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Exam 4 Study Guide

by: Grace Harmon

Exam 4 Study Guide ISS 210

Grace Harmon
GPA 4.0

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Here is a study guide for exam 4. It covers Just Mercy and Chapter 19
Society and the Individual
Dr. Garcia
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Harmon on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Garcia in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 169 views.


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Date Created: 12/04/15
Just  Mercy   Bryan  Stevenson’s  biography   •   Raised  in  Delmarva  Peninsula,  Delaware     o   Poor,  racially  segregated,  in  line  with  south  traditions  of  racism     •   Undergraduate  degree  from  Eastern  College  in  St.  Davids,  PA   o   Christian  university,  affiliated  with  the  American  Baptist  Churches     •   Harvard  Law  School   o   December  1983:  Interned  with  Southern  Prisoners  Defense  Committee  (SPDC)  in   Atlanta,  GA   •   Met  Henry  at  the  Georgia  Diagnostic  and  Classification  Center   o   “you  won’t  be  executed  anytime  this  year”  says  this  to  Henry   o   talks  to  Henry  for  3  hours   o   Bryan  recognizes  his  humanity     o   as  the  guard  takes  him  away,  Henry  breaks  into  song  (pg.  12)     •   Proximity  to  the  condemned  and  incarcerated  made  the  question  of  each  person’s   humanity  more  urgent  and  meaningful,  including  my  own  (pg.  12)   o   The  further  you  are  removed  from  the  situation  the  less  accountable  you  feel     •   Maybe  we  judge  some  people  unfairly.  The  more  I  reflected  on  the  experience,  the   more  I  recognized  that  I  had  been  struggling  my  whole  life  with  the  question  of  how  and   why  people  are  judged  unfairly  (pg.  13)   o   Each  of  us  is  more  than  the  worst  thing  they  have  done   o   A  liar  is  more  than  a  liar     True  on  the  individual  and  institutional  (macro)  level     Case  summaries  for  the  following  clients:  Henry,  Walter  McMillian,  Joe  Sullivan,   Herbert  Richardson,  Charlie,  Trina  Gartner,  Avery  Jenkins,  Jimmy  Dill   o   Henry   o   Bryan  met  Henry  during  his  internship   o   Bryan  was  sent  to  tell  Henry  he  wasn’t  going  to  die  within  the  next  year   o   Walter  McMillian   o   Monroe  County,  AL   §   Monroeville,  AL  was  the  birthplace  of  Harper  Lee,  author  of  To  Kill   A  Mockingbird     o   Arrested  for  the  murder  of  Ronda  Morrison  (18-­‐year-­‐old  white  girl  at  the   dry  cleaners)     §   Once  dated  Karen  Kelly  (white  woman)     §   Implicated  by  Ralph  Myers     §   Put  on  death  row  before  the  trial  even  began     •   “Yellow  Mama”  is  the  name  given  to  Alabama’s  electric   chair     o   Trial  moved  to  Baldwin  County-­‐  only  9%  Black   o   Jury  (11  White,  1  African  American)     o   Multiple  alibi  witnesses  who  saw  Walter  at  the  church  fish  fry     o   Judge  Robert  E.  Lee  Key  overrode  the  jury’s  sentencing  verdict  for  life  and   sentenced  him  to  death     §   Only  FL  and  AL  allow  this;  frequently  practiced  in  AL   •   In  91%  of  these  cases  the  judges  replaced  life  verdicts  with   death  sentences     •   Common  to  happen  during  election  cycles     o   Stevenson  took  on  the  case  in  post-­‐conviction   §   State’s  witnesses  had  lied  (Ralph  Myers  and  others)     §   Prosecution  had  illegally  suppressed  exculpatory  evidence     o   1993:  Conviction  was  overturned  and  Walter  was  released   §   has  spent  6  years  on  death  row     o   Walter  died  in  September  2013  under  hospice  care     §   He  suffered  from  dementia,  likely  