Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide Italian 42A
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lonnie Wong on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Italian 42A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by moudarres in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Early Modern Italy in Italian at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
Inferno 19: 1) What sin is punished in the section of Hell that Dante describes in this canto? simony 2) How are the sinners punished in this ditch/pouch? (Remember that a pouch is one of the subsections into which is divided the eighth circle of Hell – the circle of fraud). upside down in small holes with flames burning their feet 3) With whom does Dante speak in this canto? Nicholas III 4) What does Dante learn when he speaks with this sinner? Boniface will end up in hell 5) Does Dante condemn the Church as an institution (as a whole) or does he only condemn the clergymen who have corrupted the Church? the clergyman who corrupted the Church 6) Why does Dante refer to the Emperor Constantine in lines 115-117? refers to the Donation of Constantine the first Christian Roman Emperor Inferno 27: 1) What sin is punished in the section of Hell that Dante describes in this canto? fraud 2) How are the sinners punished in this ditch/pouch? souls wrapped inside ever burning fires 3) Who is the sinner with whom Dante speaks in this canto? Guido da Montefeltro 4) What was this sinner’s profession for most of his life? mercenary 5) To which religious order did he belong after he gave up his previous profession? Franciscan 6) Which pope requested the (sinful) advice of the sinner punished in this section of Hell? Boniface VIII Inferno 32-33: 1) What is the ancient city to which Dante refers at the beginning and end of canto 32, as well as shortly after the end of Count Ugolino’s speech in canto 33? Thebes 2) In which section of hell is Ugolino punished? In other words, what is his sin? traitors 3) How is Ugolino punished? buried in ice with the head out 4) Who is punished with him? What did this second sinner do to deserve his punishment? Ruggieri; starved the Ugolino family 5) What do Ugolino’s children offer to their father? Which Biblical text does this offer evoke? their flesh; the bible 6) How do Ugolino’s children die? starvation Monarchy: 1) Does Dante believe that the authority of the emperor derives from God or from the pope? equal 2) What “family metaphor” does Dante use in the last chapter of Monarchy to describe the most appropriate relationship between emperor and pope? son to father Unam Sanctam: 1) According to Boniface, what do the two swords (from the Gospel of Luke 22:38) represent? secular and religious power 2) According to Boniface, who (or what) can judge a pope? God Decameron: 1) How many youths decide to move from Florence to the countryside? 10 2) What historical event (occurred between 1348 and 1350) makes them leave Florence? the black plague 3) How do the ten youths spend their time during the two weeks in the countryside? singing, dancing, playing, telling story 4) What is the literal meaning of the word “Decameron”? 10 days 5) Day 1, novella 1: What is Cepparello’s profession? Where and why is he hired? What does Cepparello confess to be his worst sin of all? What happens when Cepparello dies? mercenary; Burgundy; because he is equally as evil as them; cursing his mother; became a saint 6) 1.2: Where do Abraham and Giannotto live? What city does Abraham visit in the pilgrimage that results in his conversion to Christianity? Why does he convert? paris; rome; because the church is corrupt but it still grows 7) 1.4: How does the monk avoid his expected punishment? having the abbot commit the same sin 8) 1.6: The main point in this story is that it exposes the hypocrisy of (some members of) the clergy. 9) 3.1: True or False: does Boccaccio reveal the name of the convent in which the story takes place? Who (or what) does Masetto pretend to be in order to sleep with the nuns? What happens to Masetto at the end of the story? no; deaf-mute; rich and returns home without having to pay for his children 10)3.3: Who helps the noble lady fulfill her desire to sleep with the man she has fallen in love with? What is her husband’s profession? the monk; merchant 11)3.4: Why is the young wife of this story unhappy with her husband? husband is old andpious 12)3.8: Why and how is Ferondo punished? What happens to Ferondo at the end of this story? feeling jealousy; beaten; 'comes back alive' and returns home to raise the abbot's child 13)3.10: Why does Alibech undertake her journey at the beginning of this story? How does Rustico persuade Alibech to make love with him? quest for God; "take the Devil out of me" Donation of Constantine: 1) To whom does “Constantine” address the Donation? (I write “Constantine” because, as we all know by now, the Emperor Constantine the Great had