Study Guide Psych150
Popular in Psychology of FlimFlam
Popular in Psychlogy
This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christopher Moench on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych150 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Dr. Pratkanis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Psychology of FlimFlam in Psychlogy at University of California - Santa Cruz.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Nov. 3 LIES AND DECEPTION OBJECTIVES: I. State how to tell a lie. II. Discuss why liars often get away with lying and how to catch a liar. Example of a spiritualist & lying/deception: spiritualist will secretly steal a valuable personal item from a follower and then months later if the same follower continually attends and meets the spiritualist, the spiritualist will go to the person and praise “god” or some other reason for answering their prayers of a “lost” item and then have the stolen item be “magically” returned to the owner by falling into their lap as if by miracle. Thus giving the spiritualist more authority and power over the believer. Aka “crappy magic trick” A lie is made to convince you of something There are 7 principles used to construct an effective lie; thus giving you the excuse “comes from magic” because the lie is known but is unexplainable. 1. Have Misdirection of Attention: Distract away from what you need to do. Be relaxed while telling a lie, don’t bring up tension because people will see it Don’t be nervous or show physical stress/tension such as clenching your fists or shuffling around or touching the back of your neck Be in charge of directing attention to where you want it and don’t want it Ex: point with your left hand at some random object to cause a distraction from viewers thus freeing your right hand to whatever you want to do with it. Projection tactic: blame someone else for what you are doing wrong. o Ex: the prisoner’s dilemma game study: people watched players of a board game accuse each other of cheating, the one who cheated the most was also the person who blamed others as cheating the most. Accuser was the cheater. o Projection allows you to get off the hook by distracting people by tricking them that you are concerned about the problem because you brought it up first and thus letting you hide behind a moral shield of trying to be fair when it is actually your way of not getting caught. 2. Create perceptual and/or Cognitive Illusions: Cognitive biases examples: projection or representative heuristics (like goes with like, ex. You are sick with a yellow face and you ate a yellow banana thus bananas are bad) Perceptual illusions such as mystery spots where you drive along a road and if you put the car in neutral it will move on its own. The reason for this phenomena is that road looks like an uphill due to the surrounding scenery but in reality it is a downhill thus gravity brings the neutral car down the hill. As from before, using morality or any other shield to save yourself from being questioned and sought as the reason for blame, aka having “outs” which are explanations or made up excuses to explain away suspicion. 3. Distort the Time Frame: Lie before or after the event/trick takes place Ex: psychics usually have something called preshow: preshow is a time before the show that gives the psychic to get ready. But also is one way for the psychic to gain information about his/her viewers by having employees of the psychic to go around and hang out with the audience and get to know some audience members without revealing they work for the psychic. Thus the underlings/employees can provide uncanny information to the psychic who then uses that information during the show to awe the viewers into believing the psychic is genuine. Do the lie before you tell it, allows people to misremember the deed and of what took place. 4. Camouflage the Lie and the Liar: Blend the lie with fluff and cover it with the truth. Make it look “natural and normal” Make the lie passable and as real as possible Make it seem legit by having the truth with it 5. Pace the Lie for Good Effect: Slow down and speed up the lie for effect Ex of slowing a lie (loan scam is the lie): in a loan scam they will give money like a real loan and have a signed contract for a number of years on how much to pay back. So a fixed interest rate for 12 years with manageable payments and then after those two years are finished the scammers will demand the full sum to be paid back with added charges that exponentially increases the amount of money owed. o So here the lie is slowed for two years as a real loan but then at the end it balloons and demands for large sums that the borrower was unaware of. Ex of speeding up a lie (still using loan scam): when the scammers have the borrower sign the contracts they allow the borrower all the time they need to sign every document, which most scammers will have a mountain of useless documents of laws and regulations and other useless jargon to fill the borrower’s head and to distract them while signing the important parts of the contract. For added effect they even might employ a tactic of guilt such as having someone call their phone and the scammer will say “hey son, oh you just finished soccer practice and you missed the bus so you need me to come get you? Okay, I will after I finish with this client. Love you, bye.” Then the scammer will explain and engage in side chitchat that their child is on the school soccer team etc. saying that they are great athletes and very outgoing good kids etc. While the borrower feels bad about making the scammer wait, the borrower will begin to sign the documents faster without thoroughly reading all the terms and conditions. Thus falling prey to the scam. 6. Use Patten (words) to Mislead: Convince people of your lie with words, jargon, babble, technobabble that supposedly explains some effect Use side conversations to distract them acting as if whatever they are explaining to you is the first time you have ever heard of it. Ex of misleading to have people buy a product: ground beef now 97% fat free! Sounds more appealing than “ground beef