Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide GEOG 103 001
Popular in Introduction to Geography
Popular in Geography
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 103 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 265 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for Final Exam Study Guide
I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Eliza delivered. Shoutout Eliza, I won't forget!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/03/15
GEOG103 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Development ∙ LDCS vs MDCs review o DC less developed, developing, challenge: to improve the level of development o DC more developed, developed, challenge: maintain high level of development ∙ Development: the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge & technology ∙ A continuous process to constantly improve the health & prosperity of the people Location ∙ North America, Latin America, Europe, East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, SE Asia, Middle East, Sub Saharan Africa ∙ Then…. Japan, Oceania, & Russia ∙ MDC/LDC is divided by region as well as individual country ∙ HDI: Human Development Index (perfect score 1.0 100%) differs in every country ∙ Uneven development How is HDI measured? ∙ conomic GDP per capita ∙ Socia literacy rate & # years of education ∙ Demographic life expectancy ∙ United Nations came up w/ this) ^ Economic Indicator ∙ (they could use many other stats but they chose this one) ∙ ross Domestic Product per capita (GDP total value of goods & services sold within a country in 1 year ∙ MDCS are typically going to be $20,000 or above on GDP per capita ∙ LDCS are typically going to be about $5,000 or less on GDP per capita Social Indicators ∙ Literacy ra (quality of education) exceeds 98% in MDCs & below 60% in LDCs ∙ Based on age 15+ generally ∙ Years of Education(quantity) MDCs 10 year average, LDCS2 year average Demographic Indicator ∙ life expectancyaverage number of years a newborn infant can expect to live MDCs ∙ North America, Europe, Japan (highest .96), Oceania, Russia (lowest .73) LDCs ∙ Latin America (highest .82; more urbanized), East Asia, Middle East, SE Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Sub Saharan Africa (lowest .51) ∙ Asian Tigers: Singapore, Taiwan, S. Korea, & Hong Kong Other Social Indicators ∙ Health & welfare (daily caloric intake, # of physicians) ∙ Gender inequality ∙ ross national happiness Other Demographic Indicators ∙ Infant mortality rate ∙ Natural increase rate ∙ Crude birth rate Other Economic Indicators ∙ Consumer goods ∙ Economic structure of a country Primary Sector jobs that directly extract materials from the earth through ag, mining, fishing, & forestry Secondary Sector jobs that process, transform, & assemble raw materials into useful products Tertiary Sector jobs that provide goods & services to people in exchange in payment Stages of Development ∙ Preindustrial Societies (primary sector) ∙ Industrial Societies (secondary sector) ∙ Postindustrial Societies (tertiary sector) Regional Variations within Countries ∙ Brazil, Mexico, & China aren’t classified as an MDC or LDC because there is extreme variation in different parts of the country. Some very developed parts and other very undeveloped parts Obstacles to Development ∙ To reduce the gap between MDCs and LDCs, LDCs must develop more rapidly ∙ LDCs choose 1 of 2 ways to promote development: o elf sufficiency o international trade URBAN GEOGRAPHY Origin of Cities What does “urban” mean? (a matter of scale) 1) Large scale 2) High density 3) ocial heterogeneity ∙ How many people does it take to make up an urbanized area/city in the U.S? 2,500 Terms Physical Definition of a City Central city delimited municipality within which local gov. has legal authority Urbanized area the central city + surrounding built up suburbs. DOES NOT correspond to gov. boundaries (MSA) Metropolitan statistical area functional area of a city: zone of influence o Central city o Urbanized area with at least 50,000 people o ounty within which city is located o Adjacent countries w/ high population density + large percent of ppl working in central city’s (includes land area that is NOT urban) ∙ Newberry county is an example of a MICROpolitan stat. area around Columbia Micropolitan statistical areasmaller urbanized areas between 10,000 50,000 + the country in which it is located (CMSA) Consolidated statistical area overlapping MSAs (conurbation) Megacity city with more than 10 million inhabitants (25 in the world) URBANIZATION ∙ Urbanization process by which the population of cities grow. ∙ 008 urban/rural= 51/49 ∙ larger % urban= higher level of development in the country ∙ MDCs have become increasingly more urban straight up due to the growth of industry ** this is the #1 reason** ∙ LDCs has little