nothing to do with the Donation. The Donation is a forged document probably written in the 8 century, almost five centuries after Constantine died). addressed to Sylvester, to the clergy, bishops and popes of Rome 2) What is “Constantine”’s illness? leprosy 3) And how was he supposed to treat this illness according to his pagan priests/physicians? fill a tub full of infant blood in the Capitol and bathe in it 4) How is “Constantine” cured? purified by salubrious water by immersion-three times 5) In addition to Constantine, who else is involved in the decision to bestow “princely power” on the pontiff? the satraps, the entire Senate, optimates and the Roman people 6) What kinds of gifts accompany the pope’s newly acquired “princely power”? power of the empire, and the four chief seats (Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople and Jerusalem), and over all the churches and priests in the world 7) How does “Constantine” describe the relationship between pope and emperor? placing the emperor's position below that of all popes and therefore, God Oration on the Donation of Constantine: 1) What makes the power of the “supreme pontiff” so impressive according to the beginning of Valla’s Oration? so powerful that Sylvester and Constantine doesn't know anything about what they are doing 2) What does Valla seek to achieve in writing the Oration (pages 3-4)? show why the Donation is invalid 3) What is the “common sense” argument that Valla deploys (pages 6-7) to suggest that it would have been unreasonable for Constantine to relinquish half of the Roman Empire? no ruler would willingly hand over their empire 4) What are the risks of dividing the Empire (pages 11-12)? civil unrest and possible civil war 5) What does Valla imagine that Sylvester would say to Constantine in response to Constantine’s gift (pages 15-21)? a curse to the papacy; Constantine doesn't have the power to gift the empire; crime of simony 6) What is the Biblical precedent of a Syrian general who suffered from leprosy that Valla suggests is behind the legend of the Donation? (See the slides and pages 8 and 16 of the Oration). Naaman of Syrian 7) True or False: Valla does not use irony in his Oration. False 8) What are the most evident historical (and geographic) inaccuracies in the Donation to which Valla draws our attention? satraps didn't exist the language used in the Donation doesn't match the language used by Constantine in that time Constantinople was still Byzantium Book of Revelation is used, but Constantine couldn't possibly have used it as he only converted three days before the Donation was 'written' 9) What is the discipline that Valla mastered and that allowed him to dissect the linguistic flaws of the Donation? philology 10)What are the dangers in the pope’s exercise of temporal power to which Valla draws the reader’s attention (see for instance pages 42-45)? power to wage war 11)Why is “Constantine”’s use of scriptural passages like the one from the Book of Revelation (see Valla’s critique at pages 54-55) inconsistent with historical reality? Constantine had just converted and didn't have time to read the Book of Revelation 12)Where had the Donation allegedly been hidden? on the body of Peter 13)True or False: Valla thinks that the growth of the Roman Empire was legitimate and resulted from Divine Providence. False 14)What are, according to Valla, the “reasons for making war”? avenge a wrong and defend friends, prevent a coming disaster if the power of one is to grow, expectation of booty, desire for glory 15)Which one of these reasons is “just”? the first two (compared to the other two), but even then, not truly just 16)How does he describe the popes’ rule over the city of Rome (see pages 72-80)? like tyranny 17)What happened to Valla after he wrote the Oration? nothing; inconclusive trial History of Italy: 1) When did Lorenzo de’ Medici (the Magnificent) die? a. 1492 2) When did Innocent VIII die? a. 1492 3) Who became pope after the death of Innocent VIII? a. Alexander VI 4) How did Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia become pope according to Guicciardini? a. bribery 5) How does Guicciardini describe Alexander VI? What qualities, positive and negative, does Guicciardini highlight? a. the most horrible man in the world; fraudulent, corrupt, shrewd 6) True or False: Guicciardini does not think that Fortune always favors good people. a. True 7) Who is Lucrezia Borgia’s third husband? a. Duke of Ferrara, Alfonso d'Este 8) When did Alexander VI die? According to Guicciardini, how did he die? a. 1503; accidental poisoning (his son initially intended to poison the cardinal holding a feast, but the pope, thirsty, drank the poisoned wine) 9) What happened to Cesare Borgia when his father (Alexander VI) died? a. ill; weak position politically after death of his father; lost political power; arrested by Julius II and died in Spain 10)How did Rome react to the news of Alexander’s