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SYG Final Study Guide

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SYG Final Study Guide SYG 2010

Marketplace > Florida State University > Sociology > SYG 2010 > SYG Final Study Guide
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Social Problems
Quentin Kilpatrick

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This is the SYG 2010 Final Study Guide; it includes Key Terms, Key Concepts, and notes from the Chapter Readings.
Social Problems
Quentin Kilpatrick
Study Guide
SYG 2010 Final Study Guide with Chapter Readings
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Notetaker on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SYG 2010 at Florida State University taught by Quentin Kilpatrick in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 12/04/15
Quentin Kilpatrick SYG 2010 Final Study Guide Readings Chapter 10 Testing Theories of American Politics Four families of theories Majoritarian Electoral Economic Elite Domination Majoritarian Pluralism Biased Pluralism Four sets of action US policy making Average Citizen Economic Elite Massbased Interest Group Business Oriented Interest Group Majoritarian Electoral Democracy Attribute US government policies chie y to the collective will of average citizen s who are seen as empowered by democratic elections lf citizens preference orderings are not unidimensional and are suf ciently diverse majority rule might not lead to any equilibrium outcome at all Economic Elite Domination US policy making is dominated by individuals who have substantial economic resources high levels of income Mills notes that his elites derived in substantial proportions from the upper class including the very rich and corporate executives but their elite status was not de ned by their wealth Majoritarian Pluralism Madison s Federalist Paper number 10 analyzed politics in terms of quotfactionsquot Madison argued that struggles among the diverse factions that would be found in an extensive republic would lead to policies more or less representative of the needs and interests of the citizenry as a whole or at least tend to defeat tyrannical policies Collective action by larger dispersed sets of individuals with individually small but collectively large interest tend to be prevented by the quotfree riderquot problem Biased Pluralism Both the trust of interest group con ict and the public policies that result tend to tilt toward the wishes or corporations and business and professional associations quotScope of conflictquot business oriented interest groups tend to prevail over ordinary citizens when the scope is narrow and visibility is low BBC Article Survey broken down by income level then determined how often certain income levels and organized interest groups saw their policy preferences enacted Chapter 11 Inequality and the Growth of Bad Jobs Occupy was directed at the top 1 of the population an elite class consisting of investment bankers corporate executives and lawyers who currently own 35 of total net wealth in the US Computer based technology has generated growing demand for highly skilled workers outpaced other thingsworkers Must get more education Four different generic job skills High Skill Autonomous Semiautonomous Tightly Constrained Unrationalized Labor Intensive Work Low skill low wage 15 decrease in this eld We must develop institutions that allow workers who are willing to ll the demand for long term employment in lowskill jobs to receive a living wage Chapter 13 Oyler School against All Odds Inside the school there is a health clinic a vision center a dental clinic and mental health counselors Kids can eat breakfast lunch and dinner at school and bring home food for the weekend There are enrichment programs such as college advising after school activities volunteer tutors and mentors All of this is self sustaining Key De nitions Capitalism An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned LaissezFaire A free market economy in which prices are set by economic forces of supply and demand French meaning quotleave it alonequot Government A formal organization that directs the political life of a society Socialism An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned the people as a whole Authoritarianism A political system in which power that denies popular participation in government power in the hand of military elite Monarchy A political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation Corporation Businesses with a legal existence including rights and liabilities separate from that of their members Monopoly The domination of a market by a few companies Conglomerate Giant corporation composed of many smaller corporations Interlocking Directorates Social networks made up of people who serve as directors of several corporations at the same time Special Interest Groups Political alliances of people interested in some economic or social issue Political Action Committees Organizations formed by special interest groups to raise and spend money Pluralist Model An analysis of the political system that sees power widely distributed among various groups and organizations in a society Military Industrial Complex The close association of the federal government the military and the defense industries Power Elite An analysis of the political system that sees power as concentrated among members of a small elite Marxist Political Economy Model An analysis that sees the concentration of wealth and power in society as resulting from capitalism Welfare State A range of policies and programs that transfer wealth from the rich to the poor and provide bene ts to needy members of society Political Economy the closely linked economic and political life of a nation or world region Democracy A political system in which power is exercised by Primary Sector Producing raw materials by farming shing ranching mining or clearing forests Secondary Sector Factory workers turn wood into furniture steel into railroad tracks etc Service Work In sales consulting law advising and advertising Deindustrialization the decline of industrial production that occurred in the US after about 1950 Globalization the expansion of economic activity around the world with little regard for national borders Primary Labor Market jobs that provide good pay and extensive bene ts to workers Secondary Labor Market jobs that provide low pay and few bene ts to workers Alienation in Marx view powerlessness in the workplace resulting