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Biology 2601 Final Study Guide

by: Suzanne Notetaker

Biology 2601 Final Study Guide BIOL 2601 - 01

Marketplace > Youngstown State University > Biology > BIOL 2601 - 01 > Biology 2601 Final Study Guide
Suzanne Notetaker
GPA 3.34
General Biology
Dr. Asch

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Here's the study guide for the final exam including all the chapters that were covered. The final exam is Wednesday (December 9th) at 8AM.
General Biology
Dr. Asch
Study Guide
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Suzanne Notetaker on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2601 - 01 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Asch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Youngstown State University.


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Date Created: 12/04/15
Final Study Guide 1 Brie y describe the following a Atoms b Element c Molecule 1 Compound 2 The two mechanisms of evolutionary change are and Brie y describe both 3 What are the three domains of life Unicellularmulticellular ProkaryoticEukaryotic 4 The carries the genetic material to make the proteins 5 What is a hypothesis 6 What are the two attributes of a theory 7 What are the five stages of the scientific method in order 8 How do you know the number of electrons in the outer shell 9 Electrons occupy What distinguishes an element from another atomic number 10 Brie y describe covalent hydrogen and ionic bonds a Covalent b Hydrogen c Ionic 11 When atoms are stable with their outer shell full 12 Define a Hydrophobic b Hydrophilic c Amphipathic 13 What are the four main types of macromolecules 14 is a reaction that forms macromolecules 15 takes apart macromolecules by adding water 16 What are different arrangement of the same numbers of atoms bonded to each other 17 Complete the table Monomers Bond Polymers Peptide Monosaccharides Phosphodiester Nucleic acids 18 Brie y describe the protein structures a Primary b Secondary c Tertiary d Quaternary 19 What are the five ways that polypeptides are formed 20 21 Name the two nucleic acids and their functions Carbs are made up of C H and O The most common is a or carbon chain 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Lipids are made up of C and H and are divided into fats phospholipids steroids and waxes a Lipids are made up of fatty acids and are unsaturated or single C bond b Phospholipids are made up of glycerol fatty acids and a group c Steroids are interconnected carbon rings Magnification is the ratio between size of image and size Resolution looks at two objects Eukaryotes have a while prokaryotes do not What are the functions of the cell wall glycocalyX and appendages a Cell wall b Glycocalyx c Appendages What part of the eukaryotic cell breaks down and digest things a Ribosomes b Cytoplasm c Lysosomes d Vacuoles What are the folded structures in mitochondria and what s their function What part of the cell transports materials in vesicles a Golgi apparatus b Endoplasmic reticulum c Cytoplasm Chloroplast e None of the above 9 What makes proteins in a cell a Ribosomes b Cytoplasm c Mitochondria d None of the above e All of the above What part of the cell breaks down H202 a Nucleus b Golgi apparatus c Peroxisomes d Lysosomes e None of the above Where is ATP primarily made a Chloroplast b Endoplasmic reticulum c Nucleus d Mitochondria e None of the above 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 M M M 48 49 50 51 52 What are the two semiautonomous organelles The thylakoid membrane and cristae both increase surface area what organelles are they in and what are their functions Catabolism is the of molecules while anabolism In the nucleus DNA and protein together are The nuclear matrix organizes and ribosomes assemble in the What are the functions of the plasma membrane Three factors affect uidity a Shorter fatty acyl tails make the plasma membrane uid b Abundant presence of double bonds in tails molecules c Increased cholesterol uid Passive transport ATP while active transport ATP Where does the word glycol come from In passive diffusion substances ow from an area of concentration to an area of concentration When there s more solute than water it is solute it is Brie y explain the three types of transporters a Uniporter b Symporter c Antiporter Active transport is the movement of solute the gradient The best example is the NaK ATPase pump Exocytosis moves large molecules outside the cell while endocytosis is where the folds and the substances move the cell Look over the functional groups Describe brie y the two