Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PY 370
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Popular in Psychlogy
This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordana Baraad on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steele in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 364 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
PY 370 Final Exam Study Guide Modern psychology studies age-old questions about human nature First psychology textbook: History of Experimental Psychology Edwin Boring, 1929 3 focuses: 4 types of knowledge: scientific: scientific method popular: less reliable ideological: religious, etc. legal Factors leading to development of psychology Funding Universities Social climate Academic tradition (conferences and peer review) Controversy Challenges facing Psych Community Mind-body problem Nature-nurture debate Fragmentation Early Civilizations Mesopotamia Hammurabi’s code: eye for an eye Ancient Egypt Most symptoms explained by supernatural/ godly causes Heart central to beliefs about body/soul Ancient Greeks Foundation of Western thought Contemplating soul: 2 competing ideologies Materialism: soul made of matter Idealism: only ideas exist Hippocrates Father of medicine Humorism: first biological explanation of psych phenomena Blood, yellow bile, black bile, phlegm Humor composition gave different personalities Primitive medical practices Dietary change, bloodletting, trepanation India Hinduism Karma: what goes around comes around Caste system Scholar Brahamans on top Move up through reincarnation Buddhism Way to end suffering Balance between ascetism and greed Mediation End goal: nirvana Precursor to Maslow’s self-actualization concept China Confucianicm: code of “beautiful conduct” Virtues: kindness, righteousness, sobriety, wisdom, Trustworthiness Rome Pneuma: material of soul, determines personality/ psych Like humorism Catholicism Augustine: caritas (spiritual will) v. cupiditas (carnal) Precursor to Freudian id/ego/ superego Terms to Know Edwin Boring: first author of psychology history textbook Zeitgeist: “spirit of the times” Ethnocentricity: focus on sole importance of the ideas of one’s own culture Often excluding, or undermining the rest Hippocrates: father of medicine; establisher of humorism Humorism: belief that balance of 4 humors explains a person’s physical/mental state and personality trepanation: drilling a hole in the skull to exorcise demons from the brain reincarnation: Hindu belief in soul inhabiting a new body in their next life ascetism: extreme self-deprivation, shunning of greed nirvana: Buddhist notion of ultimate bliss and fulfillment of one’s purpose pneuma: fluid romans believed housed the soul Duncan McDougall: doctor attempting to weigh soul (21 grams?) Mid-Millennium Transitions in Psychology (Western Europe, 1400- 1800s) Renaissance: developed in Italy, “rebirth,” innovation, universities Start of questioning of the Church Leonardo da Vinci: Multi-talented man; advanced art and science Drew vivid drawings from cut-open cadavers **promoted idea that brain is important to behavior Reformation: Martin Luther’s 95 theses separation Protestant & Catholic church Furthered Church’s loss of hold on people’s behavior/ ideas Scientific Revolution: Church v. sci; new knowledge/modern sci ENCOURAGED Key discoveries: Microscopes: 1 time seeing brain tissue up close Different densities—1 indication that different functions Earth rotates around Sun (Copernicus) Cells: small units of tissue essential to life Laws of motion (Newton) telescopes printing press considered most important invention increased literacy, accessibility of books for common man eventually led to writing on psych abnormalities Anatomy of Melancholia: 1 book discussing mental illness Women excluded; primarily upper class educated male movement Some of Church power still remained Psychology considered philosophy, NOT SCIENCE Treatment of Symptoms: inhumane, religious explanations remained prevalent Exorcisms: ceremonies to remove demon, in attempt to alleviate symptoms Madhouses: Lifetime lockup for even mild mental illnesses; no treatment/therapy emphasis more on securing, not curing ice baths: shock system back to normalcy gyrating chair: increase bloodflow to brain Views on Human Behavior 1. Humanism: focus on life > afterlife, free will, happiness; man > Church 2. Rationalism: ideas are innate, senses useless 3. Empiricism: knowledge/ ideas are learned through experience Rejects innate ideas; senses key Knowledge, fears, etc. LEARNED not genetic Key Figures René Descartes: prominent Rationalist figure Worked with pineal gland in brain Thought to be window to soul, bc centrally located in brain Notion that brain structure shapes human nature Innate knowledge—senses useless Ex. Horse born