death according to Guicciardini? a. happiness; cardinals scrabbling to read the political situation 11)Who succeeded Alexander VI? a. Pius III 12)How long was he in power? a. 26 days 13)Who succeeded Pius III? a. Julius II 14)The man who became pope as Julius II had been made a cardinal by a previous pope who was also his uncle: who was this earlier pope? Sixtus IV 15)Which town did Julius II besiege in 1511 successfully leading his artillery troops from the frontline? a. Mirandola 16)Which city rose up against Julius II in 1511? What did the mob destroy during the uprising? a. Bologna; the bronze statue of Julius by Michelangelo 17)True or False: Guicciardini describes Julius II as a peace-loving pope. a. false 18)Who succeeded Julius II in 1513? Who is the father of this new pope? a. Leo X; Lorenzo de' Medici 19)How did the new pope celebrate his election as pope? a. a party Savonarola’s and Alexander’s Letters: 1) To which religious order did Savonarola belong? a. Dominican 2) Why did Alexander VI order that Savonarola go to Rome? a. to talk about his preachings (to be imprisoned) 3) What did Savonarola answer to Alexander’s order? a. cannot go due to his paralysis, dangerous; read the book if Alexander really wants to know what he preaches 4) To which convent did Alexander write in order to make his grievances against Savonarola public? a. Franciscan 5) How did Savonarola die? a. hanged and burned Julius Excluded: 14)Who accompanies Julius II in the dialogue? a. Genius and Saint Peter 15)What is Julius wearing? a. armory 16)How does Julius explain why he waged his military campaigns? a. increase Church territory and power 17)How does Peter respond to Julius’s explanation? a. compares Julius to Satan 18)What does Julius promise at the end of the dialogue? a. he will wage siege on the gates to Heaven The Prince: Dedicatory Letter: 8) To whom does Machiavelli (henceforth abbreviated as “M.”) address The Prince? Lorenzo de' Medici 9) What makes M.’s gift precious? gives advice on how to run a kingdom effectively 10)How does M. describe his condition? (And what had happened to M. after the Medici regained power in 1512-13?) weakened man; used to dine with high society, now only with the lowest; exiled after Medici family regained power; his name with connected with a conspiracy and after being tortured (and not giving names) exiled Chapter 1: 11)What are the various kinds of states that M. identifies in this chapter? republic, hereditary principality, new principality, 12)By what means can a prince gain power? Fortune or cleverness Chapter 3: 13)Why do men “gladly change their masters” according to M.? to better their needs 14)What is a new prince (inevitably) forced to do when he gains power? offend his supporters 15)What does M. describe as “a very natural and normal thing” (page 86)? the desire to acquire Chapter 4: 16)What is the main difference between the King of France and the King of the Turks? France: ruled with nobles that are loved by the subjects; Turks: ruled by subjects that he can change at his pleasure Chapter 5: 17)By what means should a prince secure his new dominion over a people used to living in freedom? destroy them Chapter 6: 18)What are the ancient examples that M. mentions? Moses, Cyrus, Romulus, Theseus 19)What does M. say about Moses? advisor was God, so he can't really be considered a ruler Chapter 7: 20)How did Cesare Borgia acquire his state? Fortune; marriage through his father, Alexander VI 21)What leads M. to praise Cesare Borgia’s efforts to consolidate his power? shrewd; he didn't trust mercenary soldiers, he used the arms of others and his own Fortune 22)How does Cesare deal with his lieutenant Remirro de Orco? gave him power as a minister, once he established peace in Romagna, Cesare had him killed in public 23)What is the reaction of the people of Romagna to Cesare’s conduct and what does M. think about it? the people of Romagna were astounded and satisfied by his conduct; he admired Cesare's conduct 24)How did Cesare lose his power? he supported the creation of Julius II rather than someone else; Chapter 9: 25)What are the two humors that, according to M., are found in every body politic? the favor of the people or that of the nobles 26)Is it better for a prince to rely on the support of the nobility or on that of the people? Why? it is better for a prince to rely on the support of the people because nobles have their own aspirations and resources, but the people rely on the prince 27)What does M. write about the desire of the people and that of the nobles? the noble wish to control, but the people desire not to be oppressed or domineered by the nobles Chapter 11: 28)What does M. say about Alexander VI and Julius II? What is the main difference between these two popes, according to M.? Machiavelli praises both popes for expanding Church power. Alexander did everything to strengthen the Duke, while Julius did it for the Church. 