to do w/ industry. Main reason for them is because of a high NIR (natural increase rate) ∙ ities occupy < 1% of Earth’s surface Location of a City ∙ Site vs. situation (where is it situated in relation to something else) review ∙ World cities: control centers of the global economy ∙ Cities have different sizes and functions ∙ Size and functionalities of cities fluctuate Urban Hierarchy ∙ New York, London, & Tokyo – three dominant world cities Economic Base of Cities ∙ Economic base a community’s collection of economic activities that support the urban population ∙ What jobs are supported by your daily spending? ∙ Basic sector industries that sell their products/services primarily to consumers OUTSIDE the city (exports) ∙ Nonbasic sector industries that sell their product primarily to consumers IN the community (consumer services) ∙ Multipier effec the more a cities population grows, the more nonbasic jobs there will be (people in the service industry restaurants etc.) Inside the City ∙ CBD central business district ∙ 3 models of urban structure: Geographic Applications of the Models 1) oncentric zone model 2) sector model 3) ultiple nuclei model Social Structure of the City ∙ larger the city stronger the tendency is for residents to segregate themselves o social status (education etc.) o amily status o ethnicity (be able to apply those to the models which those apply to) ∙ gated communities (home owner’s association) ∙ etirement communities Changes in Urban Form 1) improvement of automobile 2) acceptance of shorter work week 3) significant increase in home ownership 4) development of interstate highways ∙ density gradien the density changes in an urban area ∙ suburbanization: depopulation of a central city ∙ ecline of central city ∙ downtown renewal & gentrification Suburbanization ∙ suburbs 60% of Americans (15% inner city; 25% rural) ∙ attractions lack of severe problems of inner city ∙ urban sprawl spread of development over the landscape; wastes land & energy! (costly to extend roads/utilities & use of a car) ∙ annexation process of legally adding land area to a city ∙ edge cities large nodes of consumer & business services at the margin of an urban area (satellite cities) Decline of the Central City ∙ physical problems poor condition of housing ∙ residential succession middle class moves out: sell/rent to lower income.. Subdivide into smaller dwellings ∙ ublic housing (subsidized housing) ∙ economic problems require public services but pay very little taxes to support these services ∙ social problems lack of job skills in inner city, homeless, crime, drugs, gangs Downtown Renewal ∙ 1990s begins reverse stagnation and declines of 80s ∙ gentrification process of middle/upper class moving into deteriorated innercity neighborhoods & renovating ∙ ow? Privately financed, demographics Gentrification Spinoff ∙ gov. & private development ∙ osts? Negativity? Yes, to Taxpayers ∙ ex riverwalk, granby mills, hub etc all being converted to living spaces Models Outside North America ∙ Europe more compact, occupy less total land etc. ∙ No urban sprawl ∙ Residents are dominantly apt. dwellers ∙ ow skylines LDCS ∙ Rich in the center; poor in the suburbs ∙ Histories & current economies vary tremendously ∙ Largely common colonial legacy ∙ Primate city dominant Squatter settlements an area within a city in an LDC in which ppl illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures ∙ Growth= beyond the capability of economic system to create employment, housing, & social services Models outside North America: (look at the broad patterns in this map) ∙ What does the future hold for world cities? (last lecture) AGRICULTURE/RURAL GEOG Agriculture deliberate modification of earth’s surface through cultivation of plants & rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain ∙ Multiple hearths ∙ 10,000 years ago (before recorded history) ∙ hunters & gatherers (some still exist today) o Inuit’s the arctic o san bushmen of Kalahari Desert o aborigines Australia o ribes of south American rainforest ∙ subsistence agriculture production of food primarily for consumption by farmer’s family (LDCs, very little surplus/food storage) (little to no use of machinery) ∙ commercial agriculture production of food primarily for sale (MDCs predominantly) (very little people in fields, majority done by machines) 5 Distinguishing features 1) purpose of farming 2) percentage of farmers in labor force 3) use of machinery 4) farm size 5) relationship of farming to other businesses (commercial farming directly tied to other business, subsistence has no ties) ∙ agribusiness commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of diff. steps in foodprocessing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations ∙ 1.5% of people in the US are employed in farming ∙ 20% of US workforce are