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Finals Study Guide

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Finals Study Guide CL60


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Includes all before midterms and class notes after midterms.
Fantastic Journey: Antiquity and Beyond
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by bloodiris0312 on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CL60 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Purves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Fantastic Journey: Antiquity and Beyond in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 12/03/15
CL60 Study Guide Dates Odyssey Major characters / summary The Epic of Gilgamesh Dramatis Personae Reading Histories Northern Europe Ethnocentricity Scythians Egyptians Arabians Asia (East of Europe) Indians (Middle-East) Ethiopians Heracles Levi-Strauss Reading “Airs, Waters, Places” “Island and Children of the Sun” “Homelanding” Alexander Arrian Plutarch Strabo Alexander Romance Readings Ishkandarnamah Indika Pliny Alexander Historians Arrian Strabo Plutarch Authors Hippocrates Herodotus Ctesias Iambulus Pliny Kublai Khan Xanadu Italo Calvino "Paradoxography" Bishop 13th c. about East Samuel Taylor Coleridge How to read the poem Paradise Christopher Columbus Stephen Greenblatt Martin Frobisher Lucian and Jonathan Swift Journey summary Lucian “Lying Tales” Lucian’s parodies Lucian as a sci-fi writer Themes Gulliver’s Travels Jonathan Swift London in 18th century Four parts Targets of Satire Letter from Gulliver to Cousin Sympson Part 1: Lilliput Egg Part 2: Voyage to Brobdingnag Tropes of the journey Conversations with the King Return home Part 3: Laputa Part 4: Yahoos and Houyhnhnms Modern Fantastic “Trip to the Moon” “Impossible Voyage” “In the Author’s Footsteps” The Time Machine Frame narrative Morlocks Eloi H.G.Wells Imperial Adventure Romance Doctor Who Victorian view of the future The Aleph Philip K. Dick The Golden Fish Ursula K. LeGuin Antarctic exploration Sur China Mieville Reports of Certain Events in London What makes a journey fantastic Variations Why travel? Dates Epic of Gilgamesh 21st - 7th c. BCE Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor c. 2000 BCE The Odyssey 8th c. BCE Herodotus, Histories 5th c. BCE Hippocrates,Airs, Waters, and Places 5th c. BCE Temple of Zeus at Olympia 460 BCE Book of Jonah late 5th c. BCE CtesiasIndika late 5th/early 4th c. BCE Death of Alexander 323 BCE Iambulus,Island of the Sun 3rd c. BCE Pliny the Elder​atural History 1st c. CE Arrian,Anabasis of Alexander 2nd c. CE Lucian,​True Histories 2nd c. CE Alexander Romance 3rd c. - 17th c. CE Hereford World Map (M​appa Mundi​) 1285 Marco Polo, Travels 1299 John Mandeville,Book of Marvels and Travels 1356 Christopher Columbus first voyage 1492 Martin Frobisher 1570s Jonathan Swift,​ulliver’s Travels 1726 Samuel Taylor Coleridge,“Kubla Khan” 1797 Samuel Taylor Coleridge,“Rime of the Ancient Mariner” 1798 Mary Shelley,Frankenstein 1818 H. Rider Haggard ,Allan Quatermain 1887 Paul Gauguin’s “primitivist” art 1890s H.G. Wells,The Time Machine 1895 Georges Méliès, “A Trip to the Moon” 1902 Georges Méliès, “The Impossible Voyage” 1904 Claude Levi-StraussTristes Tropiques 1955 “Lost in Space” unaired pilot 1965 “2001: A Space Odyssey” 1968 We get to the Moon 1969 Ursula K. Le Guin,Sur 1982 Odyssey Major characters / summary Book 5 Calypso goddess,soft primitivism, keeps Od as sex slave Book 9 Phaeacians half god, golden age, send Od home Cicones sacked by Od, take revenge (transition into the fantastic) Lotus Eaters soft primitivism, forget home, golden age Cyclopes hard primitivism, xenophobia, eats people, blinded by Od and calls Poseidon’s wrath Book 10 Aeolus incest, sack of winds, warm welcome Laestrygonians giants, cannibals, slaughter Circe nymph, witch, Od had to be reminded to go home Book 11 Anticleia Od’s mom, tells Od about home Tiresias blind prophet, tells Od future Book 12 Sirens beautiful song, ugly Scylla & Charybdis dog woman vs. whirlpool