only 3% fat” even though it is the same thing Ex of word play: “Fresh Frozen” a redundant term to sound appealing. All frozen food is frozen fresh because otherwise the food would be rotten and you cannot sell rotten frozen food. Use patter/jargon to set up tricks and to conceal lies and to explain away how things are done 7. Make it Impossible to See/Find the Truth: Get rid of props/gimmicks/devices that can be used to do the trick/lie Have off limit/restricted areas to hide your explanations If you give a lie or some device make sure that they do not ask to deeply or too much about how something is done or works or allow them to try to figure it out themselves by saying it will break or not work Ex: I sell a device that supposedly cures cancer and I sell it to people and I say that it is an electron detector that uses radio waves to detect and cure cancer by emitting a high frequency that oscillates at nearly undetectable speeds thus affecting cancer cells and causing them to implode from within an spurs the growth of normal healthy cells to take their place (patter). But since the device is extremely sensitive I also tell buyers that it is best they not open it up to see how it works otherwise it will damage the device and not be able to work properly anymore. II. Liars Get Away with the Lie, Why? It’s hard to prove a lie. Control the control(as in a experiment) Set a high bar of tolerance to pass the lie detector(figuratively and literally) People are bad at telling lies and the truth Most people give the benefit of the doubt to others when accused of lying which leads to people being hurt You get cynicism(everyone’s a liar) but not skepticism (he/she is lying) People are uncomfortable at exposing liars, breaks friendships and trust How can you catch a liar? Simple. Ask 3 questions. o 1) What else can it be? o 2) So what…? So what would that mean if it were true? o 3) What is happening? What is there then? What happens next if...? NOV.5 CULTS AND COLLECTIVE DELUSIONS I. Describe the psychological principles underlying social contagions. II. Define and describe the relationship found in a cult. III. Describe how to become a cult member. 1. Social Contagions Groups magnify flimflam(aka b.s.) and social influence Social contagionbelief/practice that goes through society like wildfire and everyone is talking about it or doing it. A new fad or trend. Ex: shuffling, ice bucket challenge, fad diets What causes fads? trends follow an “s” curve that is slow to begin with and few people do and then it rapidly rises and almost everyone is now doing it and then it dies off. Social conformity and social consensuseveryone does something to fit in Grows geometrically A contagion deals with psychological needs ex making a fashion statement “junebug” study women working at a mill are hit with this “junebug” and have crazy hysterical reactions screaming and scratching and jerking around all because the cloth they were working with was supposedly infested with “junebugs” from another country. o People who acted with hysteria had two main causes o 1) had a friend who had “junebug” o 2)were women under extreme stress and emotional turmoil o The “junebug” was their socially acceptable reason to release that tension and stress with screaming and hysteria Dr. Albert Abrams’ Quackery o Video ex of contagion: Dr. Abrams was alive during advancing science with many new innovations in things such as telegraphs, xrays, electricity, radio etc. o He used his credentials for authority; used the mysticism of electricity and radio to make his detect and cure all diseases device seem legitimate. o His device was “able” to analyze and detect any disease from a drop of blood, thus he became famous overnight. o People were willing to accept his devices because of the representative heuristic; it looked like a radio thus giving it credibility as a device that worked. o Dr. Abrams used technobabble to appeal to people’s wishful thinking that his device can cure them o He had doctors pay $200 to buy his device as well as how to use it. This created cognitive dissonance within the doctors who bought it because they now had to believe it was money well spent and that it did indeed cure their patients otherwise they would be frauds. o Thus doctors used selfgenerated persuasion to believe the device worked. o Phantom fixation of being cured was also used. o When the device was put to the test, it was completely inaccurate and wrong. Yet, the doctor always had an excuse and explanation for why it did not work. o Then when it was still wrong the doctor used projection blaming the skeptics that they were just trying to ruin his name and steal his ideas. o Once Dr. Abrams died of pneumonia, it was ironic that his device was unable to detect his illness nor cure it, the device was proven to be a sham. II. Cults Members of a group who have a high degree of dependency upon group/leader for resources such as food, money, selfesteem, selfidentity, information, motivation etc. Cults usually control such resources and control information and decision making Cults usually place members in isolation from the world to control the info members receive When you are a member you have a social identity which gives you selfesteem and warps your thinking that the group is good Creates ingroup/outgroup mentality, us vs. them. Which creates a rationalization trap. Cults create a pattern of social relationships 1. How does one join or get recruited? No one joins a cult; people join groups that have a “special mission” such as spreading peace throughout the world etc. “find the true god” etc. some phantom fixation(unattainable goal) Another example of getting people join is called “heavenly deception” in which sinners are going to die so the group deceives you or tricks you into sinning and you join to either repent or to be “saved” People who are unsure of themselves and have experienced failures, hardships, and difficult/traumatic life experiences and the group makes them feel special and even helps them out if they are in a tight spot. The group gives you a new identity thus having you be more committed, also the group