forms of energy Energy can be both and Which of the following are characteristics of a spontaneous reaction Choose all that apply Exergonic Endergonic Free energy G gt 0 Free energy lt 0 Energy released Requires additional energy T or F both enzymes and coenzymes are proteins What is the order of steps of enzymecatalyst reactions Enzyme undergoes conformational changes Substrates bind to enzyme Products are releases Enzymes may be released Substrates converted to products What are the ways for substrate binding a Lock and key metaphor b Competitive inhibition while when there s more water than w999 9 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 Chemiosmosis Induced fit phenomenon A and D A C and D g All of the above T or F competitive inhibition has molecules bind to the active site while noncompetitive has molecules bind to the allosteric not active site What is the difference between catabolic and anabolic when it comes to ATP Describe the ways to make ATP T or F Oxidation gains electrons and Reduction loses electrons What does the coenzyme NADH do to electrons What are proteasomes and lysosomes What is the aim of cellular respiration 999 a Breakdown macromolecules b Make C02 c Make ATP d Make NADH e B C and D f C and D Name of four pathways of glucose metabolism In the first pathway of glucose metabolism a Where b Three phases c Net yield d Product e Produces ATP by In the second pathway of glucose metabolism a Where b Starting molecule c Releases d Loss of pyruvate yields total loss of carbons pyruvate e Produce which attaches to CoA to make In the third pathway of glucose metabolism a Where b Starting and ending product c Oxaloacetate and Acetyl CoA combine to make d Releases and Acetyl CoAturn of cycle e Releases and glucose f Produces ATP by In t e final pathway of glucose metabolism a Where b Purpose c Final electron acceptor d Move across gradient to make by e Protons can only pass through f Produces ATP by 65 T or F You get more energy out of carbs than fats and proteins 66 T or F Anaerobic respiration uses oxygen while aerobic respiration lacks oxygen 67 What are the two strategies of anaerobic respiration a Produce ATP only via substratelevel phosphorylation b Use a different electron acceptor other than 02 c Use energy from carbs d A and B e All of the above 68 What are the two pathways of fermentation Production of 02 Production of lactic acid Reduction of C02 Production of ethanol A and B f B and D 69 Stages of Photosynthesis 9999 s Stage Light Reactions Where Stroma Produce 70 T or F Autotrophs make organic molecules while Heterotrophs must eat organic molecules 71 Identify the anatomy parts of the chloroplasts Image provided by httpdiagramaxyzchloroplastdiagram Chloroplast V r llll w llll uA llillll lull w WNW 72 Excited electrons travels from Photosystem to Photosystem 73 Light harvesting complex and are part of Photosystem 74 The reaction center generates and then releases energy to make the H electrochemical gradient a 02 and ATP b C02 and H20 c 02 and H d H and ATP 75 What is the primary role of Photosystem I a Make ATP b Remove 02 c Generate H 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 d Make NADPH e None of the above What is not a way to generate an H gradient a Splitting water b Transfer electrons c Pump H across ETC d NADPH formation e None of the above Finish the table Noncyclic Pathway Produces ATP Transferred to NADP and eventually NADPH The Calvin Cycle incorporates C02 into using lots of energy Phases of Calvin Cycle Carbon Fixation Regeneration of RuBP Use ATP and NADPH 2 3PG 6 RuBP What is not a variation in photosynthesis a Light intensity b C02 c Temperature d Water availability e None of the above In photorespiration What is favored a Low C02 high 02 b High C02 low 02 c Low C02 low 02 d High C02 high 02 What do C4 plants do to respiration In C4 leaves how is the twocell layer organized a Mesophyll cell b Bundlesheath cell c Thylakoids d A and B e A and C Which is better in cooler climates C3 or C4 plants In C4 CAM plants the stomata at night and during the day a 0pens and closes b Closes and opens c None of the above Which isn t a necessary criteria for genetic material a Information b DNA c Transmission d Variation 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 e None of the above In Grif th s DNA experiment which is transformed a Type S b Heatkilled type S c Mix live R with heatkilled S d Type R e None of the above In Avery MacLeod and McCarty DNA experiment removing the resulted in no transformation a DNA b RNA c Proteases d All of the above e None of the above In the Hershey and Chase