knowing how to walk; humans too? LAD (Language Acquisition Device) Developed by Chompsky (living psychologist who studies linguistics) Notion that we’re already born with ability to understand language Modern-day rationalist Ex. of 18 century ideas being carried into present day John Locke: founder of empiricism Tabula rasa: Latin for “blank slate” Born with no knowledge; experiencially learned Immanuel Kant: blends rationalism and empiricism Not just senses; innate tools Some learning experiential and hierarchical Jean-Jacuqes Rousseau: developed stages of cognition (simple complex) Precursor to Piaget Readiness: Appropriate levels met at each age range 1800s: Pseudoscience Pseudoscience: touted as science/ fact, but fraudulent/ false 1. Phrenology: skull shape indicates behavioral traits/ personality/ ability Counseling sessions to identify weaknesses; give guidance **possible to CHANGE behavior 2. Physiognomy: Facial features reveal aspects of character and intellect Exacerbated racial stereotyping (some still exists today) 3. Mesmerism: illness caused by disrupted flow of magnetic bodily fluid Reminiscent of humors Key People/ Terms Franz Gall: phrenology founder, German frontal cortex activity brain matter pushed eye bulging = intelligence phrenology map: Localization of different aspects of cognition in brain pseudoscience, but planted seeds for neuropsychology Ex. language functioning in Broca’s Area psychograph: machine that produces skull measurements Fowler Brothers: New England brothers who made MAJOR PROFIT off phrenology Johann Lavater: co-developer of physiognamy Franz Mesmer: founder of Mesmerism Touted healing powers of his hands: “Mesmer the great” exiled after fraud discovered Physiological Advances in 1800s Physiology: study of the function of living organisms and their anatomy 1. Golgi staining (Camillo Golgi): visualize nerve tissue under light microscope Observe neuron structure; different densities 2. Speed of nerve impulses: measured by Herman von Hemholtz; 90 ft/ sec Intersection of science and psych Psychologists’ Goal: recognition as independent discipline Worthy of lab space and research funding Not lumped in with philosophy Lots of resistance knowledge of human mind, NOT “helping people”(treatment, therapy, etc.) Key Figures/ Terms: Herman von Hemholtz: Determined speed of nerve impulse **First measurement of factor related to cognition/ human behavior st ** 1 link of psychology to science and objective measurement William Wundt: “father of experimental psychology” a. Scientific method in psych (separation from philosophy) stVisual/ audio signals to measure reaction time b. 1 psych lab: Leipzig, Germany 1879 c. established psych as independent specialty d. mentorship model Student of von Hemholtz, pre-med 50k + published pages introspection: experimental self-observation, self-reflection process developed by Wundt: key contribution to psych field “How do you feel about that?” qualitative information on reaction to stimuli / environment all sensations; open-ended responses varied widely subjectivity garnered criticism Stanley Hall: major psych figure; increased perceived legitimacy in US Studied under Wundt in Germany Returned to US to practice psych at John Hopkins John Hopkins: 1 US university to have a psych lab Created American Psychologist Association (APA) Goal: promote psych as a science & collaboration to advance progress created on writing style guidelines producers of PsychInfo (current scandal) sole accreditation authority Founded American Journal of Psychology Became president of Clark university Interest in children Child study movement developed educational psychology and developmental psychology Child study movement: learn how children learn/ observe the world Acquired lots data via questionnaires st Hall 1 to emphasize importance of adolescence as formative stage Edward Titchner: Wundt’s protégé; developer of structuralism English biologist, studied under Wundt in Germany tasked Boring to write first history of psychology textbook carried on Wundt’s introspection studies structuralism: analysis of components/ individual elements of the brain How do they correlate to complex experiences and behavior? st **1 school of thought in psychology pushback, lost traction when Trichner died Psychology in the 1900’s and Industrial Revolution William James: “father of American psychology” Foundendfunctionalism: function of mind adaptive to each situation (2 school of thought) Wrote Principles of Psychology (Harvard) “stream of consciousness” v. rigid components of structuralism contradicted Wundt and Titchner Franics Galton: human behavior stems from genetics; founder of eugenics Eugenics: selective breeding via sterilization perfect society (often forcible) sterilization of “feeble-minded”; 65k nationwide