Cattle of the Sun wrath of gods Book 19 Telemachus Od’s son Eurycleia Od’s old nurse Penelope Od’s wife Book 22 Kill all the suitors and all the dishonest maids Book 23 Tell Penelope the truth, olive tree bed, foreshadow another adventure The Epic of Gilgamesh Dramatis Personae Gilgamesh King of Uruk Enkidu friend of Gilgamesh Ninsun Gilgamesh’s mom Shamash sun god,Gilgamesh’s protector Humbaba ogre, guardian of Forest of Cedars Ishtar god of sex and war Shiduri goddess of veils and wisdom, helps Gilgamesh to underworld Uta-napishti Noah figure who survived Deluge, immortal Ur-shanabi ferryman Anu sky god Enlil earth god, god of heroes Ea ocean god, trickster Reading I. King Gilgamesh tyrannizes the people of Uruk, who complain to the gods. To divert his superhuman energies the gods create his counterpart, the wild man Enkidu, who is brought up by the animals of the wild. Enkidu is spotted by a trapper, who lures him away from the herd with a prostitute. The prostitute shows him her arts and proposes to take him to Uruk, where Gilgamesh has been seeing him in dreams. II. The prostitute takes Enkidu to a shepherds’ camp, where he is instructed in the ways of men and becomes the shepherds’ watchman. A passing stranger tells him how in Uruk Gilgamesh takes the bride’s virginity before the groom. Shocked by this practice, Enkidu enters Uruk and fights Gilgamesh until Enkidu accepts Gilgamesh’s supremacy, whereupon the pair become firm friends. In search of fame and glory Gilgamesh proposes an expedition to the Forest of Cedar, ignoring Enkidu’s warning of the dangers. They kit themselves out with weapons. Gilgamesh announces his plans to the assembly of Uruk. The elders try to dissuade him. III. The elders give Gilgamesh and Enkidu advice for their journey. The two heroes visit Ninsun, who asks for the help of Shamash and his wife, Aya. Ninsun adopts Enkidu, and Gilgamesh gives instructions for the governing of Uruk before they depart. IV. Every three days Gilgamesh and Enkidu pitch camp and conduct a ritual to provoke a dream. Each time Gilgamesh wakes from a nightmare, but Enkidu reassures him that his dream is favourable after all. After at least five dreams the heroes draw near to the Forest of Cedar. Shamash advises a speedy attack to catch the ogre Humbaba unawares, who guards the cedar cloaked in his seven auras. As the heroes anxiously try to allay each other’s fears hey arrive at the forest. V. After admiring the mountain dense with cedar, the heroes draw their weapons and creep into the forest. Humbaba confronts them, and accuses Enkidu of treachery, who urges swift action. Gilgamesh and Humbaba fight, and Shamash sends the thirteen winds to blind Humbaba and win victory for his protege. Humbaba pleads for his life, but Enkidu tells Gilgamesh to kill Humbaba before the gods find out. Humbaba curses the heroes, who kill him and begin felling cedar in the sacred groves. From one especially magnificent cedar Enkidu vows to make a great door to adorn the temple of the god Enlil. VI. Back in Uruk Gilgamesh provokes the desire of Ishtar and she proposes to him. Gilgamesh scorns her, reminding her of the fates suffered by her many former conquests. Enraged, Ishtar rushes to heaven and persuades her father Anu to give her the fiery Bull of Heaven so that she can punish Gilgamesh with death. The Bull of Heaven causes havoc in Uruk, but Gilgamesh and Enkidu discover its weak spot and kill it. They insult Ishtar further and return to the palace in triumph to celebrate their victory. VII. In a dream Enkidu sees the gods decree his doom. In anguished delirium he pictures before him the great door of cedar he made for Enlil’s temple, and he curses it because it has failed to secure for him the god’s favour. He then turns his thoughts to the trapper and the prostitute, the instruments of his introduction to civilization, whom he also blames for his plight. Shamash persuades him to relent, and he returns to bless the prostitute. He has a second dream, in which he is dragged down to the