trauma  induced     o   Quote  on  the  last  page  of  the  book     o   Joe  Sullivan   o   13  years  old,  mental  disabilities,  suffered  severe  neglect  and  physical   abuse  by  his  father     §   at  least  10  different  addresses  between  ages  10  and  13     §   record  of  mostly  misdemeanor-­‐level  juvenile  incidents,  nearly  all   nonviolent     o   Broke  into  the  home  of  Lena  Bruner  with  Michael  Gulley  (15)  and  Nathan   McCants  (17)  and  stole  money  and  jewelry               §   She  was  sexually  assaulted  that  afternoon  by  “a  dark  colored  boy”     §   Gulley  and  McCants  were  apprehended  within  minutes,  accused   Joe  of  the  rape   o   Seminal  fluid  and  blood  evidence  were  destroyed  before  the  defense   could  test  them     o   Trial  lasted  less  than  one  day     o   Lawyer  was  later  suspended  and  never  reinstated     o   Convicted  and  sentenced  to  life  without  parole     o   Appointed  appellate  counsel  felt  there  were  no  legitimate  grounds  for   appeal  and  withdrew     o   Sent  to  an  adult  prison  at  13-­‐  years-­‐  old   §   Repeatedly  raped  and  sexually  assaulted   §   Attempted  suicide  multiple  times     §   Developed  multiple  sclerosis  (stress  induced)  eventually  forcing   him  into  a  wheelchair     o   Joe’s  case  was  used  in  the  Supreme  Court     o   Herbert  Richardson   o   Vietnam  War  Veteran  with  significant  PTSD  and  a  history  of  substance   abuse     o   Obsessed  with  an  ex-­‐girlfriend,  he  tried  to  “win  her  back”  by  protecting   her  from  a  bomb  he  placed  on  her  porch   §   Killed  the  woman’s  10-­‐year-­‐old  niece     o   AL  law:  murder  must  be  intentional  to  apply  the  death  penalty     §   Argued  “transferred  intent”     o   No  background  presented  by  the  appointed  defense  attorney     o   Trial  lasted  less  than  2  days     o   Lawyer  did  not  appeal  the  conviction  or  sentence   §   Later  disbarred  for  poor  performance  in  other  cases   o   Richardson  was  on  death  row  for  11  years     o   Stevenson  brought  on  less  than  3  weeks  before  execution   §   All  motions  were  denied  for  being  filed  “too  late”     o   “It’s  been  so  strange  Bryan.  More  people  have  asked  me  what  they  can   do  to  help  me  in  the  last  14  hours  of  my  life  than  ever  asked  me  in  the   years  when  I  was  coming  up.”  (pg.  89)     o   “The  Old  Rugged  Cross”  played  as  he  walked  to  the  electric  chair     o   Charlie   o   14  years  old,  less  than  100  lbs,  not  quite  5’     o   was  to  be  tried  as  an  adult  for  murdering  his  mother’s  abusive  boyfriend,   George,  who  was  a  police  officer     §   placed  in  an  adult  prison  where  he  was  raped  and  sexually   assaulted  repeatedly     §   Stevenson  was  able  to  have  him  moved  to  protective  custody  and   eventually  a  nearby  juvenile  facility     o   Case  was  transferred  to  a  juvenile  court     o   Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jennings:  built  a  lifelong  connection  with  Charlie  and   supported  him  and  his  mother     o   Trina  Gartner   o   14-­‐year-­‐old  girl   o   mentally  disabled   o   charged  with  second-­‐degree  murder  after  setting  a  fire  that  killed  2   people     o   Trina  grew  up  in  an  abusive  household   o   She  was  homeless  because  she  ran  away  from  home     o   She  had  a  mandatory  sentence  of  life  imprisonment  without  parole     o   Avery  Jenkins   o   convicted  of  the  brutal  murder  of  an  elderly  man  he  believed  was  a   demon   o   suffered  from  severe  cognitive  disabilities  and  mental  illness  (never   raised  at  trial)     o   in  and  out  of  foster  homes  his  entire  life  where  he  suffered  severe  abuse     o   Stevenson  won  him  a  new  trial,  off  of  death  row,  and  into  a  mental   health  facility     o   Prison  guard  with  Confederate  flag  bumper  stickers,  decals,  etc.   §   Forced  Stevenson  to  strip  search  and  sign  the  visitation  book   (against  protocol)     §   Guard  attended  the  hearing,  which  changed  his  perspective  on   Jenkins  and  Stevenson     •   He  had  grown  up  in  the  foster  care  system  as  well     •   Brought  Jenkins  a  chocolate  milkshake  on  the  way  back   from  court     o   Mitigation  à  the  act  of  lessening  the  impact,  severity,  or  painfulness  of   something  unpleasant     o   Jimmy  Dill     o   Accused  of  shooting  someone  during  a  drug  deal;  the  victim  did  not  die   §   Arrested  and  charged  with  aggravated  assault     o   Served  9  months  leading  up  to  the  trial   o   Victim’s  wife  abandoned  him  and  he  died   o   State  prosecutors  changed  the  charges  to  capital  murder     o   Suffered  from  intellectual  disability;  sexually  and  physically  abused   throughout  his  childhood;  struggled  with  drug  addiction  until  his  arrest     §   He  shouldn’t  have  been  eligible  for  capital  murder  because  of  his   mental  retardation     §   Should  have  been  shielded  from  the  death  penalty  because  of  his   intellectual  ability  but  no  one  had  investigated  or  presented   evidence  in  support  of  the  claim   o   Could  not  find  volunteer  counsel  for  his  post  conviction  appeals     §   Alabama  is  the  only  state  without  a  state  funded  program  to   provide  legal  assistance  to  death  row  inmates     o   Stevenson  brought  on  less  than  30  days  from  execution   §   Every  court  determined  it  was  too  late  to  file  any  appeals     o   Dill  was  grateful  for  Stevenson’s  support,  regular  visits,  reconnecting  him   with  family;  efforts  seemed  to  help  him  cope     o   Dill’s  stuttering  reminds  Stevenson  of  the  boy  from  church  that  he   laughed  at  for  stuttering     §   Boy  said  I  love  you  without  stuttering     o   Dill  is  stuttering  (pg.  287)  “His  struggle  to  form  word  and  his   determination  to  express...all  so  we  can  kill  them  with  less  resistance.”     TED  Talk: tice   Racial  disparities  on  death  row   •   Mass  incarceration  is  distorted  by  race  and  poverty     •   Disenfranchisement  (losing  the  right  to  vote  because  of  criminal  charges)   •   1  of  9  are  exonerated  after  they  are  convicted     •   we  will  be  judged  on  the  character  of  a  society,  how  they  treat  the  poor  and  condemned     •   keep  your  eyes  on  the  prize,  hold  on     •   Grandma’s  talk  (he’s  special  don’t  drink)   •   Rosa  Parks  (that’ll  make  you  tired  tired  tired,  that’s  why  you  have  to  be  brave,  brave,   brave)   •   Matriarchal  Grandmother   o   Love  your  mom   o   Always  do  the  right  thing,  even  when  the  right  thing  is  the  hard  thing   o   Never  drink  alcohol     •   Mass  Incarceration   o   1972:  300,000  in  prison   o   Today:  2.3  million   •   US  has  the  highest  incarceration  rate  in  the  world     •   7  million  people  on  parole       •   1  out  of  3  Black  males  between  ages  18-­‐30  in  jail,  prison,  on  probation  or  parole     o   in  urban  communities:  50-­‐60%  of  all  young  men  of  color     •   Wealth,  not  culpability,  shapes  outcomes     •   AL:  34%  of  black  males  disenfranchised     o   Expected  to  surpass  the  rate  prior  to  the  passage  of  the  Voting  Rights  Act  within   the  next  10  years     •   Life  imprisonment  without  parole  for  children  as  young  as  13   •   Death  penalty     o   “Do  people  deserve  to  die  for  the  crimes  they’ve  committed?”   