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PSYC Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Briana Marcy

PSYC Exam 3 Study Guide PSYC 100-001

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Briana Marcy
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This is basically all my notes for Chapters 9-16 (excluding 14). It's VERY lengthy, but I've tried to highlight what will probably show up on the exam, and I've spent time making it look nice and e...
Basic Concepts in Psycology
Michael Anderson
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This 49 page Study Guide was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 100-001 at George Mason University taught by Michael Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 351 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psycology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 12/03/15
PSYC 100-001 EXAM 3 Study Guide Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15 & 16 (14 will only be on the Final Exam) Briana Marcy Chapter 9 Thinking and Language In-class questions (true/false): T- People more easily detect male prejudices against females than female against males or female and females. F- In general, people underestimate how much they really know. F- It takes less compelling evidence to change our beliefs than it does to create them in the first place T- In making complex decisions, we benefit by letting our brains work on a problem without thinking about it. F- Only human beings seem capable of insight (the sudden realization of a problem’s solution) T- The babbling of an infant at 4 months of age makes it clear whether the infant is French, Korean, or Ethiopian. T- Some people can write but not read. T- Many bilinguals report that they have different senses of self, depending on which language they are using T- Imagining a physical activity triggers action in the same brain areas that are triggered when actually performing that activity T- Apes are capable of communicating meaning by using symbols Thinking Cognition- the mental activities associated with thinking, remembering, and communicating Concepts- help to simplify thinking through mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people After placing an item in a category, memory gradually shifts it toward a category prototype Category boundaries begin to blur when moving away from prototypes Problem Solving: Strategies  An algorithm is a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees a solution to a problem  A heuristic is a simpler, quicker algorithm but is more error-prone  Insight is not a strategy-based solution, but rather a sudden flash of inspiration that solves a problem Problem Solving: Obstacles  Confirmation bias predisposes us to verify rather than challenge our hypotheses  Fixation, such as mental set, may prevent us from taking the fresh perspective that would lead us to a solution Forming Good and Bad Decisions and Judgments  Intuition is an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning  Availability heuristics can distort judgment by estimating event likelihood based on memory availability  Overconfidence can impact decisions when confidence outweighs correctness  Belief perseverance occurs when we cling to beliefs and ignore evidence that proves these are wrong  Framing sways decisions and judgments by influencing the way an issue is posed. It can also influence beneficial decisions The Fear Factor- Why we fear the wrong things 1. We fear what our ancestors feared 2. We fear the thing we can’t control 3. We fear what is immediate 4. We fear what is most readily available in memory Ex. 9/11 scared people away from flying and onto the road- where they were much more likely to die in a car accident compared to a plane crash The Perils and Powers of Intuition  Intuition is analysis “frozen into habit” o Intuition is implicit knowledge  Intuition is usually adaptive, enabling quick reactions o Learned associations surface as “gut” feelings  Intuition is huge o Critical thinkers are often guided by intuition “Smart critical thinking listens to the unseen mind, and then evaluates evidence, tests conclusions, and plans for the future.” 1 Thinking Creatively  Creativity is the ability to produce new and valuable ideas  It is supported by o Aptitude or the ability to learn o Intelligence o Working memory  Divergent thinking o Expands the number of possible problem solutions (creative thinking that diverges in different directions)  Convergent thinking o Narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution  Robert Sternberg and his colleagues propose five ingredients of creativity o Expertise o Imaginative thinking skills o Venturesome personality o Intrinsic motivation o Creative environment Do other species share our cognitive skills?  Researchers make inferences about other species’ consciousness and intelligence based on their behavior o Other animals use concepts, numbers, and tools and that they transmit learning from one generation to the next o Other species also show insight, self-awareness, altruism, cooperation, and grief  Using concepts and numbers o Several species demonstrate ability to sort (e.g., Pigeons and other birds; great apes; humans)  Displaying insight o Humans are not the only species to display insight (e.g. Chimps)  Using tools and transmitting culture o Various species have displayed creative tool use (e.g. forest- dwelling chimps; elephants; humans)  Other species display many cognitive skills o Voice-recognition in baboon troops o Mirror self-recognition in great apes and dolphins 1 All phrases in quotes are directly from Dr. Anderson’s slides, everything else is reworded or simply factual o Displays of learning, remembering, cooperation in elepahnts Language and Thought  Language o Involves our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning o Is used to transmit civilization’s knowledge from one generation to the next o Connect humans Language Structure  Three building blocks of spoken language o Phonemes are the smallest distinctive sound units in language o Morphemes are the smallest language unit that carry meaning o Grammar is the system of rules that enables humans to communicate with one another  Semantics: deriving meaning from sounds  Syntax: ordering words into sentences When do we learn language? Receptive language: infant ability to understand what is said to them around 4 months Production language: Infant ability to produce words begin around 10 months Month (approx..) Stage 4 Babbles many speech sounds 10 Babbling that resembles household language 12 One- word stage (“kitty”) 24 Two- word speech (“get doll”) 24+ Rapid development into complete sentences Explaining Language Development Language diversity 700+ languages worldwide; structurally very different Chomsky  Argued that all languages share basic elements called a universal grammar  Theorized that humans are born with predisposition to learn grammar rules; not a built-in specific language Statistical Learning  Human infants display to ability to learn statistical aspects of human speech  Infant brains discern word breaks and analyze which syllables most often go together  Seven-month-olds can learn simple sentence structures (ABA pattern) *Human infants come with a remarkable capacity to soak up language. But the particular language they learn will reflect their unique interactions with others How Do We Learn Grammar?  