29)Does M. criticize their undertakings? No, he praises their undertakings. Chapters 12-14: 30)What is the relationship between arms and laws? you cannot have one and not the other. 31)Does M. write that mercenary and auxiliary arms are good for a prince who aims to strengthen his power? Yes/No, why? no because mercenaries: if good, try to take power to satisfy their goals, if weak, they run before war. Auxiliary arms are not good because although they are strong and can win, the prince is no longer in control. 32)What is the best kind of troops in M.’s view? the best kind of troops is your own army made of your own citizens. Chapter 15: 33)To which kinds of works does M.’s juxtapose The Prince? the work on the conduct and bearings of a Prince in relation to his subjects and friends 34)What is M’s goal in writing The Prince? to write what would be useful to those who understand (the princes) 35)Should a prince be good at all times? no because it is impossible for human nature Chapter 17: 36)What does M. write about Cesare’s alleged cruelty and Florence’s supposed mercy? Cesare's alleged cruelty restored, united, and ordered Romagna. Florence's supposed mercy caused them to be divided into factions. 37)Does M. believe that it is best for a prince to be feared or to be loved? Why? Machiavelli believed it best for a prince to be feared and loved, but fear and love is difficult to exist together. So it is better to be feared because men stay with you when they benefit, but turn against you in time of need. 38)Is there something that a prince must avoid at all costs? Why? a prince must avoid hatred at all costs because hatred seeds conspiracies and weakness. Chapter 18: 39)Why does M. assume that a prince cannot always be good and keep his word? historically, princes have been cunning and deceives others 40)Why does M. refer to the myth of the centaur Chiron? the centaur represents the beast, the other side of a prince who is able to operate outside the law 41)The images of the fox and the lion should remind you of a text that we have studied earlier in this course. What is this text? Dante's Inferno 27 42)How does M. describe the conduct of Alexander VI? Machiavelli praises Alexander VI's ability to deceive people Chapter 25: 43)What similes does M. use to illustrate his idea of Fortune? river and woman 44)Is it possible for a prince to adjust his “method” to the shifting circumstances that Fortune offers to him? Why? no because men would not change a method that has always worked for him before 45)How does M. describe the conduct of Julius II? Why was Julius successful? impetuously; he found time and circumstances in harmony with his methods that he was successful Chapter 26: 46)What should the Medici family try to achieve in M.’s view? The Medici family should unite all of Italy 47)Who is the Biblical character that M. evokes in this chapter? God 48)How does The Prince end? poem from a poet who writes romantic poetry The Madrake Root: Prologue: 18)Where does the story take place? Florence 19)What are the characters’ professions? Do they remind you of another work we have read this quarter? Which one? Callimaco-merchant, Liguro (Callimaco's adviser), Nicia-lawyer, Sico-servant, Lucrezia- Nicia's wife, Sostrata-Lucrezia's mother Boccaccio's Decameron 20)Where did Callimaco live before returning to Florence? Paris 21)What does the author write about his condition in the Prologue? Machiavelli is trying to make his life better since he is not appreciated by the government. Act 1: 22)To which historical events does Callimaco refer in 1.1 (Act 1, Scene 1)? the Italian Wars of Charles VIII 23)Why does Callimaco decide to leave Paris? because he heard the stories of Lucrezia and fell in love 24)What makes Callimaco believe that he might achieve his goal (that is, to sleep with Lucrezia)? Nicia's simplemindedness and their desire for children. 25)What role does Ligurio play? What role does Siro play? go between for Callimaco and Nicia; servant 26)What does Ligurio say about Lucrezia? Does Ligurio think that Nicia deserves to be with Lucrezia? beautiful woman who is smart and clever and fit to govern a kingdom; no, Fortune has just favored him 27)What will Callimaco pretend to be in order to deceive Nicia? doctor Act 2: 28)How does Callimaco manage to impress Nicia? by speaking Latin 29)How does Callimaco suggest that Lucrezia’s sterility be cured? the mandrake root potion 30)What is the (fictional) harmful side effect of the cure that Callimaco prescribes? the first man to sleep with the woman who took the poison draws out the poison and dies himself 31)Why does Nicia hesitate to accept Callimaco’s suggestion? doesn't want to make his wife a whore; worries that the man they will 'kidnap' to sleep with his wife will speak or die and get Nicia in trouble Act 3: 32)What does Sostrata assert at the beginning of act 3? a man must make the best of a bad situation 33)How does Ligurio trick Timoteo