will use footinthedoor tactics and norms of reciprocity and other persuasion tactics to get the new member more involved and committed to the cause. Have new member participate in group bondings and use made up jargon to make them feel special Create dissonance by having the new members do foolish things that create rationalization traps in which they reason why they did something is because they really are a part of the group. Note: A table was given in class on characteristics between Deliberate Persuasion and Propaganda which I have recreated here below with my added notes on certain points. These are patterns that are seen in most social groups. Deliberative Persuasion (Democratic Propaganda (Cults) Group) 1. Coparticipation of leader in discovering 1. Predetermined solution by ruling elite members solutions of group or leader 2. Authority is used to stimulate discussion 2. Authority is used to induce acceptance of predetermined solution 3. A system of checks and balances placed on 3. Leader behavior is not constrained by rules or power of leader and group members other group members, meaning leader has free rein over what to do 4. Reciprocity of influence between leaders and 4. Unidirectional influence from elites, single members; multiple independent of sources of source or colluding sources of information information 5. Decentralized communication structures 5. Centralized communication structures: only one person says what to do 6. Flexible group boundaries and roles that allow 6. Rigid group boundaries and social roles to limit additional resources to be obtained to solve discussion and options problems Ex: In group vs outgroup, social roles, assigned levels of power, clear cut gender roles 7. Minority opinion is encouraged as a means of 7. Minority opinion is censored via neglect, obtaining a better decision; feedback is ridicule, social pressure, or persecution; feedback encouraged is discouraged, a lot of coercion is present 8. Agenda, objectives, and work tasks set through 8. Agenda, objectives and work tasks are set by group discussion elites only 9. Rewards are used to move group towards 9. Rewards are used to maintain group structure objectives and leaders’ status and power 10. Persuasion based on debate, discussion, and a 10. Persuasion based on simple images, careful consideration of options; persuasion as prejudices, and the playing on emotions; discovery persuasion as communication NOV 10 SELLING NOSTRADAMUS Objectives I. Reveal the secrets of Nostradamus, What the Discovery Channel doesn’t want you to know. II. Describe and discuss how the mass media sells flimflam with the examples Nostradamus Decoded Going to explore prthhecies of the most famous, Nostradamus and watch Nostradamus Decoded Who is he? – a 6 century Frenchman, he wrote over 400 books of prophecies called quatrains He made tons of predictions and was a doctor who treated plague victims What do people claim about him? He is one of the most famous prophets who “predicted” the future. o Ex: Beasts wild with hunger will cross the rivers, The greater part of the battle will be against Hitler. He will cause great men to be dragged in a cage of iron, When the son of Germany obeys no law. John Houge makes a living off of selling interpretations of Nostradamus’s quatrains Ex: Houge claims Nostradamus predicted three antichrists with Pau Nay Loron=Napoleon, Hister=Hitler, and Mabus as an unknown person for now 1. Rules of the Prophecy Game by James Randi Rule 1: Make lots of predictions and hope some come true. The ones that do come true you brag about, the ones that didn’t, they never happened. Rule 2: Be vague and ambiguous, “possible” items can always be reinterpreted. Use modifiers such as “I feel…”, “look for…”, “I see a picture of…”. “perhaps…”, “I am getting…” etc. Rule 3: Use symbolism. Be metaphorical, using images of animals, names, initials. Things that can be easily fitted to man situations. Rule 4: Cover situations both ways and select a winner as the “real” intent of your statement. Rule 5: Credit God with your successes and say your failures are our mistakes. Make people have to fight with God so that they will not bother you. Rule 6: No matter how often you are wrong, plow ahead. The believers won’t notice your mistakes, and will continue to follow your every word. Rule 7: Predict catastrophes; they are more easily remembered and more popular by far. Rule 8: When predicting after the fact, but representing the prophecy as preceding the event, be wrong just enough to appear uncertain about the exact details, too good a prophecy is suspect. The video from the 90s shows the world possibly ending in 2000 its 2015 lol Nostradamus Decoded video shows how translating ancient French is basically really ambiguous and can have multiple meanings Poems with astrology and ambiguous terms that have rhythm “become” cryptic and compelling Excuse that the writings were obscure for protection and used “random codes” allowing for loose interpretations Nostradamus became famous because he predicted that the French king would die and it happened in the same location or same interpretation of location of his prophecy. NOV 12 ECONOMIC FRAUD CRIME Objectives: I. Describe how economic fraud crimes work. II. Discuss other classic fraud scams. Ex: 3 card monty a card game that uses only three cards that are placed face down and you need to guess which one is the Ace thus winning the money while the other two cards are cheap lame cards and if you pick either one of those you lose. Tap dancing or throwing the bubble are phrases that are used to describe when the dealer does some low key card switch and distracts you by either pointing at other things or certain cards or shuffles them in weird fancy and dramatic ways to distract your attention. Who are victims of fraud? Most victims tend to be successful, intelligent, achievement oriented people There is about $100 billion lost to economic fraud a year General themes of economic fraud are lottery fraud, investment fraud, and charity fraud Scammers will usually watch for big events on the news to use to their advantage with timeshares and travel