DNA experiment the 35S was found the cell while the 32F was found the cell a Inside inside b Inside outside c Outside inside d Outside outside e None of the above What are the levels of the DNA Structure Both DNA and RNA have similar component Which is not one a Phosphate group b Pentose sugar c Pyrimidines d Nitrogenous base e None of the above When talking about DNA s and RNA s nitrogenous bases what is the difference in the pyrimidines a DNA has Thymine and RNA has Adenine b DNA has Cytosine and RNA has Adenine c DNA has Thymine and RNA has Uracil d DNA has Guanine and RNA has Cytosine e None of the above In the nucleotide numbering system the strands are written a 1 to 5 b 2 to 3 c 2 to 4 d 5 to 3 e None of the above In the DNA basepairing the amount of cytosine equals the amount of a Adenine b Thymine c Guanine d All of the above e None of the above 95 T or F the DNA strands have a sugarphosphate backbone and are stabilized by Hydrogen bonding 96 What was the conclusion to Meselson and Stahl experiment Semiconservative replication Conservative replication Dispersive replication Nonconservative replication e None of the above 97 Chromosomes are composed of which is a DNAprotein complex 98 What are the three levels of DNA Compaction 99 Place the chromosomes in order of the most compacted to the least compacted a Metaphase Hetrochromatin Euchromatin b Metaphase Euchromatin Hetrochromatin c Euchromatin Hetrochromatin Metaphase d Euchromatin Metaphase Hetrochromatin e Hetrochronmatin Eurchormatin Metaphase 100 Who showed the relationship between genes and production of enzymes where patients had inborn errors of metabolism 999 a Garrod b Beadle and Tatum c Punnett d Mendel 101 T or F Beadle and Tatum came up with the hypothesis One gene one enzyme 102 Since some proteins aren t enzymes they previous hypothesis was changed to One gene one 103 Transcription goes from DNA to and Translation goes from to Central Dogma a Protein Protein RNA b Protein RNA DNA c RNA Protein Protein d RNA RNA Protein 104 Describe the components of Transcription 105 What are the three stages of transcription 106 In eukaryotic transcription the basic features are similar to prokaryotes except a Each step has more introns b Each step has more proteins c Each step has more extrons d Splicing occurs 107 Splicing is the removal of in the a Extrons nucleus b RNA gene c Introns nucleus d Introns gene 108 In eukaryotic transcription there are two modifications that including the addition of caps and tails Brie y describe both 109 What are the start codons stop codons a AUG UAA UAG UGA AUA b AUG UAG UUA UUU c UGA UAG UAA AUG d AUG UAA UAG UGA 110 T or F Codons live on the mRNA While anticodons live on the tRNA 111 Machinery of translation requires a mRNA tRNA ribosomes and translation factors b mRNA tRNA and translation factors c mRNA tRNA binding sites ribosomes and translation factors d mRNA ribosomes and translation factors 112 In the initiation stage of translation the complex requires help of a Binding sites and tRNA b mRNA and tRNA c ribosomal initial factors and GTP hydrolysis d binding sites and ribosomal initial factors 113 What are the three steps of the elongation stage of translation 114 Where is the stop codon found so translation ends in the termination stage a A site b P site c E site d All binding sites 115 T or F Gene regulation ensures genes are produced at correct time and amount 116 In eukaryotic gene regulation the cell contains same genome but express different a Genes b Proteomes c Proteins d Repressors 117 Where does the most common gene regulation occur a Translation b Transcription c Binding sites d Genome 118 Repressors transcription and activators rate of transcription a Increase increase b Inhibit decrease c Increase inhibit d Inhibit increase 119 What is an operon 120 When lactose is absent transcription of operon is a Inhibited b Transcribed c Nothing 121 What happens to the lac operon when lactose and glucose are high as well as lactose is low and glucose is highlow 122 The trp operon binds to the operator with of small effector molecule and is repressible and The lac operon is the opposite 123 What is a heritable change in the genetic material 124 What is the point mutation that changes 1 amino acid Changes normal codon to stop codon a Missense nonsense b Silent nonsense c Missense silent d Frameshift nonsense 125 What mutation gives rise to gametes that affect progeny a Somatic cell b Frameshift c Spontaneous d Germline 126 Spontaneous mutations are from abnormalities while induced is caused by 127 What are the chemical or physical agents that alter