o   “Do  we  deserve  to  kill”     •   1  in  9  people  on  death  row  is  innocent     •   we  have  a  hard  time  talking  about  race  in  this  country  but  we  need  truth  and   reconciliation     o   South  Africa,  Rwanda,  Germany     •   Death  penalty  is  11x  more  likely  when  the  victim  is  white  than  when  the  victim  is  black     o   22x  more  likely  if  the  defendant  is  black  and  the  victim  is  white     •   Our  humanity  depends  on  everyone’s  humanity     o   1.  Each  one  of  us  is  more  than  the  worst  thing  we’ve  ever  done     o   2.  The  opposite  of  poverty  is  not  wealth,  it’s  justice     o   3.  Ultimately  we  will  be  judged  by  how  we  treat  the  poor,  the  condemned,  the   incarcerated     §   it  is  in  the  nexus  that  we  begin  to  understand  truly  profound  things  about   who  we  are     Capital  Punishment   •   2015:  31  states  with  the  death  penalty   o   19  states  without  (including  Michigan)     •   Over  75%  of  victims  in  capital  cases  were  White  compared  to  50%  of  all  murder  victims     •   155  exonerations  since  1973   o   for  every  9  executions,  one  person  has  been  found  innocent     •   less  than  2%  of  all  death  row  inmates  are  women   •   percentage  of  black  folks  and  white  folks  are  equal  (43%)         Batson  v.  Kentucky   •   United  States  Supreme  Court  ruled  that  a  prosecutor's  use  of  peremptory  challenge   in  a  criminal  case—the  dismissal  of  jurors  without  stating  a  valid  cause  for  doing   so—may  not  be  used  to  exclude  jurors  based  solely  on  their  race.  (Wikipedia)             Roper  v.  Simmons   •   Roper  v.  Simons  (2005):  Supreme  Court  banned  death  penalty  for  those  who   committed  their  crimes  prior  to  turning  18-­‐  years-­‐  old     Graham  v.  Florida   •   Graham  v.  Florida  (2010):  Banned  life  without  parole  sentences  for  juveniles   convicted  of  non-­‐homicide  offenses     o   Joe  Sullivan’s  case  was  part  of  this  ruling     Miller  v.  Alabama   •   Miller  v.  Alabama  and  Jackson  v.  Hobbs  (2012):  Banned  mandatory  life  without   parole  sentences  for  all  juveniles   o   Did  not  ban  life-­‐without-­‐parole  sentences  outright   o   Stevenson  was  the  defense  attorney  in  both  cases     Bryan  Stevenson’s  Four  Pillars  to  Create  Social  Change   1.Choose  to  get  proximate   2.Change  the  narrative   3.Protect  our  hopefulness   4.Do  the  things  that  are  uncomfortable       Capital  punishment   Death  penalty   Defendant   Defense  attorney   Disenfranchise   Execute   Exonerate   Incarceration   Life-­‐without-­‐parole   Parole   Prosecutor   Sentence   Verdict   Social  Problems  Chapter  19     Collective  sin   •   “collective  sin”  term  that  book  uses  for  those  who  have  turned  away  from  helping  out   the  children     •   Kozol’s  term  “collective  sin”-­‐  is  important  to  consider  because  the  neglect  of  children  is   not  just  a  matter  of  the  neglect  from  individual  parents,  but  much  more  important,  it  is   a  matter  of  society’s  neglect         Human  agency   •   Human  Agency:  individuals  acting  alone  or  with  others  shape,  resist,  challenge  and   sometimes  change  the  social  organizations  and  the  social  institutions  that  impinge  on   them       Individualism   o   United  States  is  an  individualistic  country   o   Individual  goals  are  put  before  group  goals   Plutocracy   •   plutocracy:  government  where  the  wealthy  class  rules     Progressive  policies,  the  obstacles  in  their  path,  potential  solutions   •   Progressive  Policies:     o   1.  