scams Many examples of scams/frauds have you pay money in order to cash in or collect the prize Most people called by scammers are on a mouch/sucker list which is a list of likely to be victims An old proverb from my mom (note taker’s mom not professors’) “if it’s too good to be true, it ain’t” Social influence and persuasion tactics used are phantom fixation, social proof, authority, and scarcity Phantom fixationsomething you like and can’t help but want even if you know you probably won’t get it Social proof look at all these other prize winners from before; totally not fake or made up with photo shop, when you see pictures of winners that look like regular people you think you have a chance to win as well. Also you see social consensus with that these people also must have been happy with the results then so will I. Authority con artists will play any role especially over the phone such as being with the IRS, US government, or any other authority figure they think will win you over. That way you trust them. Scarcity last chance mentality, time pressure, this offer won’t last long, other people are waiting, could be your last chance. Compliance and social relations tactics: reciprocity, similarity, consistency, contrast all makes your sales pitch look good Cons hone in on emotional weaknesses and use personal info against you such as familial relations etc o Ex: conman calls every day and talks with victim to learn about weaknesses and then starts even sending gifts to help with their problems thus getting something back in return and takes advantage. Awareness of fraud helps protect against it, seems obvious right! Another tip: to fight their influence check yourself emotionally, if you begin to feel anything ask why, immediately question your emotions because emotions cloud your judgment, and the best option when feeling emotionally biased is to leave the situation by either hanging up or walking away, if neither is possible then begin thinking step by step what is being asked and why Sometimes conmen use intimidation such as IRS etc as a fear appeal to get you to follow their orders There is no profile of a fraud victim, everyone is targeted, Seniors are targeted the most because they usually have money since they are retired Personality can predict what types of fraud you are more likely to fall prey too. The longer you talk on the phone with a conman the more likely you will fall prey to them They also target people who have experienced recent lost or life stresses. They tailor their pitches just for you which is why so many people fall prey to them If you think someone is being conned don’t lecture them, ask them to ask for proof of service through some kind of organization depending on what the con is trying to sell. Ask and check, google or call the Feds to know if it is legitimate Last example for economic fraud: How to sell the Eiffel Tower! o King Con Count Lestigen o The Count played as an authority figure as working for the Parisian Government o He created a phantom story, selling of the Eiffel Tower o Created an identity as a government official all dressed up and resided in special hotels reserved for the wealthy and government o He approached scrap metal contractors and held a secret meeting to create scarcity and secrecy o With the other contractors present he created social consensus that it was legit and important o Wanted to sell the tower and have it used for parts because the city could no longer pay for the tower and it was supposed to be decommissioned a few years ago anyways o He talked individually with each contractor to see who was the most likely to fall prey to his scheme o He always looked interested and listened to everything and never bragged about himself o He picked the contractor who was new to fame and wanted to be among the elites of his peers, thus the ambitious guy got picked and suckered o To really make the con seem legit the count even asked for a bribe to make the scrap contractor more at ease because the belief was that the government officials were not completely honest men o The count’s backstory now seemed more legit and since the target wants to also believe in the con it becomes more believable o Con man wins the day and the rich victim was too embarrassed to bring it up allowing the con to sell the Eiffel Tower a second time! Like a Boss lol. NOV 17 HELP YOURSELF TO OTHER PEOPLE’S MONEY: MENTAL HEALTH QUACKERY I. Construct a flimflam (bullcrap) analysis to investigate crazy psychotherapies How can you tell a quack therapy from a real one? Quacks always have one idea/technique that cures everything Technique usually has no real evidence Learn about principles and then apply it. Boulder model uses real evidence/science to solve issues. Quackeries are usually simple to do and supposedly fixes everything As a clinician it is easier to use a cure all and have you “fix” your patient because it is easy money and the cure seems vague enough that the patient will buy into it Using fake therapies take no effort and assigns the role of being the victim to the patient giving them an excuse in life instead of getting better Ex: “attachment therapies” –your parents sucked as parents and now you have bad attachment issues, to cure these issues you have to fix these relationships with your parents and others who “affected” you. Ex: age regression: you become “hypnotize” and then go back to being a little kid to relive childhood moments but better than when you first experienced them. Ex: reparenting: you grew up with bad relationships with your parents, and now the therapist will take on the role as your parent to reparent you with a kinder and more stable environment. Ex: rebirthing: your life sucks because when you were born it was warm and snuggly and then it was cold and loud and not a happy beginning. The world is shitty and if you “restart” your life it might be better if you come rebirth again into a warmer healthier environment. The excuse it gives to people is that they had “a bad birth” even though if they had a bad birth then they would almost have died etc. Reason this therapy is basically nonexistent now is