DNA a Carcinogens b Teratogens c Mutagens d A and C e None of the above 128 Ionizing radiation damage creates free radicals while nonionizing radiation damage only e g UV rays 129 Which DNA repair removes and replaces an abnormal nucleotide a Nucleotide excision b Direct c Methyldirected mismatch d None of the above 130 Cancers originate from a 131 What are the two types of tumors and which is more dangerous 132 What are the two characteristics of malignant tumors 133 What may promote cancer by keeping cell division in a permanent on position a Protooncogene b Chimeric genes c Mutagens d Oncogenes 134 Out of the four common genetic changes for a protooncogene which one is where two chromosomes break and switch ends a Missense mutation 135 136 137 138 139 140 b Chromosomal translocations c Gene amplification d Retroviral insertions What are the functions of tumorsuppressor genes What are the checkpoint proteins responsible for advancing cell through the cell cyle a Cyclins cdks b Cyclins c Chromatids d B and C What halts cell division at the G1 point if sense the DNA is damaged a Checkpoint protein b Caspases c p53 d A and B e A and C If DNA damage is too severe p53 Will activate other genes that promote In Eukaryotes cells division occurs via and meiosis 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 Humans have pairs of chromosomes This includes 22 pairs of and 1 pair of chromosomes How many chromosomes do diploids have a 96 b 23 c 22 d 46 Describe brie y the phases of the interphase T of F Sister chromatids occur in the G1 phase What are the order of the phases of the cell cycle a G1 G2 S Mitosis Cytokinesis b G1 S G2 Mitosis Cytokinesis c S G1 G2 Mitosis Cytokinesis d Cytokinesis Mitosis S G2 G1 e None of the above Simply What is mitosis Simply What is cytokinesis What is the role of the mitotic spindle Describe the phases of mitosis What is the process of sexual reproduction a Original diploid two diploids two gametes b Zygote two haploid gametes diploid c Original diploid two haploid gametes zygote d Two haploid gametes zygote diploid Meiosis is the process Where cells are produced from a diploid cell a Haploid b Diploid c Zygote d Gamete 151 What are the two differences between mitosis and meiosis 152 What happens in anaphase II meiosis II that doesn t happen in anaphase I meiosis I 153 Mitosis produces diploid daughter cells and meiosis produces haploid daughter cells a 22 b 42 c 44 d 24 154 T or F Variation in chromosomes structure and number can have major effects on organisms 155 What are the four chromosomal mutations 156 What is it called When you have a normal number of chromosomes a Polypoid b Euploid c Aneuploidy d Monosomic 157 Who experimented With pea plants unconsciously creating laws of inheritance a Mendel b Beadle and Tatum c Punnett d None of the above 158 What is Mendel s Law of Segregation 159 Define the terms genotype and phenotype 160 What diagram finds the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype a Mendel b Punnett c Asch d A and B e None of the above 161 What is the Law of Independent Assortment 162 T or F Mendel s Law of Segregation can be explained by segregation of homologous chromosomes 163 T or F The Law of Independent Assortment can be explained by behavior of chromosomes during meiosis 164 What are the three systems of sex determination 165 T or F In humans genes found on the X chromosomes but not the Y are Xlinked genes 166 Name the three different inheritance patterns 167 T or F Viruses are living particles With nucleic acids that require assistance to reproduce 168 What are the differences for viruses a Host b Host range c Structural d Genome e A C D f B C D 169 Describe brie y the 6 steps in the viral reproductive cycle 170 What steps of the viral reproductive cycle are part of the lysogenic cycle a Integration replication excision b Synthesis assembly release c Integration excision synthesis d Replication excision assembly e None of the above 171 T or F Human inmmunodeficiency virus HIV is the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS 172 What is the primary way AIDS are spread a Transfusion of infected blood b Infected mother c Sexual contact d Sharing needles e None of the above 173 What is a theory of the origin of viruses 174 What do viriods infect a Host nucleus b Plant cells c Animal cells d Chloroplasts e B and C 175 Plasmids exist independently of bacterial chromosomes What is the type that is involved in conjugation gene transfer a Resistance R factors b Degradative c Fertility F factors d Colplasmids e Virulence 176 T or F Reproduction of bacteria is not by binary