Critical periods suggest childhood represents critical period for mastering certain aspects of language o People who learn a second language as adults usually speak it with the accent of their native language, and they also have difficulty mastering new grammar ** the older a person is, the harder it is to learn a new language Deafness and Language Development  Children born to hearing and non-signing parents typically do not experience any language during early years  Natively deaf children who learn sign after age 9 do not learn sign language, master basic words, or become as fluent as native signers  Late learners show less right hemisphere brain activity in areas related to sign language reading Cochlear implants or not?  More than 90 percent of all deaf children are born to hearing parents who often seek cochlear implants for their children. Deaf culture advocates object to this  National Association of the Deaf argues that deafness is not a disability because native signers are not linguistically disabled The Brain and Language  Damage to any one of several areas of the brain’s cortex can impair language  Today’s neuroscience has confirmed brain activity in Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas during language processing  In processing language, the brain operates by dividing its mental functions into smaller tasks See slide 29 Do Others Species Have Language?  Animals display a wide range of comprehension and communication o Velvet monkeys sound different alarms for different predators o Chimpanzee (named Washoe) was taught sign language by the Garders o Critics noted that ape vocabularies and sentences were simple; vocabulary gained with great difficulties o Most psychologists agree humans alone possess language Language and Thought Whorf’s linguistic determination hypothesis: Language determines basic ideas  Evidence from bilingual speakers suggest that people think differently in different languages  Bilingual parents often switch from one language to another to express emotions Words influence, but do not determine, thinking Thinking About Colors  Colors seen in same way but native language used to classify and remember them  Perceived differences expand as different names assigned Language and Thought  Expanding language expands the ability to think  Bilingual speakers use executive control over language (bilingual advantage) to inhibit attention to irrelevant information  Language connects the past and the future  Thinking in Images  After learning a skill, watching the activity activates the brain’s internal stimulation of it (fMRI research of Calvo-Merino and colleagues, 2004)  Mental rehearsal can aid in academic goal achievement (process stimulation) PSYC CH. 10 Intelligence Definition: “global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, profit from experience, and deal effectively w/ the environment” Nature of Intelligence Charles Spearman- General Intelligence (g) Laid the foundation for today’s standardized IQ tests- Wechsler and Stanford Binet Thurstone- seven clusters of primary mental abilities -scoring well on one cluster usually meant doing well on other clusters, this provided some evidence of g Kanazawa -g scores do correlate w/ ability to solve novel problems but not with individual skills in “evolutionarily familiar situations” Theories of Multiple Intelligences Gardner’s multiple intelligences  Intelligence consists of multiple abilities that come in different packages  Evidence of multiple intelligence is found in people w/ savant syndrome and ASD Linguistic, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, intrapersonal (understanding yourself, ex. setting achievable goals), logical/mathematical, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic, spiritual/existential Sternberg’s 3 intelligences  Analytical, creative, practical intelligences Gardner and Sternberg  Differences  Gardner identified multiple relatively independent intelligences and views these intelligence domains as differentiated multiple abilities  Sternberg agrees with the concept of multiple intelligences, but proposes three intelligences  Agreement  Multiple abilities contribute to life successes  Different varieties of giftedness provide educational challenges for education Emotional Intelligence Four components (Salovey and Mayer)  Perceiving emotions (recognizing them in faces, music, and stories)  Understanding emotions (predicting them and how they may change and blend)  Managing emotions (knowing how to express them in varied situations)  Using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking Assessing Intelligence Types of tests: intelligence, aptitude, achievement Early and Modern Tests of Mental Abilities Francis Galton  Attempted to assess intellectual ability  Found no correlation between measures  Provided statistical techniques  Persisted in belief of inheritance of genius Alfred Binet  Tended toward environmental explanation of intelligence differences  Assumed all children follow same course, but not the same rate, of intellectual development  Measured each child’s mental age  Tested variety of reasoning and problem-solving questions that predicted how well French children would succeed in school Lewis Terman  Revised Binet’s test for wider use in U.S.  Extended upper end of test’s range  Named revision the Stanford-Binet  Theorized intelligence tests reveals intelligence with which a person is born David Wechsler: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Wechsler’s tests for children Most widely used intelligence test today Principles of Test Construction 3 criteria of a “good” test  Was the test standardized?  Is it reliable?  Is it valid? Stability or change? Phases of Research Development PHASE 1: Cross-sectional evidence for intellectual decline  People of different ages are compared w/ one another  Older adults gave fewer correct answers than younger adults  Decline of mental ability w/ age is part of the general aging process PHASE 2: Longitudinal evidence for intellectual stability  Research in which the same people (cohort) are restudied and retested over a long period  Myth of sharp intelligence declines w/ age was debunked PHASE 3: it all depends  After age 85, a steeper decline in intelligence is revealed  Intelligence is several distinct abilities  Adjusting for processing speed and using wisdom tests suggest continued intellectual competence in many older adults Crystallized intelligence: Accumulated knowledge, as reflected in vocabulary and word-power tests  Increases as we age, into middle age Fluid Intelligence: Ability to reason speedily and abstractly, as when solving unfamiliar logic problems  Decreases with age’ declines gradually until age 75 and then more rapidly after age 85 The Dynamics of Intelligence: Stability Over the Life Span  Before age 3: casual observation and intel. tests only modestly predict future aptitudes  By age 4: intel. test performances begin to predict adolescent and adult scores  Late adolescence: remarkable stability of aptitude scores; +.86 correlation Deary and colleagues study Johnson study Why do Intelligent People Live Longer?  