because a young girl was going through this therapy and she was wrapped in a carpet and had people sit on her to feel like she was in the womb but the weight was too much for her and they crushed her to death. Talk about a bad birth. All these therapies are all crap and do not work. Therapy should strive to make the patient independent and fullyfunctioning human being. “Cathartic” therapy letting go of bad emotions which we know does not work such as hitting the bobo doll (punching doll) to let out aggression. It actually makes you more aggressive by teaching you reinforcing behaviors of committing more aggressive acts when certain situations arise. Mystic Rose therapy fits of laughter and crying, carrying out dolls around to release your inner child. Venting padding rooms and attack each other with padded weapons Primal scream deep screaming to let out all your anxiety based on idea of emotions building up and needs to be released based on the hydraulic model based from Freud EMDR eye movement directional recovery waggle your finger in front of the patient and tell them to think of the trauma and follow your finger. Helps with traumatic recovery but nothing else. Effective treatment is Systematic Desensitization slowly introducing stimuli that resemble the patients fears and phobias “power energy therapies” similar to Pratkanis’ neusopheric magnetized aligned water. (joke) trauma blocks energy thus psychological problems, needs to fix energy within you. Video watched in class – Tap along with Tappy – recommend to watch, really funny Emotional freedom technique taps certain spots and allows you to tap away the bad emotions 1 mental illness psychology can cure MPD Multiple Personality Disorder, aka DPD dissociative personality disorder o MPD is a hoax, if you were abused then you most likely will have MPD o The single cause of MPD: going to a therapist who believes in MPD o It is a form of social influence, usually you are hypnotized and asked leading questions in which you fulfill these roles. Autism: caused by unloving mothers Bullcrap, kids infected with yeast at birth BS, caused by vaccines BS, caused by heavy metals BS, a way to communicate with those impaired is FC facilitated communication. Video: Frontline: Prisoners of Silence on youtube. FC autistics are not retarded but intelligent but unable to utilize their body. A way to express themselves while they cannot speak. Facilitator carries Autistic person’s bodily movements to type. Breakthrough technique. Dr. Howard Shane: subtle movement to be able to speak like cerebral palsy. Was the words coming from the facilitator or from the students? Phantom fixation, outs, social consensus, selfgenerated persuasion Works for all kinds of disabilities and retardations thus means it is BS A mom tries to communicate with her son but gets nothing. The autistic son talks with a facilitator at school in which supposedly the son said the dad raped him. Yet when tested there is no other source of proof. There turns out to be many cases throughout the USA Were allegations from autistic kid or from facilitator? Expert communicators comes in with a double blind test to see who types whether the facilitator or autistic kid typed it. When the autistic is tested alone, there is nothing, no words nothing at all. When people are wondering why the FC is being tested when they have testimonials. Thus they are actually communicating; yet it needs to have solid proof. THE FC was proven wrong. Ran 180 trials and the facilitator was controlling everything. The autistic kids mostly don’t even look at the keyboard but as long as the facilitator was on task then the child would get it correct. To prove it; two pictures were showed. One to the facilitator and a different one to the autistic child. Only the words were the ones the facilitator saw, the autistic kids could not identify or type anything People had to cope with the truth that it was false. All the excuses were disproven more studies were duplicated and no actual proof from autistic individuals. Only the people who were committed to FC believe in it. Simple problems with FC was how did the kids learn how to read? Why do they not look at the keyboard when the type with only one finger so how can they memorize the board without a reference point The only excuse to defend FC was that it was sloppy technique. NOV 19 THE GREATEST FLIMFLAM OF ALL TIME I. State the greatest flimflam of all time. II. Debunk the evidence used to support the greatest flimflam of all time. The greatest flimflam of all time is the belief that one group of people is superior to one group because of skin, status, religion, ethnicity, etc. This leads to racism and prejudice It shows up in every culture The U.S. is unique because the U.S. hates being racist Groups that are usually prejudiced against in the U.S. are Asians, Latinos, Eastern Europeans, Africans, etc. Every culture has in group vs. out groups Ex. Germany: Nazis vs Jews, gays, retards, teachers, gypsies Why is this the greatest Flimflam of all time? o Because it is a complete lie. There IS NO evidence that one group is better than others. Since the 1860s studies have been conducted to see if one group is better than another Always trying to look for proof of being better over 150 years of nothing. No scientific proof of anyone being better than another same as ESP, Psychic powers etc, there has been no proof over all this time as soon as proof is made there are tons of retests and the results are disproven every time proof shows up when replicated it goes away Develop of bell curve theory white people are better; tested this belief and it is completely wrong Scientists look for data and if it can’t be replicated then it doesn’t work If racial differences are present, then show me the gene of where it should show up! People want it to be true because you want to be better than them: whoever them is This has probably caused more human suffering, murder, and death than any other lie made. 36 million people died in WWII alone, During Stalin’s reign of the Soviet Union 2.5 million Russian soldiers died+ 10 million civilians who died in gulags The Cold War had squashed most ethnic genocides around the world while spreading either communism or capitalism/democracy Now that it is over problems are caused around the world such as Syria, Iraq, Africa, Paris African Americans live 5 years less than white people. 