1 Ex freshwater fish in Europe vii Habitat differentiation 1 When a subpopulation exploits a habitat or resource not used by the parent population 2 Ex north American apple maggot fly IV Hybrid Zones reveal factors that cause reproductive isolation A Hybrid zones i Members of different species meet and mate producing at least some offspring of mixed ancestry ii Many are stable hybrid offspring continue to be produced over time B Reinforcement i Strengthens prezygotic barriers to reproduction thus decreasing the formation of unfit hybrids C Fusion i In some hybrid zones barriers to reproduction may weaken over time resulting in the fusion of the species gene pools and reversing the speciation process Speciation is a flexible concept A New species can occur rapidly B Punctuated equilibria describes periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change i Suggests that once the process of speciation begins it can be completely relatively rapidly C Gradual patterns when change happens very gradually i Give proof that it also may just take millions of years for a new species to evolve from another ECOSYSTEM AND ECOLOGY Chapters 5254 I Ecology a The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment b Can range from single organisms to the planet ll Ecosystem a Ecosystem definition i All the organisms in a given area and the nonliving factors with which they interact ii Biodiversity the variety of living things Includes genetic diversity species diversity and ecosystem b Organism level i Global ecology ii Landscape ecology iii Ecosystem ecology iv Community ecology v Population ecology vi Organismal ecology c Living organisms i Life requires 1 Nutrients 2 Energy a Energy and Nutrient pathways i Energy moves in a oneway flow through communities within ecosystems ii Nutrients and water constantly cycle and recycle within and among ecosystems b Autotrophs producers i Plants ii Cyanobacteria iii Photosynthetic c Heterotrophs consumers i Humans ii Nonphotosynthetic d Food Chain and Food Web i Food Chain A relationship with iust one representative at each trophic level ii Food Web shows the actual relationships in a community including its many interconnecting food chains 3 Water 4 Appropriate temperatures d Ecosystem and Biosphere l Atmosphereair 2 Hydrospherewater 3 Lithosphereearth and rocks e Climate The longterm prevailing weather conditions in a given area Macroclimate patterns on the global regional And landscape level iv Microclimate very fine localized patterns such as those encountered by the community of organisms that live in the microhabitat beneath a filled log Types of Ecosystems Terrestrial Ecosystemslife on land 1 large land areas with similar environmental conditions and characteristic plant communities 0 Tropical Rain Forests i Equatorial and subequatorial regions ii Constant rainfall high temps high biodiversity Savanna i Equatorial and subequatorial regions warm year round little rainfall grass dominant small shrubs large animals Deserts i 30 degrees north and south latitudes and interior of continents low precipitation vegetation rare and scattered plants and animals adapted to conserve water Grasslands i Higher rainfall than a desert less than a forest cold winters hot summers grazer and burrowing mammals ii Ex veldts of South Africa pampas of Argentina and Uruguay steppes of Russia plains and prairies of central North America Temperate Forest i Mainly at multitudes in the Northern Hemisphere smaller areas in Chile South Africa Australia and New Zealand ii Higher rainfall dominated by trees hot and humid summers distinct vertical layers Tundra i Low rainfall cold temperatures slow growing vegetation ii Expansive areas of the Arctic amounting to 20 of Earth s land surface Northern Coniferous Forest taiga i Northern North America and Eurasia to the edge of the arctic Tundra ii Common periodic droughts conebearing trees diversity of plants low migratory birds Chaparral i Midlatitude coastal regions seasonal precipitation dominated by small vegetation Aquatic Ecosystemslife in water Energy and nutrients determines the quantity of life in water 2 Zonation in Aquatic Biomes l 9979 Photic zone sufficient light for photosynthesis Aphotic zone little light penetrates Pelagic zone photic and aphotic zones Abyssal zone the part of the ocean 20006000 m below the surface Benthic zone at the bottom of all the aquatic zones i Benthos organisms that occupy the benthic zone ii Detritus a maior source of food for many benthic species is dead organic matter 3 Aquatic biomes 0 Community Interaction a Predation Lakes i standing bodies of water ii Oligotrophic lakes nutrient poor iii Eutrophic lakes nutrient rich often depleted of oxygen in the deepest zone in summer and if covered in ice in winter iv Littoral zone the shallow welllit waters close to shore v Limnetic zone farther from shore where water is too deep to support rooted aquatic plants Wetlands i lnundated by water at least some of the times supports plants adapted to watersaturated soil Streams and Rivers i Flowing water with speed diversity of fishes and invertebrates Estuaries i A transition area between river and sea seawater flows up the estuary channel during a rising tide and flows back down during the falling tide Salinity varies Open Ocean i Most life is in the upper photic zone ii Life forms are pelagicfree swimming or floating Coral Reefs mutualistic community i Formed from calcium carbonate skeletons of corals high oxygen content Deep Ocean i Aphotic zone only energy comes from organisms that swim here the remains or products of organisms that drift down from up above or hydrothermal vents ii Marine benthic zone seafloor and offshore pelagic zone i Benefits predator but harms prey ii Camouflage iii Warning coloration iv Mimicry b Competition i Harms both species c Herbivory i Herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga Harms plant but not animal d Parasitism i Benefits parasite but harms host e Mutualism i Benefits both species f Commensalism i One species benefits and the other is unaffected g Keystone Species i Plays a maior role in determining community structure ii Not usually abundant in a community iii Exert strong control on community structure by their pivotal ecological roles or niche Conservation of biodiversity a Extinction b Habitat destruction
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