Netherworld by the Angel of Death and granted a vision of hell. After describing the dream to Gilgamesh he falls sick. Languishing on his deathbed he complains to Gilgamesh of the ignominy of his fate, compared with death in battle, and dies. VIII. The grand funeral of Enkidu. IX. Enkidu shows Gilgamesh his own mortality through his death. Gilgamesh leaves Uruk to find the immortal Uta-napishti and races against time to complete the Path of the Sun before the Sun can catch up with him. He reaches the far end of the tunnel just in time to find himself in a garden of jewels. X. Guided by a wise old goddess, Gilgamesh rushes to the ferryman Ur-shanabi and his crew of Stone Ones. Ur-shanabi tells Gilgamesh to make punting-poles of immense length as Gilgamesh crushed the Stone Ones. They cross the Waters of Death. XI. Gilgamesh hears how Uta-napishti survived the Deluge, and Uta-napishti challenges Gilgamesh to go without sleep for a week. Uta-napishti commands Ur-shanabi to let Gilgamesh change and escort him back to Uruk. Gilgamesh dives to the sea bed and retrieves a plant-like coral that has the property of rejuvenation. Gilgamesh stops at a pool on his way back to Uruk, where a snake steals his plant. Gilgamesh arrives at Uruk, where he shows Ur-shanabi the walls that will be his enduring monument. Histories Northern Europe (3.115-116) Gold, tin, amber, griffins, Arimaspians (one-eyed people). Ethnocentricity (3.38) King Darius did experiment on different cultures. Conclusion: (“nomos”)Custom is king of all. Scythians (4.59-82, 4.101-117) Hard primitivism, very violent. Cannibals, heads on long poles, skinned heads, skull cups, make fire with bones, divination, cannabis for clothing, no baths, xenophobic, only marvel is footprint of Herakles. Egyptians (2.35-41, 64-90) soft primitivism, monuments everywhere, opposite to everywhere else, super religious and clean, fire-loving cats, crocodiles, phoenix, winged snakes, mummification Arabians (3.107-113) Spices guarded by winged snakes and birds. Nature produces dangerous animals in small quantities. Sheeps with long tails or broad tails. Asia (East of Europe) (4.36-47) Disapproves of Hecataeus map. Geography of countries. Libya (Africa) surrounded by water… discovered by Phoenicians and Sataspes (on punishment from King Xerxes) Indians (Middle-East) (3.98-106) Tons of dialects and tribes. Cannibals, black semen, ants bigger than foxes, gold, large animals. Ethiopians (3.114) “tallest, best-looking, and longest-lived men”, gold. Heracles No single text 12 labors depicted on metopes at Temple of Zeus at Olympia Levi-Strauss 1908-2009, father of structural anthropology, indebted to Rousseau Reading Modern exploration is to plagiarize a journey and sanctify it through traveling. Georges Dumas was his teacher, who inspired him to work in his field. Set out to find out approximate size of Nambikwara population, got lost. Writing proves to be a sociological problem instead of intellectual solution. Nambikwara rely on generosity of the other side in trade; there is no barter system. “Airs, Waters, Places” by Hippocrates Plentiful water: inhabitants weak heads and blubbery. Water is hard and cold: inhabitants are hard and stiff Those that lie to the north are healthier and more “normal” Water is not clear with mist: Pale and sickly, deep hoarse voices. Asiatics are less warlike and gentler than Europeans because the seasons are more uniform. Sauromatae (Scythian) arrested by cold, Egyptians by heat “Island and Children of the Sun” by Iambulus Kidnapped and then exiled to Islands of the Sun. Rubber people, golden age-esque islands Law of suicide at infirmity or age, no marriage Mystical animals Ejected from Islands after 7 years, storm and rebirth, sent back to Greece “Homelanding” By Margaret Atwood Describes the Self through the Other Alexander a.k.a. Iskander in Persian 356-323 BCE, Macedonian. King of Macedonia 336~, Pharoah 332~, King of Persia 330~ death. Father is Philip II (descendant of Heracles), mother is Olympia(descendant of Achilles), tutored