3 times more like to be killed in their neighborhood than to go into a UC. This flimflam occurs in every culture except here we worry and complain about this shit the most II. Phony Archaeology, IQ testing, Mental testing—BS Phony archaeology ex: ancient astronauts; young earth movement; finding Noah’s Ark are used to justify certain people were chosen to be better Ancient astronauts is used as a form of racism The Nazca lines are actually water lines, but no they were too dumb to figure this out, it had to be someone else Christian identity movement whites are only Christians super right people Mark of Cain God marked Cain for killing Abel Lost Tribes of Israel settled in Great Britain and are AngloSaxons and thus are the chosen race and not the Jews who are marked with the mark of Cain o The pyramids of Egypt measured in Ft and related to the distance from the Earth to the Sun o The Lost tribes used Ft as a measurement and fled to the UK since they use Ft Nazis believed in 7 races; looked to see how they got to Germany to make them seem better Man There is a Pagan version theosify: find the hidden potential within certain group Supremacy Theories Steven Jay Gould; gave evolution models, explained biology and evolution o Wrote essays “equality is a contingent fact of human evolution” o All groups of people are the same o Didn’t have to happen that way, we could have evolved differently but we didn’t o All different species of man in our evolutionary background died out. o Homo erectus, Neanderthal etc yet they died out o Populations of man fluctuated over time ice ages occur species die but we were still mostly in Africa keeping us safe from the ice age. And our genes are basically the same. o Ice age ends and we move out and expand. o Even an isolated tribe in Africa will still have about 80% of diversity in genes meaning if we died out except them they still would be able to live on and not die out due to lack of genetic diversity o Specialized in taxonomy species genus etc How did a species evolve/evolved o Species can’t interbreed. But we are all the same species thus we are the same despite our different skin colors. Look for patterns of traits that are always covariant Ex: dark skin goes with certain blood types and hair types etc Nothing really sets us apart into any species No genetic differences between us as races, ethnicities, etc Human Genome Project proves we are not different “race gene” does not exist, nowhere to be found IQ Testing Pseudoscience started to prevent racism but ended up fostering more racism Race and mental abilities have been tested, first on skull measurements to see differences Collect skulls to see differences in races, through 600 skulls nothing proved Measured volume of liquid inside, thus whites are smarter because more volume can be stored in white skulls… o Except… that two different materials was used to fill in the skulls. For whites it was mustard seeds, while for blacks it was ball bearings. Thus more seeds can fit more tightly in the skull than ball bearings. Measure forehead for intelligence, no difference since the 1870s IQ testing 1920s trying to find an alternative to racism Gave an aptitude test on general intelligence to see there was no differences between poor ppl and rich ppl Yet there was a difference, not because poor ppl are not as smart but because culturally and the access to education affected the results Two principles of IQ testing o 1) always culturally bound o 2) IQ is not one measure, intelligence has multiple factors Important to see the skills you have/ lack and what you can develop Headstarts works, racial differences go away Stereotype threat stereotype sits on your shoulder and you try to prove it wrong, giving you more pressure thus dropping your performance. Jigsaw classroom makes all the kids (minorities) teach other kids something they cannot get from anyone else. DEC.1 SOCIETAL PROTECTIONS AGAINST FLIMFLAM I. Describe the history of legal and other efforts to prevent flimflam in the U.S. including resolution of fraud, quackery, and deceptive ads. Regulate capitalism? Fraud protection? Deceptive ads? Protection for consumers? How can we do this? Should the government be responsible for these questions? Both the right and left wings don’t want regulations on the things they like such as regulating vaccinations, regulation on creation theory vs evolution theory and which one should be taught in public schools, and regulation of herbal health remedies It is impossible to protect yourself from all the flimflam around you constantly o Ex: you want to buy a toy and are concerned if it is covered in lead paint or not. Is the lead paint bad? Does it have health risks? How do you find out if the paint is bad or not? Which authorities on lead paint do you trust? The independent scientist promoting his research or the toy company’s statements of being child friendly? o How do you find out if the investment on something you want is real or not? Do the sellers put your interests ahead of their own? Should there be some regulation on it or none at all? o How do you know if they are trustworthy or not? All these questions lead to the development of societal protections against flimflam o One form of societal protection is people and organizations: James Randi Education Foundation, Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, Psych COP, public universities (ex: UCSF investigated Tobacco as being toxic and Tobacco companies tried to lobby to reduce gov’t funding of public universities to cut research that checks if flimflam is true or false), and investigative journalists o Consumer Union (consumer magazine), TINA.orgfact checks advertisements o Selfregulatory groups they check themselves and their members ex: AMA, APA, APS, trade organizations, advertising council ( it works out agreements between companies with differing advertisements