Determine  the  facts   §   challenge  the  myths  that  guide  public  opinion  and  policy  makers     o   2.  Establish,  as  a  society,  the  principles  that  will  guide  public  policy  to  accomplish   the  common  good   Principles  that  should  guide  public  policy  to  reduce  or  eliminate  social  problems  in  the  US     o   1.  A  call  for  policies  and  behaviors  that  enhance  our  moral  obligation  to  our   neighbors  and  their  children,  to  those  unlike  us  as  well  as  those  similar  to  us,  and   to  future  generations     §   runs  counter  to  individualism     §   individualism  leads  to  inequality  and  is  the  antithesis  of  cooperation  and   solidarity  (the  requirements  of  community)     o   2.  Acceptance  of  the  first  principle  leads  to  the  second:  A  call  for  government   programs  that  provide  for  people  who  cannot  provide  for  themselves     §   brings  all  members  up  to  a  standard  of  dignity     o   3.  Acceptance  of  these  principles  leads  to  a  third:  A  special  commitment  to   children,  all  children,  and  to  implement  this  commitment  with  viable,  universal   programs     §   providing  prenatal  and  postnatal  medical  care,  childhood  immunization,   protection  from  exposure  to  toxic  chemicals,  adequate  nutrition,  the   elimination  of  child  poverty,  access  to  preschool  and  after-­‐school   programs,  safe  neighborhoods,  equitably  financed  schools     §   Kozol’s  term  “collective  sin”-­‐  is  important  to  consider  because  the  neglect   of  children  is  not  just  a  matter  of  the  neglect  from  individual  parents,  but   much  more  important,  it  is  a  matter  of  society’s  neglect       o   4.  A  call  to  redistribute  societal  resources  to  lift  those  urban  and  rural  areas  that   are  economically  disadvantaged     §   central  cities  have  been  abandoned  by  the  middle  class     §   tax  base  in  the  cities  has  eroded     §   policies  of  the  federal  government  are  partly  responsible  for  urban  decay   o   5.  Although  some  social  policies  should  be  made  and  administered  at  the  local   level,  others  must  be  largely  financed,  organized,  and  administered  by  the   federal  government     §   some  issues  are  national  in  scope  and  require  uniform  standards     §   devolution:  moving  programs  from  the  federal  level  to  the  states     o   devolution  trend  is  making  benefits  very  uneven   •   Obstacles  in  their  Path   o   A)  an  underlying  problem  in  the  US  is  the  power  of  money  over  the  decision-­‐ making  process  (plutocracy:  government  where  the  wealthy  class  rules)     o   B)  politicians  are  incapable  of  tackling  long-­‐term  social  and  economic  challenges   (reason=  one  rarely  gets  elected  to  office  by  asking  citizens  to  sacrifice  by  paying   higher  taxes  to  pay  for  problems  with  long-­‐term  positive  consequences  for   society)     o   C)  gridlock  among  decision  makers  at  the  state  and  federal  levels   (gerrymandering:  the  carving  of  districts  by  the  party  in  power  to  maintain  their   favorable  balance  of  power)     •   Potential  Solutions   o   Reduce  defense  spending     o   Reduce  or  eliminate  corporate  welfare  and  subsidies  to  the  wealthy     o   Increase  the  taxes  on  the  wealthy     o   Increase  tax  revenues  (enact  a  truly  progressive  income  tax)   The  cost  of  education  v.  incarceration   o   Incarcerating  people  is  a  lot  more  expensive  than  educating  them  and  setting  them  up   for  success        


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