Deary (2008)  Intelligence provides better access to resources.  Intelligence encourages healthy lifestyles.  Prenatal events or early childhood illnesses could influence both intelligence and health.  A “well-wired body” as evidenced by fast reaction speeds, may foster both intelligence and longer life. Extremes of Intelligence Low- IQ below 70, 2 stdev. below average Ex. down syndrome High- Terman study, high-scoring children were healthy, well-adjusted, and unusually successful academically People with same genes may have similar intelligences Early Environmental Influence Slowing normal development  McVicker Hunt (1982): Iranian orphanage study found dire, negative effects of extreme deprivation  Mani and colleagues (2013): Poverty can impede cognitive performance and deplete cognition capacity  Malnutrition, sensory deprivation, and social isolation slowed normal brain development High quality preschool programs boost early intelligence scores Growth mind set (Dweck, 2006)  Fostered with belief that intelligence is changeable  Increased when effort rather than ability encouraged  Made teens more resilient when frustrated by others Ability+opportunity+motivation=success Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences Agreed-upon facts  Racial and ethnic groups differ in their average intelligence test scores  High-scoring people and groups are more likely to achieve high levels of education and income  Groups differences provide poor basis for judging individuals The Question of Bias Three hypotheses about racial differences in intelligence:  There are genetically disposed racial differences in intelligence  There are socially influenced racial differences in intelligence  There are racial differences in test scores, but the tests are inappropriate or biased Two Meaning of Bias  Scientific meaning of bias is based on test predictive validity. If test does not accurately predict future behavior for all groups of test-takers, it is biased  A test can also be biased if it detects not only innate differences in intelligence but also performance differences caused by cultural experiences Test-Takers’ Expectations  Self-fulfilling stereotype threat is a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype  Stereotype threat may impair attention, performance, and learning.  Women do not perform on difficult math test as well as men unless told women usually do as well on the test (Spencer and colleagues, 1997)  Black students performed worse when reminded of their race before test (Steele and colleagues, 2002)  Blacks score higher when tested by Blacks, and women by women  Conclusion: aptitude tests are not biased in the scientific sense but they are biased related to insensitivity to differences caused by culture experiences Obama Effect  Some early research suggested that having Barack Obama as a positive role model improved academic performance by African Americans – thus offsetting the stereotype threat (Mars et al., 2009)  Later studies found either no relationship between test performance and positive thoughts about Obama or mixed results (Anderson et al., 2009; Smith, 2012) Bias or not? Competence+ Dilligence Accomplishment PSYC CH. 11 What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, and Achievement Basic Motivational Concepts  Motivation is defined as need or desire that energizes and directs behavior  4 perspectives for understanding motivated behaviors: o Instinct theory (evolutionary perspective): genetically predisposed behaviors o Drive-reduction theory: Responses to inner pushes o Arousal theory: Right levels of stimulation o Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Priority of some needs over others Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology  Darwin o Classification of many behaviors as instincts; named but did not explain behaviors  Instinct o Fixed, unlearned pattern throughout species o Genes predispose some species-typical behavior *the more complex the nervous system, the more adaptable the organism Drives and Incentives  Drive-reduction theory suggests physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need  Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry  Incentive involves a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior Motivational Concepts -Arousal Theory  Humans are motivated to engage in behaviors that either increase or decrease arousal levels  High arousal levels motivate engagement in behaviors that will lower these levels  Low arousal levels motivate activities that increase arousal- often through curiosity Maslow -Viewed human motives as pyramid -At the base are basic physiological needs, at the peak are the highest human needs The Physiology of Hunger  Humans automatically regulate caloric intake through a homeostatic system to prevent energy deficits and maintain stable body weight  Stomach contractions  Blood sugar glucose regulation  Appetite hormones  Set point  Basal metabolic rate Hunger: The Physiology of Hunger -The hypothalamus performs various body maintenance functions, including control of hunger  Glucose o Is a form that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues o Triggers feeling of hunger when low  Hypothalamus and other brain structures o Arcuate nucleus: Pumps appetite-suppressing hormones o Ghrelin: Involves hunger-arousing hormones secreted by empty stomach Eating as Motivated Behavior  Glucose deprivation o Brain’s requirement for food in form of glucose is no less urgent than requirement for oxygen o Only a few minutes of glucose deprivation leads to loss of consciousness  Energy storage o Complex regulatory mechanisms o Primary motivation for eating is to keep energy reserves at level to avoid shortfalls Energy Balance  Prandial state (Latin=breakfast) o Energy stores replenished during and right after a meal o Blood is filled with nutrients  Energy is stored in two forms o Glycogen  Stores have finite capacity mainly in liver and skeletal muscle o Triglycerides  Stores found in adipose (fat) tissue, unlimited capacity The Appetite Hormones  Insulin: hormone secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose  Leptin: protein hormone secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger  Orexin: hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus  PYY: Digestive tract hormone; sends the “not hungry” signals to the brain Lipostatic Hypothesis British scientist Gordon Kennedy (1953) proposed lipostatic hypothesis -The brain monitors amount of body fat and acts to “defend” this energy store against depletion Leptin Coupling of fat to feeding behavior suggests communication from adipose tissue to the brain  In 1994, Jeffrey Friedman isolated the protein leptin (Greek for slender)  Hormone released by adipocytes- fat cells- that regulate body mass by acting directly on neurons of the hypothalamus  Short-term regulation of feeding behavior o How long since last meal o How much did we eat then o Continuing to eat after a meal starts  Depends on what type of food  Drive to eat o Varies slowly with rise and fall of leptin o Inhibited by satiety signals that occur when we eat and begin digestive process When eating breakfast, your reactions during this process can be divided into three stages: cephalic, gastric, and substrate phases Cephalic: sight and smell of food trigger many physiological processes  Parasympathetic and enteric divisions of the ANS are activated  Saliva is secreted into mouth  Digestive juices are secreted into stomach Gastric: responses grow much more intense when you start chewing, swallowing, and filling your stomach with food Substrate: As the stomach fills with food and the partially digested food moves to the intestines, nutrients begin to be absorbed into the bloodstream Meal ends with the concerted actions of 3 safety signals:  Gastric distention  Release of gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin  Release of the pancreatic hormone insulin The Psychology of Hunger: Taste Preferences  Body chemistry and environmental factors influence taste preferences  Biology o Universal preferences for sweet and salty tastes o Calming effect of serotonin boost from carbohydrates Culture- examples  Bedouins: Camel eye is a delicacy  Westerners: “rotted bodily fluid of ungulate”- cheese Adaptive  Spicier food preferences in hotter climates o Pregnancy-related nausea and food aversion peak at 10 weeks in utero An acquired taste -People everywhere learn to enjoy fatty, bitter, or spicy foods common to their cultures. Example: Alaska natives enjoy whale blubber, while most North Am. countries do not The Psychology of Hunger: Situational Influences on Eating  Tempting situations o Friends and food: presence of others amplify natural behavior tendencies (social facilitation) o Serving size is significant: quantity of consumed food is influenced by size or serving, dinnerware, and cultural norms o Food variety stimulate: food variety promotes eating Obesity and Weight Control  Data from 188 countries reveal: o Proportion of overweight adults increased from 29-37% among men, and 30-38% among women o NO reduced obesity rate in ANY country in over 33 years o In 2010, no U.S. state had an obesity rate less than 20% o Extreme obesity carries wide range of health risks The Physiology of Obesity  Set point o Point at which your “weight thermostat” is apparently set. If and when your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may kick in to restore the lost weight  Basal metabolic rate o The body’s resting rate of energy output  Genetics influence body weight o People’s weights resemble biological parents o Identical twins have closely similar weight, even when raised apart  Environment also influences obesity o Sleep loss contributes to fall in leptin levels and rise in ghrelin o Social influence seen win correlation among friends’ weights o Changing increased food consumption and lower activity levels are seen worldwide **The U.S. does have highest overall percentage of overweight and obese persons in the world Waist Management  Only start trying to lose weight if you feel motivated and self- disciplined  Exercise and get enough sleep  Minimize exposure to tempting food cues  Limit variety and eat healthy foods  Reduce portion sizes  Don’t starve all day and eat one big meal at night  Beware of binge eating  Before eating with others, decide how much you are going to eat  Remember, most people lapse occasionally so it’s not a reason to quit  Connect to a support group, or tell friends and family of your goals Hormones and Sexual Behavior  Testosterone o Most important male sex hormones o Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during the fetal period, and the  Estrogens sex hormones o Estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics o In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity  Large hormonal surges or declines tend to occur at two predictable points in life span o Pubertal stage surge triggers development of sex characteristics and sexual interest o Estrogen levels fall in later life causing menopause in women  A third point sometimes occurs o For some, surgery or drugs may cause hormonal shifts Sexual Dysfunctions and Paraphilias Sexual dysfunctions  Impair sexual arousal or functioning  Often involve sexual motivation, especially sexual motivation and arousal  Includes erectile disorder and premature ejaculation (males)  Includes female orgasmic disorder and female sexual interest/arousal disorder (females)  Sometimes involve paraphilias (sexual desire in unusual ways; e.g. pedophilia, exhibitionism)  Sexual dysfunction o Problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning  Erectile disorder o Inability to develop or maintain an erection due to insufficient blood flow to the penis  Premature ejaculation o Sexual climax that occurs before the man or his partner wishes  Female orgasmic disorder o Feeling distressed due to infrequently or never experiencing orgasm  Paraphilias o Experiencing sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or non-consenting persons  American Psychiatric Association (2013) o Only classifies people as disordered who experience sexual desire in unusual ways if:  Person experiences distress from unusual sexual interest or  It entails harm or risk of harm to others o Necrophilia, exhibitionism, pedophilia Sexually Transmitted Infections  Sexually transmitted infection (STI) o Also called sexually transmitted disease (STD) o Spread primarily from person-to-person sexual contact  AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) o Is life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection o Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). o AIDS depletes immune system and leaves person vulnerable to infection  Rates have increased in recent years, especially for people under 25 o CDC report: 14- to 19-year-old U.S. females found 39.5 percent had STIs o Condom use effectiveness varies by infection (80% effectiveness when used w/ infected partner; less effective w/ skin-to-skin STIs)  Significant link between oral sex and STIs  Women’s AIDs rates increasing fastest The Psychology of Sex  