fission 177 Brie y describe the three gene transfer between bacteria 178 What type of DNA is used in gene cloning a Recombinant b Bacterial c Linear d Your e None of the above 179 What is the purpose of the vector DNA and What are the common vectors 180 In step 2 in gene cloning DNA is cut using and is linked paste using 181 What is the goal of gene cloning 182 Once a vector carries a selectable marker growth on ampicillin plates indicates bacteria contain with the marker a Recombinant b Plasmid 0 Viral d DNA e None of the above 183 Recircularized plasmids form colonies and desired recombinant vectors form colonies a Red white b White red c White blue d Blue white e Pink white 184 What is the purpose of electrophoresis The rate at which the DNA travel is based on 185 Explain the three components of the Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR denaturation primer annealing and primer extension 186 Which artificial chromosome contains more base pairs bacterial or yeast 187 In Dideoxy chaintermination method ddNTPs are missing a 3 OH group b 5 OH group c 3 H group d 5 H group e Both A and B 188 What are the two technologies that are used in biotechnology 189 Prokaryotes usually have chromosomes and often have plasmids a 46 b Linear c 92 d Circular e A and D 190 Venter Smith and Colleagues sequenced the first complete genome using 191 What are two strategies to map a large genome 192 T or F Genome size is the same as the number of genes 193 T or F Most of the genome is noncoding 194 What are transposable elements and what are their roles 195 T or F DNA transposons have identical DNA sequences but run in opposite direction 196 T or F One of the goals of the Human Genome Project was to sequence the entire human genome 197 Proteomes are larger than genomes due to alternative splicing and 198 What is a ortholog 199 What uses a genetic sequence to find homologous sequences in a large database 200 What is the heritable change in one or more characteristics from one generation to the next a Mutation b Adaptation c Natural selection d Evolution e None of the above 201 Brie y describe how these people contributed to the theory of evolution a Buffon b Lamarck c Malthus 202 Empirical thought relies on observation to form a hypothesis while uniformitarianism hypothesis is 203 Who formulated the theory of evolution and noticed distinctive traits of island species a Buffon b Lamarck c Wallace d Darwin e C and D 204 Evolution or the descent of medication is based on and 205 T or F The horse is a prime example of how evolution involves adaptation to changing environments fossil record 206 What is endemic 207 Where two difference species from different lineages show similar characteristics because they occupy similar environments a Convergent evolution b Homology c Selective breeding d Microevolution e None of the above 208 What programprocedure modifies traits in domesticated species artificial species a Convergent evolution b Homology c Selective breeding d Interbreeding e None of the above 209 Anatomical developmental and molecular are the three homologies Explain them 210 What are paralogs 211 What is horizontal gene transfer 212 T or F Population is the study of genes and genotypes 213 What is a gene pool 214 What is a group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment and interbreed 215 HardyWeinberg Equation p2 2pq q2 1 What does each component mean 216 What are the conditions of the HardyWeinberg even though in reality no population meets them 217 T or F Microevolution is a change in a single gene in a population 218 Natural selection are beneficial heritable traits that become more common in successive generations and result in 219 Brie y describe the four natural selection patterns a Directional b Stabilizing c Disruptivediversifying d Balancing 220 Sexual selection is Where certain traits make it more likely for individuals to findchoose a mate Brie y describe the two types 221 a change in allelic frequency due to random chance a Bottleneck b Genetic drift c Speciation d Cladogenesis e Founder effect 222 A natural disaster that dramatically reduces the population is an example of What a Genetic drift b Speciation c Founder effect d Cladogenesis e Bottleneck 223 T or F The Founder Effect is When a large group of individuals separates from the population 224 T or F Neutral evolution is cause by genetic drift 225 Brie y describe the three types of nonrandom mating a Assortative b Disassortative c Inbreeding 226 Macroevolution is evolutionary changes that create new species and 227 Morphological physical traits can cause a problem in identifying