about a similar issue) o The Second form is GOV’T agencies: FDA, FTC, NAG, SCC, CFPB, CDC, Department of Agriculture, etc. Mechanisms for Controlling Flimflam o 1) publicity: draw attention to the flimflam, such as criticizing the flimflam and presenting information about it o 2) SelfRegulation: ex: AMAchecks doctors who don’t follow the board’s rules and kicks them out of the association thus making them unable to practice medicine o 3) Legal action: using the federal gov’t to make legislation to protect against flimflam A) Gov’t Mandate making certain things mandatory such as teaching the theory of evolution in all public schools instead of creationism. B) Gov’t Prohibition ex: certain known toxic ingredients are forbidden to be used in creation of products. C) Gov’t Lawsuits suing people/companies for deceptive ads and forcing them to retract their ads and to correct the false accusations, suing fake bills that closely resemble gov’t notices to force individuals to pay money James Randi, Universities, Federal Government, Journalists, Independent Researchers, and Skeptics are the most hated people in the world because the disprove flimflams thus making sellers of flimflam lose money. o They step on the toes of flimflamers (people who sell flimflam) with issues that affect the people who have made billions off of flimflam thus people who have power. o Flimflam makes great $$$ thus Flimflamers feel good and gain power with money and don’t want it to be taken away o Flimflamers spend big bucks to lobby and pass laws with private firms, and they bribe the gov’t o There is more funding from groups against consumer protection o These groups also have the ability for publicity o They create doubt campaigns: ex: science proves tobacco kills you; But is science really knowledgeable, look at their track record, every few years they change what they say is true and false (raise doubts about the truth stated and project negativity to science) o 1) Cultic Groups Scientology, Children of God, etc. U.S. does not get involved with these kinds of groups because of the issues with protections of individuals and freedom of speech and religion Supreme Court rules Free Speech a big right that should not be hindered upon, but makes an exception with commercial ads that actively deceive consumers. European countries outright ban cultic groups such as scientology to prevent the populace from doubting science etc. There is only societal protection when cults commit crimes o 2) Anti Science Flimflam Creationism Climate denial; climate change doesn’t exist or whatever b.s. excuse Antivaccines U.S. views of political speech which does not have to be entirely factual T.V. stations must equally promote both sides of an issue such as theory of creationism and theory of evolution Legal issues are only super specific and many flimflam is vague and ambiguous Issues of what can and can’t be taught in schools Smear campaigns o 3) Psychic Fraud Fortune telling, palm reading, crystal balls, cold readings etc all fraud Psychic fraud is only proved as a real fraud (“fraud fraud”) which is very tough to do legally because need to illustrate motive and gain. In every society there are shamans, fortune tellers, palm readers, psychics, seers, priests, etc. During the 1930s40s psychic frauds were a big problem Once someone believes a fraud, they will become victims to the fraud and buy into their b.s.(Bullshit) Magicians duplicate frauds and get publicity to prove the said “spiritualist/psychic” is just a phony touting nonsense Many T.V. shows, movies, books prove psychics wrong Cities used to pass ordinances to ban psychic abilities and telling fortunes for profit Buncko squads were squads of people who would find psychics and prove them to be frauds and shut them down. 1960s rise of religion again with now hippies, belief in following intuition, anti science, and psychics began suing for being an oppressed group based on their opinions of the future that was “considered the same” as clergymen and stockbrokers and other people who project future outcomes in industries and religions Most psychics do some psychic phenomena as a gimmick, a show merely for the purpose of entertainment that way they get a loophole of being able to practice giving them legitimacy as a psychic fraud even if they do not directly advertise that it is merely for the purpose of entertainment. There is one exception which is illegal for psychics: if you can prove a psychic was involved in a fraud of any sort using their trickery to scam someone, that is illegal In order to prove a psychic fraud you have to prove the psychic was intentionally giving false facts to the victim with the intent to gain goods/money from the victim Must prove where the psychic’s money came from, where it goes, how it was paid to the psychic, when it occurred, how it occurred and what the victim was thinking at the time. IF the psychic used extortion to get the client to pay money then it is easier to prove ex: psychic says a demon is attached to your son and the only way to get rid of it is to buy 15 of these special scented candles that are only $1,000 each. o 4) Economic Fraud: hard cases to prosecute Limited resources Happens across jurisdictions: con artists make calls across different states so that it is harder to track the fraud National task forces usually shut down cons but once the task force is gone the con artists pops up Ex: timeshares, travel club: usually there are no solid agreements meaning it’s hard to prove the fraud occurred Mental health quackery; control for quackery: clinical licensure all allow quackery to be sold because it makes huge profits Most states require people to be licensed to be able to practice psychotherapy. Insurance fraud is a big scam where clients or practitioners get reimbursed for therapy by using target therapies that are fake and don’t work. Lawsuits with expert witness can prove abuse of practice Ex: false memories of trauma implanted, memory is distorted which results in a lawsuit Yet there is a huge loophole to practice psychology without a degree: if you become a psychic, counselor, life coach, clergyman, priest