Sophisticated brain allows us to experience sexual arousal both from what is real and from what is imagined o External stimuli  Men more aroused when erotic material aligns w/ personal sexual interest  Content and intensity of sexual experience arouse women  Pornography may decrease sexual satisfaction w/ own partner; may change perceptions about rape and other sexual violence  Imagined stimuli o Sexual desire and arousal can be imagined o 90% of spinal-injured men reported having sexual desire o 95% of people report having sexual fantasies  Males: Tend to be more frequent, more physical and less romantic Teen pregnancy  Influences on higher teen pregnancy rate o Minimal communication about birth control o Guilt related to sexual activity o Alcohol use o Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity What Is Sexual Orientation  Enduring sexual attraction toward o Members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) o The other sex (heterosexual) o Both sexes (bisexual)  In all cultures, heterosexuality has prevailed and bisexuality and homosexuality have endured The Numbers  Survey results vary by survey methods and population; less open response in less tolerant places  Exclusively homosexual: 3 to 4 percent in men and 2 percent in women  Bisexual: 5 percent of men and 13 percent of women in U.S.  APA reports efforts to change sexual orientation are unlikely to be successful and involve some risk of harm  Gay-straight brain differences  One hypothalamic cell cluster is smaller in women and gay men than in straight men  Gay men’s hypothalamus reacts as do straight women’s to the smell of sex-related hormones  Genetic influences  Shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins than among fraternal twins  Sexual attraction in fruit flies can be genetically manipulated  Male homosexuality often appears to be transmitted from the mother’s side of the family Sexual Orientation: Same-Sex Attraction in Other Species  Women’s sexual orientation more varying less strongly felt and potentially more fluid and changing (erotic plasticity)  Men with high sex drive have increased attraction to women (heterosexual) or men (homosexual)  Sexual orientation is unrelated to pedophilia in most cases Sexual Orientation: Prenatal Influences  Altered prenatal hormone exposure may lead to homosexuality in humans and other animals  Men with several older biological brothers are more likely to be gay, possibly due to a maternal immune-system reaction  The consistency of the brain, genetic, and prenatal findings has swung the pendulum toward a biological explanation of sexual orientation Sex and Human Values  Most sex researchers work to keep their work free from value influence  Research does not seek to define the personal meaning of sex Affiliation and Achievement: The Need to Belong  Social bonds and cooperation enhanced early ancestors’ survivability.  Combat was more successful  Reproduction was strengthened  Foes were avoided  Humans are still innately social beings.  Need to belong effects thoughts, emotions, and behaviors  Feelings of love activate brain reward and safety systems  Social isolation increases risk for mental decline and poor health The Need to Belong  Pain of being shut out  Worldwide, many forms of ostracism are used  Brain scans reveal that ostracism causes physical pain  Social isolation and rejection foster depressed moods or emotional numbness and can trigger aggression  Risk for mental decline and ill health may also occur Connecting and Social Networking  Mobile networks and social media  At end of 2013, 6.8 billion mobile cell subscriptions  Texting, social media sites, and other messaging technology replacing e-mailing  Three in four U.S. teens (mostly females) send 60+ texts daily  94 percent of entering U.S. college freshman used social networking sites in 2010 The Net Result: Social Effects of Social Networking  More, or less, socially isolated?  Healthy self-disclosure?  Accurate personality reflections in profiles and posts?  Promotion of narcissism? Suggests for Maintaining Balance  Monitor your time  Monitor your feelings  “Hide” your most distracting online friends  Try turning off or leaving your mobile devices elsewhere  Try a social networking fast or a time-controlled media diet Achievement Motivation  Achievement motivation is a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard  Achievements are not distributed on a bell curve and involve much more than raw ability  Grit matters. In psychology, it involves passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals Ch. 12 Emotions: Stress and Health Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition  Emotions are adaptive responses that support survival  Emotional components o Bodily arousal o Expressive behaviors o Conscious experiences  Theories of emotion generally address two major questions o Does physiological arousal come before or after emotional feelings o How do feeling and cognition interact? Historical Emotion Theories  James-Lange Theory: Arousal comes before emotion o Experience of emotion involves awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli  Cannon-Bard Theory: Arousal and emotion happen at the same time o Emotion- arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion o Human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them  Schachter and Singer Two-Factor Theory: Arousal+ Label= Emotion o Emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and cognitive appraisal o Arousal fuels emotion and cognition channels it  Emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of arousal  Spillover effect: Spillover arousal from one event to the next- influencing a response  Zajonc, LeDoux, and Lazarus: Emotion and the 2-track brain o Zajonc  Sometimes emotional response take neural shortcut that bypasses the cortex and goes directly to the amygdala  Some emotional responses involve no deliberate thinking o Lazarus  Brain processes much information without conscious awareness, but mental functioning still takes place  Emotions arise when an event is appraised as harmless or dangerous Emotions and the Automatic Nervous System  The arousal component of emotion is regulated by the automatic nervous system’s sympathetic (arousing) and parasympathetic (calming) divisions  In a crisis, the fight-or-flight response automatically mobilized the body for action  Arousal affects performance in different ways, depending on the task o Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks Physiology of Emotions  Different emotions have subtle indicators o Brain scans and EEGs reveal different brain circuits for different emotions o Depression and general negativity: Right frontal lobe activity o Happiness, enthusiastic, and energized: Left frontal lobe activity Detecting Emotion in Others  People can often detect nonverbal cues, and threats, and signs of status  Nonthreatening cues more easily detected that