subjective, discriminatory criteria—women, African Americans overrepresented often done to institutionalized population st Carrie Buck: 1 woman sterilized against will; Supreme Court decided against her “feeble-minded” bc rape child out of wedlock Problems of the Age: lack of knowledge about mental illness; overlap in diagnostic systems chaos dr.’s v. psychologists: who should treat? stigma: shame on whole families, abandonment asylum conditions: inhumane, not personal, overcrowding neglect; many shut down no temp control, physical/ sexual abuse, starvation psychiatry: field with psychiatric doctors; use medical (prescription) methods to treat Emil Kraeplin: “father of psychiatry” Proponent of universal classification system DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): “master list” containing universal criteria of all disorders Common language/ reference material; worldwide use Constantly revisions (versions I-V); last update$20-25 mil Causes for Disorders Genetics: Increase susceptibility Environment: Traumatic events, poverty, abuse, “nervous fatigue” (i.e. stress/ exhaustion) Diathesis-Stress Model: combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors Asylum functions 1. Incapacitate: Wanted to separate violent people from society; locked away, abandoned Rare open door policy: could check self out if declared “cured” 2. Research: Collect data, test (often inhumane) treatments a. Large subject pool with no consent procedure 3. Treat: desperate attempts (Ex. Cold baths, laxatives, bloodletting) Lobotomy: “scrambled” frontal lobe w/ ice pick Goal: disconnect “bad connections” in brain contributing to abnormal behavior Death, lethargy, destruction of personality ~50,000 done nationwide (mostly without patient’s permission) Rosenhann Experiment: 12 sane students infiltrated asylums to investigate claimed “hearing voices” false paranoid schizophrenic diagnosis Staff did not acknowledge their return to sane behavior once admitted horrible conditions: Ignored, sometimes not properly fed David Rosenhann (Standford) published in On Being Sane in Insane Places Dorthea Dix: Human rights advocate for better asylum conditions Freezing men outrate Bryce Hospital: AL’s oldest mental health treatment facility Lightner Witmer: coined term “clinical psychology” ( < 100 year old discipline) Studied under Wstdt in Germany Opened US’s 1 psych clinic Started new direction for psychology: HELPING PEOPLE (talk therapy) Educated, trained people giving counsel Increased public opinion of psych What Do Clinical Psychologists Do? Assessment: Test for mental illness Research: What type of therapies work best for particular disorders? Teaching Clinical Psychology Today 1 in 5 report mental illness in given year; goal: reduce stigma 240 clinical psych programs nationwide avg $81k salary; 54.6% of psych PhD’s awarded 1st and 2 ndMovements in Psychology: Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism Psychoanalysis: Explains how mind works; therapy to help with deep- rooted issues Previously main theory taught in universities; now outdated Sigmund Freud: founder of psychoanalysis Australian, family man, neurology background craved fame/ hated criticism Main thoughts: Emphasis on childhood experience; Unconscious desires (typically animalistic/ sexual) Hall’s invitation to US to lecture at Clark major fame/ acceptance Popularity wanes later in life Dies via physician-assisted suicide due to mouth cancer st Anna O: Freud’s 1 case: talk therapy bad relationship with dad root of for hallucinations, hysteria “talked away” problems w/ probing questions Repressed Memories: memories stored in unconscious mind; Too traumatic to process abnormal symptoms ; root of problem Dreams: way to experience unfulfilled innermost desires; road to unconscious mind Infantile and sexual, Forgotten for protection (handled by superego) Freudian slip: Saying things you don’t mean: reveals unconscious desire 5 Psychosexual Stages: Personality comes from progression through stages; risk of fixation 1. Oral: birth-18 months a. Pleasure through mouth (breastfeeding, etc.) b. Weaned too early fixation excessive gum chewing, cigarette smoking, etc. 2. Anal: 2-4 years a. toilet draining; control feces i. go when have to; reduced dependence on parents b. “anal” or “anal retentive”: hold in too much OCD/ control issues 3. Phallic: 4-7 years a. gender awareness b. Oedipus Complex: boy loves mom, hates dad c. Electra complex: “penis envy” daughter rejects mom i. Converse of Oedipus Complex 4. Latent: 7-11 years a. sex drive low; minimal development 5. Genital: 12-death a. pleasure from genitals b. focus: sex Pneumonic Device: Old Age Pensioners Love Grapes **Do better +1 on exam Rules of Psychoanalysis Make client comfortable (physically and emotionally—no judging) Couch for comfort and ease of