a species because members of same species can look and members of different species can look 228 Brie y explain the five Prezygotic barriers of reproductive isolation a Habitat isolation b Temporal isolation c Behavioral isolation d Mechanical isolation e Gametic isolation 229 Brie y explain the three Postzygotic barriers that block the development of fertile individuals a Hybrid inviability b Hybrid sterility c Hybrid breakdown 230 What is a unique set of habitat resources a species requires and its in uence on the environment a Speciation b Cladogenesis c Gradualism d Adaptation e Ecological niche 231 Speciation is the formation of a new species Explain allopatric and sympatric speciation 232 What is the division of species into two or more species a Cladogenesis b Polyploidy c Adaptation d Gradualism e None of the above 233 Gradualism is where a species evolves over long spans of time What is punctuated equilibrium 234 What is the science of describing naming and classifying living and extinct organisms and viruses a Systematics b Taxonomy c Binomial nomenclature d Bioinformatics e None of the above 235 What is the highest taxon level 236 In binomial nomenclature the genus and species name is or 237 Phylogenetic tress describe phylogeny which is 238 New species can be formed by cladogenesis and single species evolves into different species 239 Cladistics studies and classifies species based on 240 What is Symplesiomorphy and synapomorphy 241 T or F The ingroup is the group we re interested in in the phylogenetic tree 242 T or F Most mutations are neutral 243 Extremophiles or can live in environments with high salt content high acidity high methane levels and high temperatures 244 and surfaces of arid soils that generate 245 246 247 248 Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria abundant in fresh water oceans and wetlands and give rise to Mitochondria and plastids come from a Proteobacteria b Cyanobacteria c Eukaryotes d A and B e None of the above What are the shapes of bacteria listed a Spheres b Rods c Commonshaped d Spiralshaped What are the functions of mucilage Gram positive is thick and a dye is held in the layer Gram negative is thin and a stain is on the cells 249 250 25 l 252 253 254 What two things helps the cell move Akinetes are found in cyanobacteria and develop When comes Endospores is a touch protein coat found in some gram bacteria Brie y describe the organisms of nutrition classification a Autotrophs b Photoautotrophs c Chemoautotrophs d Heterotrophs e Photoheterotrophs f Chemoorganotrophs Brie y describe the organisms of oxygen response classification a Obligate aerobes b Facultative aerobes c Obligate anaerboes d Aerotolerant anaerobes What are the symbiotic roles of biotechnology applications a Symbiosis b Parasitism c Mutualism d Pathogens Answers 1 Brie y describe the following a Atoms smallest component of element b Element can t be broken down chemically c Molecule smallest component of compound d Compound can be broken down chemically Vertical descent progression of change in lineage horizontal gene transfer genetic exchange between different species Domains of life a Bacteria unicellular prokaryotic b Archaea unicellular prokaryotic c Eukarya unicellular and multicellular eurkaryotic 4 Genome proteome 5 Proposed explanation for natural phenomena 6 Consistent with known data make many correct predictions 7 Scientific method a Observation hypothesis experiment analyze data acceptreject hypothesis 8 Valence electrons 9 Orbitals protons 10 Brie y describe covalent hydrogen and ionic bonds a Covalent sharing of electrons Polar unequal between different electronegativities Nonpolar equal similar electronegativities b Hydrogen H atom from one polar is attracted to electronegative atom of another c Ionic electron transfers balance of electrons upset 11 Octet rule 12 Define a Hydrophobic water fearing b Hydrophilic water loving c Amphipathic both 13 Carbs lipids proteins and nucleic acids 14 Condensationdehydration 15 Hydrolysis 16 Structural isomers 17 Complete the table Monomers Bond Polymers Amino acids Peptide Proteins Monosaccharides Glycosidic Dissacharides Polysaccharides Nucleotides Phosphodiester Nucleic acids 18 Protein structures a Primary order of amino acids encoded in genes b Secondary protein folding c Tertiary 3D shape final stage for single polypeptides 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 d Quaternary two or more polypeptides Hydrogen bond ionic bond hydrophobic effect van der waals and disulfide bridge Name the two nucleic acids and their functions a DNA genetic info thymine