deceiving expressions  Westerners o Firm handshake: Outgoing, expressive personality o Gaze: intimacy o Averted glance: submission o Stare: dominance  Gestures, facial expressions, and voice tones are absent in written communication o In absence of expressive emotion, ambiguity can occur Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior  Women o Tend to read emotional cues more easily and to be more empathic o Express more emotion with their faces  People attribute female emotionality to disposition and male emotionality to circumstance Gender and expressiveness: women and men may feel the same emotionally when watching a movie, but women will be more expressive Culture and Emotional Expression  Gesture meanings vary among cultures; but outward signs of emotion are generally the same  Music emotional expression crosses culture  Shared emotional categories do not reflect shared cultural experiences  Facial muscles peak a universal language for some basic emotions; interpreting faces in context is adaptive The Effects of Facial Expressions  Research on the facial feedback effect o Facial expressions can trigger emotional feelings and signal our body to respond accordingly o People also mimic others’ expression, which help them empathize  A similar behavior feedback effect o Tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions Experiencing Emotion  Izard isolated 10 basic emotions that include physiology and expressive behavior o These basic emotions are joy, interest-excitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and guilt  Two dimensions that help differentiate emotions o Positive-versus-negative valence o Low-versus-high arousal Experiencing Emotion: Anger  Causes o W/ threat or challenge, fear triggers flight but anger triggers fight- each at times an adaptive behavior o Anger is most often evoked by misdeeds that we interpret as willful, unjustified, and avoidable o Smaller frustrations and blameless annoyances can also trigger anger  Consequences of anger o Chronic hostility is one of the negative emotions linked to heart disease o Emotional catharsis may be temporarily calming, but in the long run it does not reduce anger o Expressing anger can make us angrier o Controlled assertions of feelings may resolve conflicts, and forgiveness may rid us of angry feelings o Anger communicates strength and competence, motivates action, and expresses grief when wisely used Happiness  State of happiness influences all facets of life o Feel-good, do-good phenomenon  People’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood o Subjective well-being  Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life  Used along with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people’s quality of life Short Life of Emotional Ups and Downs  Emotional ups and downs tend to balance out; moods usually rebound o Even significant good events, such as sudden wealth, seldom increase happiness for long o Happiness is relative to our own experiences (the adaptation- level phenomenon) and to others’ success (the relative deprivation principle) Wealth and Well-Being  Wealth DOES correlate with well-being in some ways o Having resources to meet basic need and maintain some control over life does buy some happiness o Increasing wealth matters less once basic needs are met o Economic growth in affluent countries provides not apparent morale or social well-being boost What Predicts Our Happiness Levels?  Happiness levels are product of nature-nurture interaction o Twin studies: about 50% of happiness rating differences heritable o Culture: variation in group value of traits o Personal history: emotions balance around level defined by experience; happiness set point  Individual happiness level may influence national well-being Stress and Illness  Stress is the process in which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging o Stressors appraised as threats can lead to strong negative reactions o Extreme or prolonged stress can cause harm Stressors: Things that push our buttons Catastrophes: unpleasant, large-scale events Significant life changes: personal evens; life transitions Daily hassles: day-to-day challenges Stress Response  Cannon viewed the stress response as a “fight-or-flight” system  Selye proposed a general 3-phase (alarm-resistance-exhaustion) general adaptation syndrome (GAS)  Facing stress, women may have a tend-and-befriend response; men may withdraw socially, turn to alcohol, or become aggressive Stress Effects and Health  Four types of cells active in the search-and-destroy mission of the immune system o B lymphocytes o T lymphocytes o Macrophages o Natural killer cells (NK cells) Stress and Vulnerability to Disease Immune system is affected by age, nutrition, genetics, body temp, and stress  When the immune system does not function properly: o Responds too strongly o Underreacts  Stress hormones suppress immune system o Animal studies: Stress of adjustment in monkeys caused weakened immune systems o Human studies: Stress related to surgical wound healing and development of colds. Low stress may increase effectiveness of vaccinations  And so…stress does not make people sick but it reduces immune system’s ability to function optimally o Slower surgical wound healing; increased vulnerability to colds; decreased vaccine effectiveness  Stress and AIDS o Stress cannot give people AIDS, but may speed transition from HIV infection to AIDS and the decline in those with AIDS  Stress and cancer o Stress does not create cancer cells, but may affect growth by weakening natural defenses o Stress-cancer research results mixed Stress and Heart Disease  Stress and heart disease  About 600,000 North American coronary heart disease-related deaths yearly  Stress related to generation of inflammation which is associated with heart and other health problems  Meyer and colleagues  Stress predicted heart attack risk for tax accountants  Type A men more likely to have heart attack  Conley and colleagues  Stress related to everyday academic stressors in students Stress, pessimism, and depression  Pessimists are more likely than optimists to develop heart disease  Depression increases risk of death, especially by cardiovascular disease Stress and inflammation  Chronic stress triggers persistent inflammation which increases risk of heart disease and depression Coping with Stress People deal with stress through the use a several coping strategies.  Problem-focused coping  Emotion-focused coping Personal Control  In animals and humans, uncontrollable threats trigger strongest stress responses o Animal studies  Laudenslager and colleagues (1984) rat studies  Seligman and colleagues (1967) learned helplessness dog studies o Human studies  Rodin (1986) nursing home resident study  O’Neill (1993) work site environment studies Why does perceived loss of control predict health problems?  