hypnosis Facing away (goes back to comfort; therapist’s judgment not visible) Listener (psychoanalyst’s role not to talk much; trigger admissions, not convo) Confidentiality: anonymity sparks deeper/darker confessions Many sessions ($$ drawback) Psychoanalysis Techniques Free association: talking about single word, whatever comes to mind (i.e. “work,” or “family” Goal: word diversion to deeper thoughts not directly related to original prompt Gives analyst foothold to ask more probing question long pauses indicator of repressed memories; time for probing questions Ink blots (Rorschach) Ambiguous unconscious interpretation? Subjective, not objective test Norms: mental illness perceptions differ from average individual Secret; not released to public (internet hoaxes) Scoring: complex, lots of training to administer Problems: possibility of projecting, difficult to assess validity Principles of Psychoanalysis regression: repression reversion to earlier stage abreaction: release of repressed emotions; reliving catharsis goal of psychotherapy conflict between opposite factions of psyche: pleasure principle v. reality principle Pleasure principle: immediate gratification Reality principle: opposes pleasure principle Iceberg model: Tip = conscious; majority below surface: = subconscious Levels of the Psyche: at conflict in subconscious Established by Freud toward the end of his career Id: primal, lowest level of functioning; pleasure principle; internal abandonment Deep unconscious; dominance mental abnormalities Superego: moral guide / conscience (Learned later in life); unconscious Ego: “referee” between id and superego; Conscious mind Precursor to Freudian theory on this concept: St. Augustine’s cupiditas v. caritas Carl Jung: personality study—introversion and extroversion Jung criticizes Freud’s sexuality emphasis/ scientific merit major “breakup” Freud loses popularity/ credibility American Psychoanalysis Society (APSAA): society constantly looking to prove scientific validity of psychoanalysis Behaviorism Before Behaviorism Psychology (now): scientific study of mind, brain and behavior “behavior”: most recent addition, added during behaviorist movement Comparative Psychology: comparative study of animal behavior to discover general principles of behavior Animal subjects: cheap labor; no concerns about rights violations/ consent Laws of learning: animals and humans learn similarly Harlow’s monkeys: study of attachment in monkeys; Food v. cloth “mother” doll Findings applied to humans Behaviorism: concept that behavior results from stimulus and arises as a response to that stimulus Edward Thorndike: father of comparative psychology and Law of Effect Mentored by William James Animal study: chickens Puzzle box: new way of studying animal behavior Animals inside—figure out how to escape (lever) Increased speed over time Basic learning: association, training/ conditioning Findings Law of Effect: repeat behaviors if good outcomes Basic, Well-known/ supported At root of operant conditioning (not classical) Operant conditioning: we OPERATE on our environment B. F. Skinner: expands Law of Effect Operant conditioning Birds playing ping-pong; Scoring point get food reinforcement (positive or negative) Positive reinforcement: behavior gain/ benefit Negative reinforcement: behavior removal of negative experience NOT = punishment Ivan Pavlov: founded concept of classical conditioning Clerical, physiological background Nobel-winning experiment with dogs accidental discovery from salivary gland study Classical Conditioning: Pavlov -- Reflexes/ responses Unconditioned Response: Natural, unlearned (ex. drooling for food) Conditioned Reflex: Learned reflex/response over time (bell for food; bell drool even when no food) Vladimir Bekhterev: Similar findings/time as Pavlov (findings in people, not dogs); rivalry Less fame; told Stalin mentally ill murdered? Watson: father of behaviorism dysfunctional upbringing tumultuous personal adult life Anti-introspection: Not scientific, too philosophical; Interest: observable behavior Heavy influence from John Locke: Environment behavior president of APA; influenced direction of field influential/popular: Simple concept, Enthusiastic support of research Watson > Freud Freud’s influence waning hated psychoanalysis: “voodoo” in letter to Freud feud Pavlov more known than Bekhterev bc Watson cited him Some criticism: too simple of an idea; humans more complex; consciousness is important Behaviorist manifesto: Columbia university lecture on direction of field Move past psychoanalysis; make “real” science— observable, tangible “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” 4 Goals of Psych 1. describe, 2. Explain, 3. Predict, 4. Control behavior and mental processes 3 and 4 bc of Watson’s influence; stem from Behaviorist movement