by Aristotle. Tried his best to embody Achilles and Heracles. New conquering ideal: keep people subject to him, not kill and make slaves. Conquers Indian King Poros, dies of illness (323 BCE). Brings in Hellenistic Period of trends in art and literature, life becomes formula for legends Bucephalus​ , Alexander’s horse whom no one could tame until he came along. Died in battle against Indians. Gymnosophists​ , naked brahman priests who were very clever with words. Calanus​, student of Indian holy man who left to follow Alexander. Put on a pyre and burned to death instead of dying of illness. Diogenes the Cynic​ , admired by Alexander. Told Alexander to stop blocking his sunlight. Arrian Alexander crosses into India. (refuses to indulge in fantasies and focuses on Alexander) Alexander tries to go for a universal empire by crossing Hyphasis River, army mutiny and Alexander retreats after sulking in his tent for 3 days. Alexander explores Persian Gulf, Arrian wondering how far he would have gone. Arrian recounts events with Indian sages and Diogenes the Cynic. Nearchus (officer of Alexander) brought army through whales, and spent time disproving the disappearing island. Plutarch Alexander captures gymnosophists and interrogate them, afterwards letting them go. Calanus shows Alexander how to govern. Alexander explores India, losing many men. He goes to Gedrosia where he got drunk and kissed a eunuch (Bagoas). Nearchus returns and shares with Alexander about India. Strabo Describes Calanus as arrogant. Noted that Dandamis was different and conversed with Greeks, only to conclude the Greeks to in awe of convention. Alexander Romance Genre Ancient Novel, precursor of modern novel, features fantastic journeys Fictional biography of Alexander’s life Most successful ancient novel, second in popularity only to Bible Oldest version 3rd c. CE, most of the content mythical. Readings In battle of India, Bucephalus collapsed with exhaustion, so Alexander proposed a duel with Poros. They agreed, and Poros died. Alexander went to find the gymnosophists to ask philosophical questions. Dandamis burns all of Alexander’s gifts. Alexander travels into the Egyptian desert, and meetphytoi​(plant men), Ochiltai​(mob men) who had lion skin,Melophagoi​ (apple eaters) who ate women. Got lost, mystical elements. Land of the Blest, children take old father with them to help, cook drinks the immortal spring. Daughter also gets immortality. Alexander banishes them and then attempts to rise to the heavens. Ishkandarnamah Calls Alexander Persian (ethnocentrism). Land of Darkness. Khidr, someone with Alexander, finds the Water of Life and drinks from it, then makes people stay as landmark and brings Alexander back only to find the Water gone. Alexander wakes his soldiers in the middle of the night to protect themselves from serpents on the camping ground. Alexander tries to cross a sea and fails for lack of provisions and a guide. Indika by Ctesias Martichora: human face, size of lion, red like cinnabar, three rows of teeth, scorpion tail. Indians are just, light-skinned people. Pygmies: short people with very long hair. Silver and gold. Truth serum. Long lives, no diseases. Cynocephaloi: Dog people. Women give birth only once, white to black hair, eight fingers per hand and foot, warlike, long-eared people. Monocoli: one-legged men. Sciapodes, shade themselves with foot when it’s hot. Pliny Basically compiles everything from previous authors. Particularly likes Ctesias. Scythians, Laestrygones, Arimaspi, people with backward feet, Sauromatae, people immune to snake bites, Androgyni (like the name suggests), sorcery, Medusa-esque people, double pupils in one eye, people incapable of drowning even with clothes, panacea sweat. “India and Ethiopia especially teem with marvels:” sized up flora and fauna. Gymnosophists, dog-headed men, Ctesias stuff, satyrs, people who live in nostrils, scent people, Pygmies, people who eat snake, huge people, long-livers, sex with animals. Concludes that the East is where Nature improvises