Losing control produces rising stress hormonesà blood pressure levels increaseà immune responses drop  Increasing control has noticeably improved health and morale in prison and nursing home studies  Tyranny of choice can create information overload  Those who have an external locus of control believe that chance or outside forces control their fate  Those who have an internal locus of control believe they control their own destiny Depleting and Strengthening Self-Control  Self-control  Ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards  Exercising willpower temporarily depletes the mental energy needed for self-control on other tasks  Self-control requires attention and energy, but it predicts good adjustment, better grades, and social success Explanatory Style: Optimism Vs. Pessimism  Pessimists  Expect things to go badly, blame others  Optimists/optimism  Expect to have control, work well under stress, and enjoy good health  Run in families; genetic marker/oxytocin  Danner and colleagues: Optimism-long life correlation study Health and Coping  Social support helps fight illness in two ways  It calms cardiovascular system, which lowers blood pressure and stress hormone levels  It fights illness by fostering stronger immune functioning  Close relationships give us an opportunity for “open heart therapy,” a chance to confide painful feelings Reducing Stress  Aerobic exercise, relaxation, meditation, and active spiritual engagement may help us gather inner strength and lessen stress effects  Aerobic exercise  Involves sustained activity that increases heart and lung fitness; reduces stress, depression, and anxiety  Can weaken the influence of of genetic risk for obesity  Increases the quality and “quantity” of life (~two years)  Example: Mildly depressed college women who participated in an aerobic exercise program showed markedly reduced depression, compared with those who did relaxation exercises or received no treatment. (From McCann & Holmes, 1984)  Relaxation and mediation  Relaxation: More than 60 studies found that relaxation procedures can provide relief from headaches, high blood pressure, anxiety, and insomnia  Relaxation training: Training has been used to help Type A heart attack survivors reduce risk of future heart attacks Faith and Health Correlation  Faith factor  Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not religiously active  Why? --Possible explanations may include the effect of intervening variables, such as the healthy behaviors, social support, or positive emotions often found among people who regularly attend religious services PSYC CH. 13 Social Psychology Social Thinking  Social psychology o The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another  Social psychologists o Use scientific methods to study how people think about, influence, and relate to one another o Study the social influences that explain why the same person will act differently in different situations  When explaining others’ behavior, especially from an individualist Western cultural perspective o Fundamental attribution error committed by underestimating the influence of the situation and overestimating the effects of stable, enduring traits o Behavior more readily attributed to the influence of the situation o Explaining and attributing actions can have important real-life, social and economic effects Fundamental attribution error: the tendency when analyzing others’ behavior, to overestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate the effects of the situation Most likely to occur when stranger acts badly, has real-life and social consequences Napolitan and colleagues (1979) -Students attributed behavior of others to personal traits, even when they were told that behavior was part of an experimental situation Attitudes Affect Actions Attributes are feelings influenced by beliefs, that predispose reactions to objects, people, and events  Peripheral route persuasion uses incidental cues to try to produce fast but relatively thoughtless changes in attitudes  Central route persuasion offers evidence and arguments to trigger thoughtful responses Actions Affect Attitudes  Actions can modify attitudes o Foot-in-the-door phenomenon involves compliance w/ a large request after having agreed to a small request, works for negative and positive behavior o Role playing includes acting a social part by following guidelines for expected behavior Attitudes follow behavior  Cooperative actions, such as those performed by people on sports teams, feed mutual liking. Such attitudes, in turn, promote positive behavior Social Thinking  When attitudes do not fit with actions, tensions are often reduced by changing attitudes to match actions (cognitive dissonance theory) o We act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) clash o Brain regions become active when people experience cognitive dissonance o Through cognitive dissonance we often bring attitudes into line with our actions Social Influence  Conformity and obedience o Chartrand and colleagues (1999) o Demonstrated chameleon effect with college students o Automatic mimicry helps people to empathize and feel what others feel o The more we mimic, the greater our empathy, and the more people tend to like us o This is a form of conformity Conformity and Obedience Solomon Asch and others have found that people are most likely to adjust their behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard when: They feel incompetent or insecure, their group has at least three people, everyone else agrees, they admire the group’s status or attractiveness, they have not already committed to another response, they know they are being observed, their culture encourages respect for social standards Reasons People May Conform:  Normative social influence: to gain approval  Informational social influence: to accept others’ opinions as new information However, suggestibility and mimicry can lead to tragedy EX. copycat violence threats after Colorado’s Columbine High School shootings Milgram’s Obedience Experiments  Stanley Milgram’s experiments  People obeyed orders even when they thought they were harming another person  Strong social influences can make ordinary people conform to falsehoods or exhibit cruel behavior  In any society, great evil acts often grow out of people’s compliance with lesser evils  Findings  Obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when  Person giving orders was nearby and was perceived as a legitimate authority figure  Research was supported by a prestigious institution  Victim was depersonalized or at a distance; and  There were no role models for defiance Social Influence -In social facilitation, presence of others arouses people, improving performance on easy or well-learned tasks but decreasing it on difficult ones -Performance can also be hindered bc the most likely, but not necessarily the correct response occurs -Home town advantage- when others observe us, we perform well-learned tasks more quickly and accurately, crowding effect Social loafing- tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effects toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable Causes: acting as part of group may make those involved feel less accountable, they may feel like their contribution does not matter, taking advantage when there is lack of identification w/ group Deindividualism -Involves loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Group Polarization: If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions -Talking over racial issues increased prejudice in a high-prejudice group of high school students and decreased it in a low-prejudice group Antisocial Relations -Prejudice means prejudgment, is an unjustified negative attitude toward some group and its members, often targets different cultural, ethnic, or gender group -Beliefs, emotions, predispositions to action to discriminate How Prejudiced Are People?  