involved with gribusiness(they’re not doing the actual farming) ∙ agricultural regions **study this map** AGRICULTURAL REGIONS IN LDCS (subsistence) 1) hifting Cultivat: slash and burn agriculture ∙ Tropics amazon south America, central & west Africa, SE Asia 2) Pastoral Nomadism: animal husbandry ∙ Dry climates north Africa, east Africa, SW Asia, Central Asia ∙ Depend on animals NOT crops for survival (camels, sheep, goats, etc) (driven by nomads) 3) Intensive Subsistence –the most labor intensive out of all farmiabundance of labor/lack of equipment ∙ East Asia, South Asia, SE Asia 4) Plantationlocated in LDCs but IS COMMERICIAL (owned by MDCs) **not subsistence** ∙ Found in tropics & subtropics ∙ Cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber, tobacco, cocoa, tea, jute, coconuts, palm oil AGRICULTURAL REGIONS IN MDCS 1) Mixed Crop & Livestock Farming: most crops are for animal feed ∙ Great plains & northern European plain ∙ Corn, soybean, & cereal grains (oats, rye, wheat, or barley) ∙ Devotes nearly all land to growing crops but 75% of income= from sales of animal products beef, milk, & eggs ∙ educes seasonal variations in income ∙ ORN by far #1 crop here 2) Grain Farming: seed from various grasses (wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, millet) ∙ Located in regions too dry for mixed crop & livestock ∙ rown primarily for HUMAN consumption 3) ivestock Ranching:commercial grazing of livestock ∙ Semi arid regions too dry for most crops (US/China/Brazil) ∙ eat processing industry ∙ China beef production US/Brazil meat/chicken 4) Dairy Farming: ∙ Near large urban areas in MDCs ∙ argely rising in LDCs ∙ Milkshed ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling 5) Mediterranean Agriculture: ∙ Occurs where Mediterranean climate exists ∙ Grapes/olives are the two primary products here ∙ Largely found in MDCs 6) ommercial Gardening & Fruit Farming: t ruck farming ∙ Dominant in U.S Southeast (now new England) ∙ Apples, asparagus, berries, cherries, mushrooms, tomatoes, peppers (often costly at the grocery store) ∙ Sold to large food processors for canning & freezing ∙ Low labor costs migrant workers Fishing & Aquafarming ∙ 2/3 consumed by humans (other 1/3 for animal feed) ∙ 6% of protein consumption (more in LDC then MDC) (MDC protein choice is beef/chicken) ∙ overfishing (tuna) Strategies to Increase Food Supply 1) Expand agricultural land! ∙ nly 11% of land is currently used 2) Increase Agricultural Productivity ∙ Green revolution: rapid diffusion of new ag. Technology in high yield seeds & fertilizers (1960s1970s) ∙ in 1950s, scientists started experimenting to develop higher yields of wheat “miracle wheat seed” developed to alleviate food shortages in LDCs ∙ hydroponics growing plants using mineral nutrients in water without soil 3) ncrease Exports (if you have surplus. export it!) 4) mprove food sources ∙ igher protein cereals ∙ Improve palatability of rarely consumed foods Economic Geography Primary Sector: agriculture, mining Secondary Sector: industrial activity Tertiary Sector: services Quaternary Sector: high end services ∙ Industry: manufacturing goods in a factory ∙ Culture hearth: England1750s ∙ Industrial revolution a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods (really did change culture) ∙ ndustries impacted: (domino effect) o Coal: plentiful but heavy, so factories clustered near coalfields st o Iron 1 industry to benefit from steam engine (enabled the factories to have constantly heated water rather than having a fire going all the time) o Transportation inventions critical in diffusing IR (canals, railways) Diffusion of IR st ∙ Textiles (woven fabric mills) ∙ Improved process of spinning yarn influenchemical industry for bleaching & dying: ∙ Food processing industry: derived from chemical industry, urban factory workers need food! ∙ Requiring preserving methods (pickling, fermenting, drying) ∙ Led to innovations in glass bottle canning, tin can use Diffusion & Distribution of Industry ∙ Less than 1% of land is devoted to industry ∙ Clustered in 4 main regions: eastern north America, northwestern Europe, eastern Europe, east Asia ∙ Hearth of England because that was where all the people were at the time, & there were lots of natural resources there Locating a Factory ∙ situation factors: location factors related to transportation of materials into & from a factory (relative location) ∙ Where are the people & where are the raw materials? ∙ Site factors: location factors related to cost of factors of production inside the plant: land, labor, capital (absolute location) ∙ Both site and situation factors change through time ∙ Variable factors – time & space ∙ Location DOES matter 1) Bulk Reducing Industries: an industry in which the final product weighs less than its inputs before production (proximity