to create marvels. Alexander Historians Arrian (2nd c. CE) Roman historian, commander, and philosopher. Also called the second Xenophon due to the similarity of his relationship with his teacher to the relationship between Xenophon and Socrates. WroteAnabasis Alexanderbased on Xenophon’s writing. Diodorus (1st c. CE) Strabo (1st c. CE) Greek geographer and historian. Plutarch (2nd c. CE) Greek historian and essayist. Devotes a great deal of space to Alexander's drive and desire, and strives to determine how much of it was presented in his youth. Less accurate on character. Authors Hippocrates “Father of Western Medicine” In truth a group of doctors. Tried to prove environmental determinism medically. Everything is because of the weather, from physique to customs. Asiatics are less warlike and gentler than Europeans because their seasons are uniform. Herodotus “Father of history” Tries to draw line between reality and fantasy. Notes in many cases his opinion about cultures. Admits that he takes an ethnocentric point of view. Historiê enquiry. Includes geography, ethnography, and science Contrasts Egyptians and Scythians, puts Greeks in the middle. Ctesias Greek physician and historian. Actual work lost, contents preserved in extensive summary Says he gathers everything from primary sources, but borrows from Indian folklore Shows Persian’s perception of India, and explores the fusion between reality and fantasy Iambulus Greek merchant whose original was lost. Attempts to record everything objectively. Does not have much of an opinion for the reliability of information. Descriptions have a hint of fantasy and absurdity to them. Rubber people, law of suicide Pliny Roman author and natural philosopher. Died in Pompeii from Mount Vesuvius. Puts Far East as “Nature’s playground” Quotes everybody else, seems to be the compiler of all weird things. Particularly likes Ctesias. Scent people. Ctesias - Pliny Hippocrates - Iambulus - Herodotus Plutarch / Strabo - Arrian Fantastic Real Herodotus Pliny - Ctesias Nomos Nature Motif of Xanadu as model of paradise East vs. West: Two sides of earth never meet Kublai Khan Travels of Marco Polo (1299) John Mandeville (1356) (next Khan) Samuel Purchas (1614) Coleridge (1797) travel log based on MP got high on opium and read Purchas' book influenced Coleridge dreamt about the poem interrupted and lost the rest of the dream Italo Calvino (1972) Note: Purchas was link between MP and Coleridge Xanadu Designed by Kublai Khan at Inner Mongolia, destroyed in 14th century. MP visited in c. 1275 Summer residence palace of marble and fine stone, enclosed by wall (paradeisos) golden-age-esque magic space with slight danger Is Christianity better when it cannot perform magic? Samuel Purchas Italo Calvino Conversation taking place in heads Personal experience of travel matters more than the cataloguing of what one sees Transcending the language barrier and differences between East and West "You advance always with your head turned back?" Journey is truly personal, reshapes identity and perception. Dreamscape / imaginary city reflecting traveler's psychological geography "Paradoxography" Greek / Roman tradition Writing about material wonders, usually linked with geography Pliny, though takes root as early as Herodotus Extremely popular in Medieval period Catalogues of wonders in travel writings MP also pigeonholed into paradoxography (true that he exaggerated) Bishop 13th c. about East Trying to move away from ethnocentrism Cultural relativism: "all the works of God are marvelous" Samuel Taylor Coleridge "Kubla Khan," c.1797, "A fragment" - vision was ruined by doorbell Influenced from Purchas Stereoscopic vision about creative power Reads romantic poets, spiritual poems, and travel books How to read the poem Follow Alph the sacred river until Abyssinia Perspective moves from Kublai Khan to Coleridge who wants to build his own Xanadu Drastic change between first and second stanza Coleridge fascinated with the idea that the first letter of alphabet contains all others "Beware! Beware!" Coleridge's perception of paradise influenced by drugs Paradise Old Man of the Mountains (MP) Garden of Catolonabes (Mandeville) Earthly paradise of Adam and Eve (Mandeville) Xanadu Three Early Explorers Marco Polo, John Mandeville, Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus First voyage 1492, thought he reached Asia Financed by Spanish monarchy Mapped East onto West Golden Age, soft primitivism or cannibals Stephen Greenblatt You travel expecting your expectations to be met, ignoring all other signs. “caesura” - the space between seeing and speaking Columbus affirms his own signs based on random information. If signs don’t fit, they become “invisible” Cultures are extremely opaque and difficult to decode; Columbus believes that it’s easy Columbus believes Indians to be both virtual blanks and doubles - projections Columbus acts as tourist who brings baclive“wonders” as souvenirs to prove fantastic Columbus possesses over optimistic sense of simplicity: trying to box the other Martin Frobisher (late 16th c.) tried to find Northwest Passage as well as fool’s gold (he thought it was gold) Encountered Eskimos at the mines at Baffin Island. Took Eskimos back to England for display They died very quickly because of the ill treatment A doctor grieved because the Queen didn’t have the chance to see the fantastic Remember the monolith? represents wonder, sign that cannot be decoded Lucian and Jonathan Swift Satire and parody, troping “imaginary voyage” and “utopia” Abandoning truth and authenticity completely, pushing limits of parodying exploration Repetition and derivation instead of originality Recycling fantastic and themes to the point of ridiculousness Random parallels and subtle clues referencing various authors of the fantastic Turn wonders into mockery Journey summary Moon v. Sun - Lamp City - Whale - sees giants through whale’s mouth - Island of cheese - Corkland - Isles of Blest (underworld) - “other continent” Lucian Syrian who lived in Roman empire, 2nd c. CE Wrote in Greek; many works. Often called a comic poet because he’s so funny: calls previous travel liar.​s ​ He isn’t because he says upfront that everything he says is not true. “Lying Tales” Small stories Odysseus makes up about himself to others Aethon of Crete (to Penelope); “all lies, but he made them seem like truth” Lucian’s parodies Homer: Scintharus, Xenia, whale’s belly, sirens, Circe, shipwreck, etc. Plato: our known world is tiny Mocks all philosophical traditions Iambulus, Ctesias, Pliny Alexander Romance: micro idea of looking at world as tiny Herodotus: huge ants, ethnography and war history, distances, footprint of Heracles, etc. Lucian as a sci-fi writer Fantastic plants, intergalactic battle, aliens, reflecting telescope. Sci-fi uses other space to critique political and social conditions. Imaginary: mindscape that explores the fantastic Themes THINGS Language Maps/topography Other Souvenir Modes of transport Truth v. lies Maps: Hecataeus - Herodotus - Mappa Mundi (Mandeville) Gulliver’s Travels Many editions and published in so many ways that it was unclear who the real author was, the publisher, Gulliver, or Jonathan Swift People instantly understood it was an allegory about the English government of the time. First few pages of book has a portrait of Gulliver. Gulliver stands as both fake author who really traveled and mirrored idea of “every man” concept. During Gulliver’s time, a surgeon was a person who cut people open and investigate. Jonathan Swift English, born in Ireland 1667-1745 Published Gulliver’s Travein 1726 Made publisher Benjamin Motte nervous Left Whigs to be supporter of Tories and thus became of the opposing party Critiqued the whole system of English politics Plenty of satire Suffered from Meniere's Disease Used 1719 map of the world London in 18th century Fairs, taverns, freak shows, exhibition models, peep shows Obsession with the Other Four parts Each part critiques and reveals certain aspects about humanity: Little people Big people Floating Island Houyhnhnms/Yahoos