Little Albert: Watson’s famous experiment Induced fear of white rat in baby by pairing with loud noise Discovery: fears are learned/ conditioned, not innate Interaction with environment behavior Gestalt Psychology Setting the Stage Behaviorism dominated the U.S.; new thought in Germany Wundt and Titchener Believed in the individual parts (Structuralism) opposed to Gestalt ideology Gestalt Psychology: mind and behavior as a whole; foundation for study of perception Shift in focus from behaviorism (Wundt and Titchener supported Structuralism; opposition = obstacle to spread 3 founders (German) Max Wertheimer: main founder; previous interest in law Perceived motion of train lights interest in study of perception Phi phenomenon: 2 images in succession appear to be in motion Ex. apple startup wheel, flip book, etc. Successful publication establishment of Gestalt psych Kurt Koffka: assistant; family of lawyers; spoke English spread Gestalt psych in US US spread global phenomenon Wolfgang Kohler: assistant; academic background; applied Gestalt principles to learning animal studies: Chimps build boxes to reach highup bananas Walk away from situation then build all at once Insight learning: Sudden realization (a.k.a. “eureka moment”) Answer appears to come out of nowhere Pyramid: Trial and error at base—low level cognitive effort Insight learning at peak—higherlevel cognitive process Gestalt Hallmarks Holism = opposite of Structuralism Insight learning = Contradiction to Behaviorist trialanderror Prior education psychology has been ignoring higher processing state (insight learning) Hurdles to Gestalt Psych in US Germany: Persecution bc Jewish US: Behaviorism still dominated; Watson and followers put up fight Behaviorists: no innate knowledge; learn through experience conditioning to learn responses Operant: reward/punishment (Skinner) Classical Trial and error (Can take a long time) Starting to fade out v. Gestalt: innate cognitive structures; mental “shortcut” to fill in gaps of perception Growing in popularity; less resistance from Watson Gestalt Principles of Perception (4 main) Mental shortcuts; automatic in brain 1. Closure: looking at whole, fill in gaps/ missing info ex. IBM log, unfinished panda 2. Similarity: look at whole situation; cluster similar events ex. black/white dots rows, not individual dots 3. Continuity: intersection of objects; brain makes assumption that object continues on 4. Figure and ground: Figure: stands out from the ground Ground: background Automatic assumption; Useful for survival/ threat protection (ex. snake in grass) Camouflage messes with this perception Kurt Lewin : founder of social psychology Germany US; army; intelligent Social psychology: study of group dynamics Whole is different from parts; look a group as a whole, not individuals Group behavior Applicable in the workplace Gestalt therapy: awareness; holistic perspective, not just 1 issue Self, Environment, Relationships HOLISM; whole >> individual components problemsolving therapy perception observable behaviors inner workings of mind Behaviorism Gestalt and more Behaviorism/ Watson’s influence declining Modern Psychology 2 Areas That Developed humanistic psych cognitive psych Humanistic psych—positive side of human nature 1. Creativity—think outside the box 2. Free will—not just controlled by stimuli 3. Potential—always striving to reach full potential everybody special and different people need to be given more credit; focus on positive aspect of human nature contrast to negative psychoanalysis portrayal of subconscious people innately trying to be good How can we make people happy? The best they can be? Big shift Abraham Maslow: founder of humanism 1 of 7 kids; poor, rough upbringing in NY Maslow = “Matilda”: desire to learn despite lack of encouragement Mother killed pet kitten in front of him main contribution: shift in psych to positive view of human nature/ potential traumatic childhood and WWII wonder what happened to human goodness wondered why so much anger wanted to redirect to positive aspects of human nature “gaping hole in the field of psychology”—“all things important and precious” asked to write abnormal psych textbook wondering what’s normal? own research on “great” people; looking for defining characteristics ex. Eleanor Roosevelt, Albert Einstein What makes them good/ happy? How do they reach full potential? Interviewed Max Wertheimer Hierarchy of Needs: needs we all have Basics at bottom: safety, food, shelter Higher up: psychological needs Ex. friendship Top: self-actualization – characteristic of successful, happy people Reached full potential as human being Working up pyramid to reach ultimate potential Goal as humans to reach Certain characteristics to reach it Less worry about the little things Nonconformist—don’t mind straying from crowd