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PSY2012 Study Guide for Exam #4

by: Stefanie Villiotis

PSY2012 Study Guide for Exam #4 PSY 2012

Marketplace > Florida State University > Psychlogy > PSY 2012 > PSY2012 Study Guide for Exam 4
Stefanie Villiotis
GPA 4.0
General Psychology

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About this Document

Study guide for exam 4 contains applications to each concept through scenarios. Charts, graphs, and diagrams included.
General Psychology
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stefanie Villiotis on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2012 at Florida State University taught by in Spring 2013. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 12/03/15
PSY2012 Study Guide Exam 4 Personality Characteristic patterns of thinking feeling amp behaving Nomothetic Identi es general laws that govern behavior of all individuals good generalizability ldiographic Identi es the unique characteristics and life history of one individual case studies 3 Major Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory 1 Unconscious motivation 2 Psychic determinism quotwe aren t free to choose our actions because we re at the mercy of powerful inner forces that lie outside of our awarenessquot 3 Symbolic meaning Structure of Personality Id ghts for manifestation and satisfaction of unconscious psychic energy Driven by quotpleasure principlequot The id is INSTINCTIVE and UNSOCIALIZED Superego lnternalized rules and ideals pressed upon us Conscience Ego The decision maker reality principle Trait A relatively stable predisposition to feel and act in a certain way Personality is composed of many different TRAITS EX A Dictionary search for words that one might use to describe people found a total of over 17000 terms Conscious mind present awareness Preconseinuis I39I39Iill39ld outside awareness but accessible Unconscious mind not a ecessi b l a THE FIVE FACTOR MODEL Openness to Experience imaginative intellectualsimpe downtoearth Conscientiousness Cautious responsible efficientlrresponsible lazy impulsive Extraversion Sociable assertive outgoing Reserved quiet re ective Agreeableness Goodnatured sympathetic helpful Irritable rude demanding Neuroticism Nervous anxious moodyCam composed stable exible 3 Components to Social Cognitive Theory Reciprocal Determinism 1 Personality Emotional and Cognitive Factors 2 Environment 3 Behavior External Locus of Control quotI m controlled by my environmentquot Internal Locus of Control quotI m able to control my environmentquot Emotion Conscious evaluative reaction to some event Mood Feeling state not clearly linked to some event Affect Automatic response goodbad dimension Discrete Emotions Theory Primary Emotions combine to form secondary emotions alarm fear surprise hatred anger disgust Displaying Emotion Display rules how and when to express emotion cultural differences power differences gender differences Old View of Emotion o Emotions are bidimensional o Arousal high vs low 0 Valence pleasant vs unpleasant 0 Effect of behavior depends on these New View of Emotion 0 Domain speci city effect of emotion is dependent upon speci c emotion Emotion serves to motivate behavior Disgust avoid disease Sadness seek social support Sexual arousal nd a romantic partner OOOO o Love maintain relationship Major Theories of Emotion a JamesLange Theory of Emotion Stimulus l Physiological Arousal l Emotion b CannonBard Theory of Emotion Stimulus l Physiological Arousal Emotion C TWO FACTOR SCHACTERSINGER THEORY Motivation Physiological needs or desires that energize or direct behavior Ex food sleep sex DRIVEREDUCTION THEORY Physiological Aim HOMEOSTASIS equilibrium maintaining a balanced or constant state HOMEOSTASIS to sustain life certain substances and characteristics of the body must be kept within a restricted range not to high or low INTRINSIC MOTIVATION people are motivated by internal goals EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION people are motivated by external goals MASLOW S HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS Self Actualisation Pursue inner Talent Creativity Fulfilment SelfEsteem Achievement Mastery Recognition Respect Belonging Love Friends Family Spouse Lover Safety Security Stability Freedom From Fear Physiological Food Water Shelter Warmth m Identifying psychologically disordered behavior Abnormality Abnormal different from the norm unusual statistically atypical 0 Culture 0 Not all abnormal phenomena are bad 0 Abnormal behavior may be psychologically disordered if it causes signi cant distress Statistical Deviance The de ning characteristic is uncommon behavior a signi cant deviation from the averagemajority Many human characteristics are normally distributed Subjective Distress aka Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale is a The individual self assesses where they are on the scale Dvsfunctional Behavior aka abnormality in the vivid sense of something deviating from the normal or differing from the typical is a subjectively de ned behavioral characteristic assigned to those with rare or dysfunctional conditions U m E Classi es psychological disorderssyndromes DSM5 is the CURRENT edition Groups disorders by category checklist of observable symptoms Criticisms high level or u I reliance of categorical rather than dimensional model of psychopathology Eateurieal Elasailiisalim tree saline person have a I s hiiglllriltititl preesum L r i r lilo lfimarisaional i l ifi n Where magma paint tiled i i i pressure iallorn g a EIiI39TIiIIIlFIlillLlilill39l I r AnXIEt I measurement l D39Sorders i w r w Exaggeratlon of THREAT Results in distressing persistent anxiety May 7 lead to maladaptive anxietyreducing behaviors GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER Continually tense and uneasy even in the absence of any speci c anxiety provoking stimulus Restlessness easily fatigued irritability PANIC DISORDER