Explicit prejudice in North America has decreased over time o Support for all forms of racial contact, including interracial dating  Social roots of prejudice o Social inequalities: Have often developed attitudes that justify status quo o Just-world phenomenon: good is rewarded and evil is punished o Stereotypes: Rationalize inequalities Antisocial Relations  Groups o Through social identities people associate themselves w/ others o Evolution prepares people to identify w/ a group  Ingroup: Social definition of who we are- and are not  Ingroup bias: favoring of our group Emotional Roots of Predjudice  Scapegoat theory o Proposes that when things go wrong, finding someone to blame can provide an outlet for anger  Research evidence (Zimbardo) o Prejudice levels tend to be high among economically frustrated people o In experiments, a temporary frustration increases prejudice Antisocial Relations  Implicit prejudice  Implicit racial associations  Implicit Association Tests results: Even people who deny racial prejudice may carry negative associations  Unconscious patronization  Lower expectations, inflated praise and insufficient criticism for minority student achievement  Race-influenced perceptions  Automatic racial bias  Reflexive bodily responses  Unconscious, selective responses when looking at faces Cognitive Roots of Prejudice  Forming categories o Humans categorize people by race, and mixed-race people identify by their minority identity o Similarities overestimated during categorization; creating “us and they” o Overestimation also occurs; other-race effect or bias The Biology of Aggression  Biology influences aggression at three levels  Genetic influences  Evidence from animal studies and twin studies; genetic Y chromosome genetic marker; MAOA gene  Alcohol associated with aggressive responses to frustration  Neural influences  Neural systems facilitate or inhibit aggression when provoked  Aggression more likely to occur with frontal lobe damage  Biochemical influences  Testosterone linked with irritability, assertiveness, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration; alcohol effect Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression  Adversive events  Frustration-aggression principle: Frustration creates anger, which can spark aggression  Other anger triggers  Hot temperatures, physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, cigarette smoke, crowding, and a host of others  Previous reinforcement for aggressive behavior, observing an aggressive role model, and poor self-control  Media portrayals of violence provide social scripts that children learn to follow  Viewing sexual violence contributes to greater aggression toward women  Playing violent video games increases aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors Do violent video games teach social scripts for violence?  Nearly 400 studies of 130,000 people suggest that video games can prime aggressive thoughts, decrease empathy, and increase aggression  Some researchers dispute this finding and note other factors: Depression, family violence, and peer influence Prosocial Relations  Psychology of attraction o Proximity (mere exposure effect) o Physical attractiveness o Similarity of attitudes and interests  Modern matchmaking o Internet-formed friendships and romantic relationships are on average slightly more likely to last and be satisfying o Nearly a quarter of heterosexual and two-thirds of same-sex couples met online  Speed-dating o Men are more transparent o Choices may be more superficial o Women tend to be choosier than men What does it mean to be attractive? -The answer varies by culture and over time • Some adult physical features, such as a youthful form and average face, seem attractive everywhere • Appealing traits enhance feelings of physical attractiveness • Liking endures when people are more alike ONLINE matchmaking: Internet-formed friendships and relationships may last longer than regularly formed ones, and be more satisfying Nearly a ¼ of heterosexual and 2/3 same-sex couples met online Controlled studies needed SPEED dating: Unique opportunity to study first impressions Men are more transparent, given more options people make more superficial choices, men wish for more contact with more of the speed dates; women are more selective Romantic Love  Passionate love o Two-factor theory of emotion  Emotions have two ingredients- physical arousal and cognitive appraisal  Arousal from any source can enhance an emotion, depending on how we interpret and label the arousal o Sexual desire+ a growing attachment= the passion of romantic love  Companionate love o Passionate love seldom endures o Passion fed hormones (testosterone) gives way to oxytocin that supports feelings of trust, calmness, and bonding o Attraction and sexual desire endure, without obsession of early- stage marriage o Equity is an important key to satisfying and enduring relationships o Self-disclosure deepens intimacy Altruism  The unselfish concern for the welfare of others o People are most likely to help when they notice an incident, interpret it as an emergency, and assume responsibility for helping o Odds for being helped are also increased if person appears to deserve help, or they are a woman o Similarity to self, unhurried or in a good mood, feeling guilty, focused on others and not preoccupied also raises likelihood of being helped  Bystander affect o Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present o Occurs when there is a diffusion of responsibility The Norms for Helping  Positive social norms encourage generosity and enable group living o Socialization norm  Social expectation that prescribes how we should behave o Reciprocity norm  Expectation that people will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits for benefit (cost-benefit analysis; utilitarianism; social exchange theory) o Social-responsibility norm  Expectation that people should hel


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