you can practice certain therapies. Able to practice homeopathic remedies, chiropractic therapies Healthcare quackery and consumer protection, most successful in controlling flimflam Campaigns that checked meat packages, lead paint, etc. Progressive movement to regulate bad drugs and food pro capitalists with checks and balances yet now it means leftist. EX: FDA established 1906 and governs food priority and contamination and drugs on the market in conjunction with the Department of Agriculture. They use clinical trials on drugs and food to see if they work or don’t have side effects. Campaigns for gov’t reductions in federal employees mean less chance regulation gets enacted DSHEA FDA not allowed to regulate dietary supplement product that is intended to supplement diet that has vitamins, minerals, botanists, extracts: ex: herbal remedies, energy drinks, vitamins etc. FDA can look into these dietary supplements if about 10 ish people have died or 100s of people have become ill from the supplement These supplements are allowed to make any claim with disclaimer saying not proven by the FDA or supported by the FDA. EX: DMAA is a decongestant: after it was approved by FDA, side effects showed up, owner/creator took it off the market DMAA is an amphetamine used to be as a dietary supplement until 6 people died and 100 people became were reported sick from DMAA Deceptive Ads o 1930s40s o FTC (Federal Trade Commission) created for two reasons 1) Prevent monopolies and trust busting 2) laws on deceptive ads 1950s70s the FTC stopped regulating deceptive ads State laws were left up to combat deceptive ads If an advertisement has tendency/capacity to mislead the consumer then company has to pay $$$ to gov’t and people who bought into the ads for any damages and must also run corrective ads Protection changes with every election and there is not enough resources as it is to stop all the deception DEC. 3 WONDERMENT I. Wonder!!! Some people believe science, critical thinking, skepticism takes wonderment out of the world Science takes the wonder/flimflam out of it Psychic powers, super natural stuff etc. makes world super fun Science takes away power from the wonder Ray Highman science kills wonder Science has real wonders Ex: spoon bending (cheap meal) wow simple cool, yet science (expensive meal) like slamming atoms together to see a new possibility of solving the beginning the universe Can only understand and enjoy science if you know about it, most people don’t want to learn though. Wonder ex: Stanford linear colliderwhere universe comes from? Creation myths? Where did the big bang come from? What was the before big bang? Subatomic particles emerge and now there are theories to test questions. Ex: 1998current day: two theories of the universe existed 1) the universe expanded forever 2) universe would expand and then ultimately collapse on itself creating a new big bang. Both theories were proven wrong and Einstein’s theory (which he considered the greatest mistake of his life) was correct in which the universe continually expanded forever and the farther away it was the faster it was moving away as well. It included dark matter, dark energy and how it interacts with matter and energy. Ex: 2005 UCSC astronomers found evidence for planets outside the solar system. o Potential to change the way we view ourselves as a collective species that needs to get along on this pale blue dot that floats in space. The last big view change was the Copernicus Revolution sun is center of system not planet: not the center of the universe; people are not the center of the solar system and not really important which was considered heresy by the church. What happens with theories of evolution and god if other life exists? What do we do with them? What is the key to life? Where does life come from? Where does it start? Definitely wont be able to answer these with spoon bending Ex: UCSC human genome project, mapped entire human genome, proves for once and for all that there is no race superiority gene o We now have the blueprint of human life as well as for other species even extinct species. o Gives us a chance to see problems and able to fix problems with the genetics or treat problems with genes. o Will raise moral questions of bringing back extinct species and the pros and cons of doing so. Bring back other species of humans such as Neanderthal? Did they differ in culture from us? If so, is that why they went extinct? o Most importantly though is: Should we bring extinct species back? Robotics Convergence in multiple fields of science that deal with some aspect of robots. Ex: exoskeletons, replace lost limbs, replace organs, replace eyesight, etc. Ability to allow paraplegics some minor form of independence The main issue with robots for today is battery charge aka power Such as how long the battery lasts, and how long it needs to charge and different ways to collect energy etc. Energy is the biggest question of today The peak energy usage used to be during the day from 46 when it was still hot and people needed to power the Air Conditioners but with alternative energy sources such as solar panels it changed to 68pm because sunlight would power through the day until sunset and then power consumption would rise again. Solar energy takes in sunlight and converts it into immediate usable power but doesn’t store any of the energy for later. Ex: Tesla Car: not as popular because it can only go for 240 miles and cannot store any more energy after that and requires mechanisms to keep the battery cool while energy is being drawn to power the car. Wondering Question How do I convince someone to get a car that only goes 240 miles? How does human social influence differ from other social species such as ants? Why are there racial differences in standardized testing? Cultural differences and stereotype threat Why are we influenced? How are we persuaded? How do I prevent it? How do I increase persuasion? SCIENCE IS A CHILD THAT WONDERS; SCIENCE DOESN’T CARE ABOUT WHERE THE WONDER GOES OR HOW IT GETS THERE, SCIENCE JUST GOES TO THE WONDER.
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