Panic attacks Intense fear Frightening physiological symptoms Agoraphobia Phobias Intense fear of an animal object or situation Recurrent and persistent distresscausing thoughts obsessions Repetitive behaviors driven by the obsession compulsions Ex Contamination Symmetry Orderliness Sexual imagery washingcleaning arranging countingrepetition Exposed to a traumatic event and reacted with intense fear helplessness or horror Reexperiences trauma through 0 Distressing recollectionsdreams 0 Feeling of reliving trauma 0 Intense distressphysiological arousal when exposed to reminders Mood Disorders psychological disorders characterized by lasting disturbance in mood extreme emotions depression mania Major Depressive Disorder Depressive episodes major changes in sleep patterns weight level loss of interest in pleasurable activities anhedonia Clinical depression goes beyond this reaction Depression Mania Depressed mood Elevated mood Can t get enough sleep Doesn t need sleep No movementtalking Always movingtalking Cloudyno thoughts Too many thoughts Loss of interest pleasure Too much interest pleasure Bipolar Disorder opposite emotional extreme of depression alternating between depression and mania Explanations for Major Depressive Disorder BehavioralBiological Model sees depression resulting from low rate of positive reinforcement in environment Ex Engage in pleasurable activities even when you don39t want to to create positive reinforces Aaron Beck s Cognitive Model Negative Thoughts D Negative Moods Cognitive Triad depressed thinking stems from negative thoughts about self world future Negative Depressogenic Ex quotnothing will work out for mequot GLOBAL quotI won t ever be able to changequot STABLE quotThings haven t been working out for me it must be my faultquot INTERNAL Learned Helplessness Tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we can t control or feel we can t control 3 Components of Interpersonal Theory of Suicide quotI don39t feel a L f 7 connected to L quotPeople would Othersquot be better off if u l were gonequot ll Thwarted Desire for 3 belongingness suicide I iLI l El IE i n Suicide lamnlme iamuiiimien Develops over time 7 39 L 39 g 4 through apatiilityr experience of mm V T expose to painful i 7 I hall or nearlethal suicide atIiEm Prevention Activities that foster connectedness effectiveness feelings of selfef cacy Decrease burdensomeness and increase belongingness Interpersonal coping skills Longterm pattern of manipulating exploiting or violating the rights of others Must meet diagnostic criteria for Conduct Disorder as a child Key Symptoms m engages in Law breaking behavior Impulsive behavior Physical ghts StealingLying Breaking and entering Marked by unstable moods behavior and relationships People with BPD often have Problems regulating emotions and thoughts Impulsive and reckless behavior Unstable relationships with other people Comorbidity with depression anxiety substance abuse eating disorders selfharm suicidal behaviors and completed suicides Schizophrenia Autism ASD Disorder of thought and emotion associated with loss of contact with reality Delusions strongly held xed beliefs with no basis in reality Hallucinations sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of external stimuli Positive and Negative Symptoms f presence citquot preblematic behesiers behaviprs Plat affect incl emcticnrni shciwing in the face Reduced scciel interecticin einhedlpnie inc feeling cuf39 enjiciymentl seclinen less mcitieeticrn initiative fcicus clan tasks Allegie speaking less Cetatcunie n nipping less llellucineticnns illusan percepticnns ESFJEElEJlW auditch Delusions llii lluscirilr beliefs ESDEElEJlW p ers ecuth w Discargenized 39thcnugi hit encll ncnsensicel speech Bieerre ibeheeicurs De cits in social communication amp social interaction Restricted repetitive patterns of behavior interests or activities Present in early development Causes clinically signi cant impairment Not better explained by intellectual disability or global developmental delay DiathesisStress Models Biopsychosocial Model Biological in uences Psychological influences evolution stress I individual genes I trauma I brain structure and chemistry learned helplessness 39 moodrelated perceptions and memories Psychological disrder 39 i Socialcullturall influences roles expectations I definitions of normalityand disorder Psychotherapy A psychological intervention designed to help people resolve emotional behavioral and interpersonal problems and improve the quality of their lives GOAL IS TO EXPAND AWARENESS OR INSIGHT Psychotherapies PSYCHODYNAMIC Causes of abnormal behavior stem from traumatic or adverse childhood experiences anayze avoided thoughtsfeelingsfantasies and past HUMANISTIC emphasis on human potential human nature is positive assuming responsibility for our lives and living PERSONCENTERED FAMILY BEHAVIOR COGNITIVE BEST THERAPY cient s goals and solving problems ensure positive outcome by being authentic and genuine unconditiona positive regard Strategic family interventions remove barriers to communicate Structura family therapy has therapist immerse herself in family to change things confrontation counterconditioning Exposure therapy desensitization exposure to anxiety stimuli Ex PHOBIC DISORDER TREATMENT expores problems of thinking and behaving encourage client to purge irrational negativity behave in moodincongruent waysbehavioral activation Depression Cognitive Interpersonal Psychotherapy Antidepressant medication SSRl s Anxiety Cognitive Behavior Therapy Cognitive change thought process Behavior changing behaviors KEY EXPOSURE Bene ts 4 everyone Hope for demoralized people New perspective Healthy relationship Trust listening caring Psychopharmacotherapy DRUGS CURE U Work by altering brain chemistry Antianxiety Reduce CNS activity Antidepressant boost neurotransmitters that elevate arousal and mood 10


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