into accepting his offer (3.4-7)? (And why does Ligurio trick him?) Ligurio first tricks Timoteo to see if he is susceptible to the money, even when committing a sin. Once he has determined it, he tells Timoteo to do one more favor 34)How do Sostrata and Timoteo convince Lucrezia to sleep with a stranger who might die as a result of their “encounter” (3.10-11)? Sostrata-that she wouldn't convince her do something not right; Timoteo-the will that sins not the body; not wrong on the conscience Act 4: 35)What characterizes Machiavelli’s portrait of Callimaco? If Callimaco were a prince, would he be an effective leader? Consider 4.1 and 4.4, for instance. lovesickness, indecisiveness, volatility; no, desiring other men's woman, Act 5: 36)What does Nicia ask that Lucrezia do in 5.2? sleep with a stranger 37)What does Callimaco say to Lucrezia in 5.4? that he loves her, how they can be happy even with her husband without infamy, when he dies, Callimaco will take her as his wife 38)What does Lucrezia propose in her dialogue with Callimaco? become Nicia's best friend and then he can come and go as he wills and they can be togetehr 39)True or False: Lucrezia is described as if she were reborn after the night spent with Callimaco. True 40)Where does the play end? in the church Raphael: 1) Which moral qualities, according to Vasari, distinguish Raphael from other artists? modest; kind sweet; pleasing 2) Where was Raphael born? Urbino 3) Who was his first master? Peitro Perugino 4) Why did Raphael travel to Florence? study the works and techniques of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo 5) How did Raphael react when he saw the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo in Florence? delighted; considered their work Divine 6) Who was the pope when Raphael arrived in Rome? Julius II 7) Who helped Raphael gain the favor of the pope? Bramante 8) Who commissioned the paintings Raphael made in the Room of the Segnatura? Julius II 9) What are the subjects depicted in these paintings? philosophy, astrology, geometry, poetry, theology 10) Who are the philosophers at the center of the School of Athens? Aristotle and Plato 11) One writer appears in two of the paintings of the Room of the Segnatura: who is he? DAnte 12) Who is the pagan god at the center of the Parnassus? Apollo 13) Who is the Dominican friar that had been excommunicated by Alexander VI (and then executed in Florence) and that appears in the Disputation of the Sacrament? Savonarola 14) Who are the two male figures depicted seated (one on each side) in Raphael’s Justice (p. 317)? Justinian and Pope Julius II 15) What is the painting, with a mythological subject, that the banker and merchant Agostino Chigi commissioned to Raphael? Galatea 16) Who becomes Raphael’s main patron after the death of Julius II in 1513? Leo X 17) Who are the two saints who brandish a sword in The Meeting of Leo III [actually Leo I] and Attila? Saint Peter and Paul 18) What is the “respectable reason” for which, according to Vasari, Raphael postponed (or continued to postpone) getting married? he was going to become a cardinal (Leo X) 19) How did Raphael die? too much sex and didn't want to admit it Michelangelo: 1) Did Michelangelo’s father support his son’s artistic disposition? no 2) Who was Michelangelo’s first master? How old was Michelangelo at the time? Domenico Ghirlndaio; 14 3) Who is the powerful Florentine man who treated Michelangelo as if he had been his son? Lorenzo de' Medici 4) How did this powerful Florentine come to appreciate Michelangelo’s talent? Michelangelo's simplicity; he broke a tooth off the head and dug out the gum so it seemed as if it had fallen out 5) What is the discipline that Michelangelo (like Leonardo) studied carefully and that allowed him to represent the human body with such realism in his works? study of anatomy through autopsies 6) What does Vasari say about the comparison between ancient and modern (that is, from Vasari’s standpoint, the 1400s and 1500s)? (especially p. 423) modern works were just as good as ancient ones when they are excellent 7) What is the sculpture that cardinal Rouen commissioned to Michelangelo during the artist’s first stay in Rome? What does Vasari say about what some critics said about this sculpture? pieta; the lady is too young 8) What does Vasari tell us about the block of marble from which Michelangelo made the David? it was abandoned by another sculptor who already began sculpting 9) Who commissioned the David? What does the David symbolize according to Vasari (p. 427)? Piero Soderini; a symbol of palace, just as David defended his people and governed them with justice so too those who governed this cty should courageously defend it and govern it with justice 10) Who summoned Michelangelo to Rome in the year 1503-04 after the death of Alexander VI? Julius II 11) What is the project that this patron assigned to Michelangelo (and that Michelangelo never completed)? his