Insignificance Grossness Wrongheadedness Viciousness Based text on Lucian, giants, fairies, Tom Thumb (miniscule people), Aesop, Thomas More, Cyrano de Bergerac, William Dampier Targets of Satire Travelers’ tales Contemporary figures English political events: Queen Anne, Whigs Henry VIII’s break with Rome in 16th century / Catholic v. Protestant Discord with France Letter from Gulliver to Cousin Sympson Reveals dangers of satire He cannot praise humans after seeing “Utopia” Part 1: Lilliput Island off Tasmania, 12 miles circumference People no more than 6 inches tall (1/12th the size of humans) At war with neighboring island Blefuscu (France) Brings tiny animals back to England and makes a lot of money off them Lilliputians hold no respect for Gulliver after their excitement and curiosity dies down Political parties: low-heels vs. high-heels (shoes) Religious parties: big-endians vs. little-endians (breaking egg on the little or big ends) Big-Endians Catholics in France Little-Endians Protestants in England High Heels Tories Low Heels Whigs Shows how trivial differences can cause life and death Egg Symbol of miniature, suggests contained ideal world Trouble lies in going to the world, have to break the egg and is thus impossible Part 2: Voyage to Brobdingnag Related to Part 1, changes perspective as people are 12 times Gulliver’s size Gulliver realizes everything is relative - identity never stabilizes as Gulliver travels A person becomes a freak and put on display to the foreign culture they are in Brobdingnagians simpler than Lilliputians The word in itself plays with words to be awkward and grotesque in itself Gulliver adopts hyperculture, stuffy mannerisms as opposed to more primitive and natural Brobdingnagians Miniature Clever, 2D, balanced, intricacy, neatness, cultured, courteous, childlike, nimble Gigantic Clumsy, out of proportion, grotesque, natural, savage, primitive Tropes of the journey Gulliver put on display, made of a thousand manners, portable “plaything” of women Gulliver called “lusus naturae” play of nature Emphasis on the gigantic being grotesque Critiques idea of a microscope (Gulliver becomes the microscope) Sees too much without control on it Conversations with the King “I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the Earth.” Return home Difficulty readjusting after Brobdingnag and Lilliput. Perspective changes drastically every time. Part 3: Laputa Island connected to floating magnet Part 4: Yahoos and Houyhnhnms Gulliver meets a less modern human (Yahoo, savage) Stops using European vs. Other description Gulliver reassesses view of humankind when he meets Houyhnhnms Modern Fantastic Radio listeners in panic, taking war drama as fact Tradition of hoaxing fantastic, using upper air as space of fantastic Vincenzo Lunardi the daredevil aeronaut who traveled by balloon Trope of travel by air 20th century obsession with flight and cinema Lumiere Brothers and Georges Melies Wizard of Oz Lumiere Brothers Fascinated with capturing the real life, documentary Georges Melies Fascinated with magic space, creation “Trip to the Moon” Science / Technology preparations to moon Other Selenites Fantastic in space / the unknown σελή νη “selene” moon in Greek moon -> µήνή “mene” <- µήν “men” month (course of the month) Context is important Thing are big or small only in comparison (Gulliver’s Travels) “Impossible Voyage” Tourist vs. Traveler Mode of Transportation “In the Author’s Footsteps” Can you ever repeat a journey? What you cannot repeat is what is most important (Physical is repeatable, but the experience cannot be repeated) Does your journey only take place in the past? (Italo Calvino) German: wissen know a fact kennen understand something (be familiar) The Time Machine First impression of unnamed protagonist is already that of a worn, exhausted traveler “I want to tell it. Badly. Most of it will sound like lying.” same mold of fantastic unreality Souvenir and making one’s mark brings two wilted flowers back, graffiti on idol First thing he sees after