in the experience of isolation and misery Alienation in Weber view depersonalizing not just in the work place but throughout society as well brought on by a rational focus on ef ciency Rationalization of Society in Weber view the historical change from tradition to rationality and ef ciency as the typical way people think about the world McDonaldization by Ritzer de ning work in the terms of the principles of ef ciency predictability uniformity and automation Labor Unions worker organizations that seek to improve wages and working conditions through various strategies including negotiations and strikes Family social institution that unites individuals into cooperative groups that care for one another including any children Kinship social bond based on common ancestry marriage or adoption that joins individuals into families Nuclear Family one or two parents and their children Extended Family parents and children and also grandparents aunts uncles and cousins who often live close to one another and operates as a family unit Marriage a lawful relationship usually involving economic cooperation sexual activity and child bearing Families of Af nity people with or without legal or blood ties or children who feel they belong together and de ne themselves as a family Cohabitation the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple Blended Families families in which children have some combination of biological parents and step parents In Vitro Fertilization uniting egg and sperm in a laboratory in vitro is Latin for quotin glassquot Surrogate Motherhood an arrangement by which one women carries and bears a child for another woman Schooling formal instruction carried out by specially trained teachers Literacy the ability to read and write Dropping out quitting school before earning a high school diploma Functional Illiteracy the inability to read and write or do basic arithmetic well enough to carry out daily responsibilities Tracking the policy of assigning students to different educational programs Selfful lling prophecy a situation in which people who are de ned in a certain way eventually think and act as if the de nitions were true English immersion the policy of teaching nonEnglish speakers in English Bilingual education the policy of offering most classes in students39 native language while also teaching the English E Puribus Unum out of many one Mainstreaming integrating students with special needs into the overall educational program Special Education schooling children with physical or mental disabilities in separate classes with specially trained teachers Hidden Curriculum explicit and subtle presentations of political or cultural ideas in the classroom that support the status quo Demography the study of human population Fertility incidence of childbearing in a country39s population Crude birth rate the number of live births at a given year for every 1000 people in the population Mortality the incidence of death in a country39s population Crude death rate the number of deaths in a given year for every 1000 people in the population Infant mortality rate the number of babies of every 1000 born who die before their rst birthday Natural growth rate rate of natural increase based in the variables of fertility and mortality Zero population growth the level of reproduction that maintains population for a steady state Demographic Transition theory a thesis linking demographic changes to a society s level of technological development Modernization theory model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between societies World Systems theory a model of economic development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones Colonialism the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations Neocolonialism a new form of economic exploitation that involves the operation of multinational corporations rather than direct political control by foreign governments Relative Poverty lacking resources that must take for granted in a society Absolute Poverty lack of resources that are like essential Concepts Chapter 1 0 Economv and Politics Structural Functional Analysis Rule by Many Robert Dahl Pluralist Model Social Con ict Analysis Rule by Few C Wright Mills The PowerElite Model Karl Marx Capitalist Political Economy Chapter 11 Work and the Work Place Structural Functional Analysis Finding a New Equilibrium Technological change reshapes the economy Symbolic Interaction Analysis The Meaning of Work The meaning people attach to the surrounding world as they construct ever day reality Social Con ict Analysis Work and Inequality Emphasis on social inequality Feminist Analysis Work and Gender Focuses on gender inequality Chapter 12 Family Life Structural Functional Analysis Family as a Foundation Views the family as the foundation of all societies Symbolic Interaction Analysis Family and Learning Views family less as a societal institution and more as the outgoing interaction of individuals Social Con ict Analysis Family and Social Class Family plays an important part in the operation of society Feminist Analysis Family and Gender Family is linked to gender strati cation which is the societal domination of women by men Chapter 13 Education Structural Functional Analysis The Functions of Schooling Points out that the smooth operation of modern societies depends on schooling social placement instilling common cultural beliefs and values performs many latent or less widely recognized functions Symbolic Interaction Analysis Labels in the Schools Microlevel look at how individuals experience the school system labels used by school officials play a major part in de ning the academic ability of each student Social Con ict Analysis Schooling and Inequality Highlights the links between schooling and social inequality hidden curriculum Feminist Analysis Schooling and Gender Elementary Teachers 91 women Middle School 71 women High School 56 women College Teachers 47 women College Professors 28 women Chapter 15 Papuation and Global Ineauaitv Structural Functional Process of Modernization Modernization Theory 1 Traditional Stage 2 Take Off Stage 3 Drive To Technological Maturity 4 High Mass Consumption Social Con ict Analysis Global Economic System World System Theory High Income Countries Core of the world economy Low Income Countries Periphery of the world economy The Rest of the Countries new countries still developing Semiperiphery of the world economy


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