tomb 12) Who is the Hebrew prophet whose figure Michelangelo sculpted as part of the tomb of Julius II? Moses 13) How would you describe Michelangelo’s relationship with Julius II? not very well; They didn't agree with each other often; Michelangelo didn't show Julius his works in progress which Julius II didn't like 14) What happened to the bronze statue of Julius II that Michelangelo made in Bologna? melted down to make a weapon; head in Duke of Ferrara's closet 15) What are the circumstances that led Julius II to request that Michelangelo paint the vault of the Sistine Chapel? Bramante requested it; Michelangelo kept saying no so Julius II insisted 16) What kind of work did Michelangelo do for the Florentine government in 1529 while the Medici were (briefly) out of power? Who was the pope at the time? fortifications; ramparts; Clement VII 17) Who commissioned the Last Judgment? Clement VII 18) Who was the pope when Michelangelo completed the Last Judgment? Paul III 19) Who is the figure that appears as a judge at the center of the Last Judgment? Jesus Christ 20) In what context does Vasari mention Messer Biagio da Cesena? swrapped around his legs in a heap of devils; Hell; Inferno 21) Who was Michelangelo’s favorite poet (p. 463)? Dante Cellini: 1) What did Cellini (like all other men) have to struggle with in his life (p. 1)? Fortune 2) On which day was Benvenuto Cellini born? All Saints' Day 1500 3) What is the relationship between Cellini’s birth and his encounter with the scorpion? he was a scorpio; stars rule rather than influence 4) Who is the great Roman general and political leader for whom Cellini’s ancestor, Fiorino, served as an office? What is the city that Fiorino helped found? Cesare; Florence 5) Why were Benvenuto Cellini and his brother exiled from Florence? for fighting 6) How old was Cellini when he arrived in Rome and how did he earn his first money there? 19; salt-cellar 7) What does Cellini write about the influence of the stars on our lives? they rule us 8) What is the disease that, according to Cellini, is particularly fond of priests – especially very rich priests? syphilis 9) Pages 45-46: What happens to Cellini when the plague rages? he didn't get sick 10) What is the trick that Cellini played on his friends (pp. 48 and ff.)? he dressed a boy up as a girl and takes him as his date to his friend's dinner party 11) Who was the pope in 1527? Clement VII 12) What role does Cellini play (according to Cellini’s own account) in the war that culminates in the 1527 Sack of Rome? superhero; killed lots of important men 13) What is the occasion that, according to Cellini, leads Clement VII to forgive the artist all the homicides that he “had ever committed and all those [he] would ever commit in the service of the Apostolic Church” (p. 66)? Benvenuto shot him and the soldier's own sword cut him in half Bernini: 1) What was the pivotal event that determined Gian Lorenzo’s fortune? What was his father’s profession? his father's move to Rome; sculptor 2) What did Gian Lorenzo study in the Vatican? studied ancient marbles and modern paintings 3) What was Gian Lorenzo’s first work? How old was he? Amalthea; 11/12 4) Who commissioned the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian? Cardinal Maffeo Barberini 5) Which famous artist apparently influenced the St. Sebastian and St. Lawrence? Michelangelo 6) What are the four famous statues that Bernini made for Cardinal Borghese? What are the literary sources from which Bernini drew the subjects of these works? Aeneas and Anchises; Pluto and Persephone; Apollo and Daphne; David; Aeneid, mythology 7) What is the work that we have studied earlier in this course and that Bernini imitates in his Aeneas and Anchises? Raphael's Fire in the Borgo 8) What is the main difference between Bernini’s characterization of his David and that of Michelangelo’s David? Bernini's David is in battle 9) Pp. 68 and 115: How does Hibbard describe Bernini’s status during the papacy of Urban VIII? a very prosperous relationship for Bernini 10) What were the main challenges in making the Baldachin? And how did Bernini and his patron overcome these challenges? not enough bronze; design; stole the gold from the Pantheon; 11) In which part of St. Peter’s Basilica does the Baldachin stand? over the altar of St. Peter's Basilica, at the center of the crossing, directly under the dome of the basilica 12) What are the heraldic symbols of the Barberini family that we can find on the Baldachin (p. 79)? the Barberini family's coat of arms; bees 13) What is, according to Hibbard, the symbolic significance of Bernini’s statue of Matilda of Tuscany? (See also the papal tiara and the key that she holds in her left hand). insight into Urban VIII; bolstered the temporal authority of the popes 14) What do the female figures sculpted on the Tomb of Urban VIII personify? Charity and Justice
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