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by: N3koKikyu

STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 3 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002

GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Here is the Study Guide for EXAM 3!! Last one till the final! Happy Studying!!
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Keith D Renshaw (P)
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by N3koKikyu on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002 at George Mason University taught by Keith D Renshaw (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 12/03/15
Tuesday, December 1, 2015 Psychology 100 Exam 3 Study Guide Emotion - Basic Emotions—(6 basic emotions recognized through all cultures) anger, fear, sadness, happiness, surprise, and disgust. - Theories of Emotion: • Common Sense View—there is an event and then the emotion and then there is a physiological and cognitive reactions. • James-Lange—Events lead to physiological reactions which leads us to experience emotion. Each emotion has their own unique physiological arousal. • Cannon-Bard— Event leads to a simultaneous physiological and emotional response. • Schachter & Singer Two-Factor Theory— Even triggers a physiological response (arousal) then you look to external cues to explain the arousal, and finally feeling emotion. • Cognitive Theory— Event occurs, we interpret the event, and it’s our thoughts about the event that leads to emotions. Disorders - General Characteristics: “4 D’s” • 1. Deviance—different from the norm. • 2. Distress— should cause some kind of distress to the person. • 3. Dysfunction— not able to function in all areas in a healthy way. • 4. Dangerousness—danger to the person or to others. - Theoretical Perspectives: • Psychodynamic—unconscious conflict. • Behavior/Learning—Maladaptive learning patterns. • Cognitive— Maladaptive thoughts. 1 Tuesday, December 1, 2015 • Biomedial—Biological dysfunction. • Biopsychosocial— Biological dysfunction + internal psychological process + social environment. - Classification: • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) • International Classification of Diseases- Mental and Behavioral Disorders (ICD) - Both above are categorical. - No etiology—description of how something develops. - Behavioral criteria—observable or recordable symptoms. - Advantages/Disadvantages: it’s an imperfect system. - Anxiety Disorders • Anxiety exists on a continuum. - Severity, dysfunction. - Dysfunction: often from avoidance. Behavioral Model • - Anxiety can be learned, classically conditioned. - Avoidance reduces anxiety—negative reinforcement. • Cognitive model - Overestimation of threat, catastrophic thinking. • Psychodynamic Model - Stems from unconscious conflict. • Biomedical Model - Stems from problems in nervous system. - Anxiety Disorders: Phobias • Specific phobia: fear an object. 2 Tuesday, December 1, 2015 • Social Phobia: fear social situations/interactions. - Anxiety Disorders: Panic Disorder • emotional, physiological, cognitive • Agoraphobia—avoidance of places where might have panic attack. - OCD • Obsession— repetitive, unwanted, thoughts or images, urges. Compulsion— repetitive behavior that is generally thought to alleviate anxiety that • comes from the obsession. - PTSD • Re-experiencing/Intrusion— when you have intrusive thoughts/memories/ flashbacks that make you feel like you are back in that moment of trauma. • Avoidance— avoiding things that remind you of the trauma. • Negative mood and cognitions— emotional numbness, lack feeling. Won’t think too much into future, social withdraw. • Hyperarousal—very jumpy, trouble sleeping, irritable, and on constant alert. - Depression • Mood— predominantly sadness. • Appetite, sleep— increase or decrease. • Thinking, Behavior—negative thoughts, thoughts of suicide, or passive thinking about death. Behaviorally, withdrawing from others, don’t enjoy things they used to. • Spontaneous remission (average 6-9 months to go away). - Major Depressive Disorder • Symptoms last for at least two weeks. - Dysthymia • Less severe symptoms. • Longer duration (2 years). - Bipolar Disorder 3 Tuesday, December 1, 2015 • Mood— feeling great, feeling irritable. • Sleep— lack of need for sleep (yet still energetic). • Thinking, Behavior— flight of ideas or loose associations. Impulsive and high risk behaviors. - Cyclothymia • Hypomania Personality Disorders - Egosyntonic— something feels like it’s part of yourself. In sync with your ego. - Egodystonic—something that is NOT a part of yourself. - Clusters: • Anxious—avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive. • Odd— schizoid (no motivation to be around other people, schizotypal (similar to schizophrenia) paranoid. • Dramatic— antisocial, histronic, narcissistic, borderline. - Dissociative Disorders • Dissociation—disruption in awareness of reality. - Dissociative Amnesia— develop amnesia with no physical reason. - Dissociative Fugue—person has break in awareness of who they are, but also relocates to another place and assumes a new identity, but withouth knowing what’s happening. - DID— alters, one is not aware of others, NOT SCHIZOPHRENIA. - Schizophrenia • Positive Symptoms - psychosis—complete disconnect from reality. - Hallucinations—sensations of things that aren’t there. - Delusions—beliefs that aren’t real. 4 Tuesday, December 1, 2015 - Disorganized thoughts, behaviors, speech. - Inapprpriate effect— emotion that doesn’t fit the situation. • Negative Symptoms - Flat affect—lack of emotion - decrease motivation - Catatonia—complet lack of response in muscle movement, vocal, and eye movement. Therapies - Biomedical Therapy • Drug Treatments for Anxiety - Benzodiazepines (enhance GABA activity). - Beta Blockers (inhibit binding to beta receptors). • Drug Treatments for Depression - Most involve increasing serotonin activity. - Most common: Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors. • Drug Treatments for Schizophrenia (psychosis) - Antipsychotics. - Dopamine blockers. • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) - Serious Side Effects - Can be effective for depression—most typically used when other treatments fail. - Psychodynamic Therapy • Ultimate goal—bring unconscious material into conscious awareness. • Insight leads to catharsis (emotional release). • Therapist should be “blank slate” 5 Tuesday, December 1, 2015 • Free association (eventually reach unconscious), dream analysis, hypnosis. - Humanistic Therapy • Client-centered • Reflected-listening: no direction, interpretation—let the client lead the way. - Behavior Therapy • Treating Anxiety - Gradual Exposure. - Flooding. • Treating Depression - Build positive reinforcers back into everyday life. • Treating Behavior Problems - Behavior modification (token economy): system of rewards for desired behaviors. - Cognitive Therapy • Goal—change emotions and behaviors by changing thoughts. • Evaluate thoughts “like a scientist” - rate how “true” the thought is Perceptions & Attributions - Perceptions of others • self-fulfilling prophecy • “Halo Effect” — once you have a positive idea about someone you assume all things are positive about them. - Perceptions of self • False Consensus Effect— we assume that people agree with us, even if there are facts disproving it, you still believe you are correct and people agree with you. • Overestimation of Self— vast majority of people rate themselves above average. 6 Tuesday, December 1, 2015 • Cognitive Dissonance— change in attitude after engaging in attitude-discrepant behavior. - Attributions • Internal/External—do you see the behavior as coming from within a person or from the situation? • Stable/Unstable—are they always like that? • Controllable/Uncontrollable—can they control their behavior or was it out of their control? - Actor/ Observer Bias • Actor: external, unstable, uncontrollable. • Observer: internal, stable, control (Fundamental Attribution Error). - Self-Serving Bias • Success: internal, stable, controllable. • Failure: external, unstable, uncontrollable. Influence of Others - Conformity—changing your behavior to fit with others without overt pressure. • Research: Asch (What makes us conform)? • 1. feel incompetent/insecure • 2. At least 3 people in the group. • 3. Group is unanimous. • 4. Admire status. • 5. No prior commitment. • 6. Others can respond. - Obedience— perform behavior because you are told to. • Research: Milgram’s - Power of Social influence. 7 Tuesday, December 1, 2015 - Role of Authority • Research: Zimbardo - Wanted to look at social roles, he created a fake prison environment where he randomly selected people to be prisoners or guards (for two weeks). Fake arrested the prisoners and had to obey the guards. In five days, everything had out of control. Prisoners were planning riots, doing hunger strikes, guards were using force. So they had to cancel it. - Bystander Effect— the more people there are that see something bad happen, the less likely anyone is to do something about it. - Groupthink—everyone agrees, even if they may disagree, in order to keep the peace. - Self Loafing— tendency to put forth less effort when they are in the group. - Group Polarization —if you have a bunch of people who only weakly lean toward one direction - ProSocial Behavior • Empathy-altruism— we feel empathy for others and have a desire to help someone else. • Negative State Relief— we see someone in need it makes us feel bad, so we try to help them to make us feel better. - Persuasion • What influences a successful persuasion? - source (expertise, credibility), pre-existing beliefs, delivery of message. Attraction - Factors • Physical features • Similarity— more attracted to people who seem similar to you. Reciprocity—we like people who do things for us. • • Proximity — the closer someone is the more attractive you find them. 8 Tuesday, December 1, 2015 - Matching Hypothesis—people tend to end up with other people who are roughly similar levels of attractiveness. - Love - Passionate (romantic)—An intense longing we feel for a person, accompanied by physiological arousal; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstasy, but when it’s not, we feel sadness and despair. - Companionate— The intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person, but do not experience passion or arousal in the person’s presence. 9


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