time traveling is the crouching, menacing sphinx Orientalism dominating European landscape? Sphinx’s riddle Pre-adult children only in the future Great pride in being western Frame narrative Protagonist tells his story to narrator at dinner Does the traveler have to return for his story to survive? How does the narrator’s presence affect the way we absorb the story? Morlocks appear like ghosts. appear only in the dark Eloi descendants of Victorian capitalism Reference to sunsets, previous times H.G.Wells 1866~1946, interested in scientific sociology and followed Edgar Allen Poe The Time Machine​published 1895, first draft serialized 1888 Wrote many many famous books Trying to investigate the journey through science We can use our advances in science to get to the future Civilized vs. savage Imperial Adventure Romance Ex Africa semper aliquid novi “Something new always comes out of Africa” Extremely popular at the time, H. Rider Haggard Going to historically backward land and “teaching” them civilization Doctor Who Assistants very diverse, the Doctor is always the 19th century tin hat white male explorer always manages to influence the era he goes to despite trying to not leave a trace Victorian view of the future Darwin, Origin of the Species Wells was taught by Thomas Huxley, who advocated Darwin’s theories Great economic, technological, and scientific advances; felt time is speeding up. “Machine age” 1880-1945 Museums showcasing the british and empire reduced to dust The Aleph Multum in parvo (much in little) motif Whale, Lilliput (egg) Author is an actual character in the story and is forced to read it; unwilling accomplices on someone else's journey Sees the aleph and feels worse; something is lost through seeing the aleph Aleph "one of points in space that contain all points" which you "can go around the world with" What will it mean to see everything? Seeing everything destroys the fantasy and thrill of journeying, to see the unknown “Feared there would never be without a sense of deja vu” Philip K. Dick Actual trip versus the strong desire to travel Sexist portrayal of travel Lots of stories and novels 1928~1982, many made into films Graduated in same class as Ursula K. LeGuin, never knew each other Won Hugo award The Golden Fish 22074 - February 20th 1974 Dick got schizophrenia / visited by aliens? / experienced anamnesis (total recall, like the Aleph) Went mad basically Ursula K. LeGuin 1929- ?, “Sur” (1982) Known for her sci-fi and her realism / practical ideas Brings domestic / mundane and moral questions into fantastic Antarctic exploration 1900-1912 “heroic age” South Pole took on symbol as the last unknown place on earth Sur 1982 Exploration hoax; parody (Sur spanish for “south”) Party of South American women reach South Pole in 1909, 2 years before Raold Amundsen South title of Shackleton’s 1919 account of his expeditions Women travelers work together and with the landscape: “we left no footprints, ever” China Mieville 1972 - ?, Reports of certain events in london (2004) “new weird,” fantasy, science fiction, steampunk Break the idea of narrative and make it the least important part of his stories Tries to invent new monsters that have never appeared before “Narrative may just as well be a shackle as a key” Reports of Certain Events in London Stamps a specific date in journeying Ergodic fiction fiction hard to understand What if the place you return to is in itself unstable and changing? What makes a journey fantastic Travel to an unbelievable, unreal, wondrous space Cross over to another world Some relationship between the marvelous and truth Variations Real and believable but kept under secrets Secret journeying Fantastic comes to you, the accidental Threat of death, paranoia Journey in the mind, alternate reality Why travel? “The desire was pure as the polar snows: to go, to see - no more, no less.” (Sur) “A love by plain, dull people for adventure” (Philip K. Dick) “The act of traveling was supererogatory” (Borges)


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