to materials) o Ex steel production (iron ore and coal), canning/freezing food 2) Bulk Gaining Industries:an industry that gains volume or weight during production (proximity to markets/people) o E x: soda bottlers, fabricated metals o inglemarket manufacturers (auto parts) o Just in time deliverno storage (cars/computers) o Reduces perishability Transportation Modes ∙ farther something is transported, lower cost per mile because people must be paid to load/unload ∙ costs rise each time inputs or products are transferred from 1 mode to another ∙ break of bulk point a location where transfer among transportation modes is possible (seaports/airports) (multiple modes of transportation) (Long Beach, California, Charleston ports etc) ∙ every time the product changes “hands” the price goes up 1) abor ∙ labor intensive industry: one in which labor cost is a high percent of expense ∙ fordist (assembly line) vs. post fordist (teams doing it all at once) 2) capital ∙ bility to borrow money 3) land Industry expansions & Shifts: ∙ MDCS factories relocate rom central cities to rural ∙ Relocation from traditional cluster regions to BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China) ∙ Brazil & Russia (lots of the planets land) full of raw materials ∙ India & China more market and population/labor force ∙ New international division of labor transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring less skilled workers, from MDCs to LDCs ∙ outsourcing : decision by corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers ∙ ***Maquiladoras: factories built by US companies in Mexico near US borer, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico (low cost, low rent, cheap labor) *** ∙ right to work laws: requires factory to maintain a so called “open shop” and prohibits a “closed shop” ∙ industrial competition in MDCs occurs among TRADING BLOCs, not individual countries (NAFTA/EU/OPEC) (Trading among trading blocs w/ teamlike efforts) Services ∙ service: activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it ∙ MDCs have at least 75% of all their workforce involved in services ∙ LDCs is 50% or less ^ Types of Services ∙ Consumer, business, & public ∙ Public service industry started here; services from the gov. ∙ usiness financial, profession etc ∙ Consumer biggest** things that we buy and need: retail & wholesale, health services, leisure & hospitality services, education service ∙ A few things may fall under more than one category ∙ Large size, high density, social heterogeneity ∙ urbanization: process by which the population of urban settlement grows ∙ more services where there’s more people Why are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern? ∙ Central Place: a market center for the exchange of goods & services by people attracted from the surrounding area ∙ Central Place Theory: Settlements serve as centers of market areas for services, larger settlements are fewer and farther between than farther settlements & provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther ∙ Market area: the area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted ∙ Range: maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service (radius) ∙ Threshold: minimum # of people needed to support the service ∙ Together they determine whether a good/service can be profitable in a particular location ∙ Situation really only one that matters for services. Situated near market. ∙ Best location minimizes distance to services for largest number of people ∙ Why do compeitiors clusters? Competition drives up sales 12/3/15 GEOG103 Site selection factors ∙ apital ∙ Innovations ∙ Market/transportation ∙ Land ∙ aw materials ∙ Labor ∙ Power The case of FedEx ∙ Site vs. situation Memphis International Airport –runways ∙ Latin American headquarters located in Miami, FL COURSE SUMMARY ∙ Geography is the study of the earth as the home of humans ∙ Geography has changed formed a lot (not grandfathers geog.) ∙ What differentiates geography is its spatial perspective ** ∙ We look for patterns across space ∙ e ask WHY things are where they are? ∙ Main concepts: location, place, region, spatial interaction, humanenvironment interaction, scale (local, regional, national, global) Future of geography ∙ effects of climate change, even human development, new agricultural practices, death of the state system & rise of the urban system, growth of regional economic cooperation, effects of further globalization, global sustainable development FINAL: T hursday, December 10: 12:30 PM in the same room ∙ Covers: development, urban geography, agriculture/food, industry & services ∙ 50 questions: 2 points each: 40 multiple choice, 7 true false, 3 short answers ∙ fill out course evaluations: 5 points on the exam if 90% of class does it.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'