Rare: happens in ~1/50 people Historians say self-actualization akin to Buddhist nirvana Admitted to Buddhist influence Older ideas influencing modern psych Need work in homeostasis; trying to keep balance On/off like furnace thermometer Applicable in schools/ kids Low self-esteem trouble progressing Carl Rogers: founder of humanistic psychology Standard upbringing in Chicago Interested in human; wanted to expand to therapy humanistic therapy Therapy should focus on good things in a person’s life De-emphasize talking about problems Alternative name: client-centered therapy or Rogerian therapy Self actualization = goal Actualizing tendency: every living being has innate tendency to better selves Want to move up pyramid Not just humans—weeds grow from cracks in sidewalk Incongruity: real self v. ideal self—innate desire to close the gap Farther the gap more hindrance of ability to move up pyramid Comparison Previous (Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis) Dehumanizing: B- humans are robots, can be conditioned to everything P- slave to pleasure principal and deep, dark desires Humanistic rejection- humans unique; striving to be best we can be 3 Forces in Psychology 1. Behaviorism 2. Psychoanalysis 3. Humanistic: focus on good/ happiness/ love in human nature a. Instead of focus on predicting and controlling human behavior Edward Tolman Well-off MA upbringing influenced by William James’ Principles of Psych (functionalism) leaves MIT hard sci study study psych at Harvard under William James good relationship bc similar personalities Tolman = behaviorist, studying rats Common—early psychologists known as “rat runners” Observations: rats made cognitive map Came to understand surroundings; learn environment Not just walking around looking for food Could get out of maze even when blocks introduced Didn’t need to food incentive-- more to rats than we thought? Behaviorist rejecting behaviorism weakening an already waning field Gestalt psychology already challenging it Cognitive Revolution Behaviorist school of thought coming to an end; major shift in focus 1950s-1970s interest in cognitive psychology memory, attention, problem-solving, language, intelligence inner workings of mind—reminiscent of Wundt better methodology than Wundt’s introspection more reliable instruments full circle! George Miller Major figure in cognitive psychology Originally a behaviorist; started to change mind like Toleman Wants empirical testing establishes Center for Cognitive Studies @ Harvard **EXAM Q: Lab space marks true beginning of cognitive psychology “Magical Number Sever, Plus or Minus 2” # digits we can recall in working memory ` 1 truly scientific method of quantifying psych concept hugely cited paper great fame Ulric Neisser 1 cognitive psychology textbook: Cognitive Psychology “assault” on Behaviorism computer: metaphorical model of mind; relating to modern technology keyboard: senses storage: memory screen: conscious mind Major Figures in Psychology Today: Dan Levitin: effects of music on the mind Canadian professor, featured in a TED talk Author of This Is Your Brain On Music Sherry Turkle: impact of technology use on the mind Emphasis: social media and texting MIT professor Aaron Beck: face of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) CBT: blend of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy Both thought process and observable behaviors clinically significant Redirect cognition patterns to change behavior—2 prong approach Leading researcher in clinical psychology Professor at U Penn Robert Cialdini: persuasion, advertising; how can we influence people’s desires? Social psychologist , professor ASU Hired by major companies: Coca-Cola, Google, IBM Author of Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion Amy Cuddy: studies body language; how can we manipulate it to benefit us? “power poses” shown to convey and boost confidence; promotes success in professional settings social psychologist, professor at Harvard Dan Ariely: Initial interest: pain Based on personal experience—burnt 70% of body in youth Later interest in human decision making Behavioral economics Economics + human nature “Humans aren’t rational, though we think we are.” flawed decision-making author of Predictably Irrational Kelly McGonagal: effects of stress on physical and mental health Stress can be healthy if we view it in a positive light Conversely, stress harmful if viewed negatively Health psychologist, Stanford professor Where Do We Rank? #3 most popular major APA lists 54 divisions of psychology General Public View of Psychology Study of mind and behavior is good General false assumption: study of psychology = study of mental health Only part of the equation STEM: still not acknowledged by most a
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