double stranded one form b RNA decodes DNA uracil 1 strand multiple forms c Both have adenine guanine and cytosine 56 Lipids are made up of C and H and are divided into fats phospholipids steroids and waxes a Lipids are made up of fatty acids and are unsaturated or single C bond saturated b Phospholipids are made up of glycerol fatty acids and a phosphate c Steroids are interconnected carbon rings 4 Actual adjacent Nucleus What are the functions of the cell wall glycocalyX and appendages a Cell wall protect and support cell b Glycocalyx protect traps waters evade immune system c Appendages pilia agella help with movement group 2 C Cristae surface area ATP A A C D Chloroplasts and mitochondria Thylakoid membranechloroplasts photosynthesis cristaemitochondria make ATP Breakdown synthesizes Chromatids Chromosomes nucleus Protect regulation membrane transport cell signalingadhesion More for all Doesn t require require Carbohydrate More less Hypotonic hypertonic Brie y explain the three types of transporters a Uniporter single molecule b Symporter two molecules in same direction c Antiporter two molecules in different directions Against 3 Na out 2 K in Plasma membrane into 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 Functional groups Kinetic involves movement Potential stored energy Created destroyed A D and E False only Enzymes are proteins Substrates bind to enzyme Enzyme undergoes conformational changes Substrates converted to products Products are released Enzymes may be released E True Catabolic makes ATP Anabolic w ATP Substratelevel phosphorylation enzyme transfer phosphate from one molecule to another Chemiosmosis energy stored in electrochemical gradient False Catch electrons that are going away and harness them for energy Proteasomes breaks down proteins Lysosomes breaks down macromolecules F Glycolysis breakdown of pyruvate citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation a Cytosol b Energy investment cleavage energy liberation c 2 ATP and 2 NADH d Pyruvate e Substratelevelphosphorylation a Mitochondrial matrix b Pyruvate c 2 Carbon and 2 NADH d 1 Carbon 2Carbons 1 NADH e Acetyl Acetyl CoA a Mitochondrial matrix b Oxaloacetate c Citrate d 2 C02 1 ATP 3 NADH and 1 FADH2 e 4 C02 2 ATP 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 f Substratelevel phosphorylation a Inner mitochondrial memebrane b Make ATP c Oxygen d H electrochemical protonmotive force e ATP synthase f Chemiosmosis 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 True False D F Stage Light Reactions Calvin Cycle Where Thylakoid membrane Stroma Produce ATP NADPH 02 G3P True 1 Outer membrane 2 Inner membrane 3 Granum 4 Lumen 5 Thylakoids 6 Stroma II I Reaction center I C D B Noncyclic Pathway Cyclic Pathway Produces ATP and NADPH Produces ATP Transferred to NADP and eventually Return to PS1 NADPH Carbs Reduction and Carb Production Carbon Fixation Regeneration of RuBP Use Rubisco Use ATP and NADPH Use 6 ATP 2 3PG G3P 7 RuBP B A Minimize D C3 OgtOWgt Nucleotides Strands Double helix Chromosomes and Genome O C D C 95 True 96 A 97 Chromatin 98 DNA wrapping 30nm Fiber and Radial Loop Domain 99 A 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 999 A True Polypeptide D Components of Transcription Regulatory sequence in uence rate of transcription Promotor begin transcription GeneTranscribed region specifics amino acid sequence Terminator end transcription Initiation Elongation Termination B C Modifications Capping guanosine attached to 5 end Poly A tail long chain of adenines added to 3 end D True A C Aminoacyl tRNa brings new amino acid to A site peptide bond formed translocation of ribosome toward 3 end 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 A False B B D Cluster of genes under control of a promotor A Shut off Presence anabolic Mutation A D Environmental agents C Penetrate surface A Single cell 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 G29 synthesize proteins 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 offspring 159 160 161 formation 162 163 164 Benign malignant More dangerousmalignant Invasive metastatic D B Maintain genome integrity and inhibitors of cell division A B Cell death Mitosis 23 autosomes sex D G1 9cell growth need to pass restriction point S chromosomes replicate False B Division of one cell nucleus into two separate sister chromatids Division of cytoplasm into two daughter cells Organizesort chromosomes during mitosis Describe the phases of mitosis Prophase chromatids condense Prometaphase nuclear envelope fragments spine form centrosome move apart two kinetochores attach to microtubules Metaphase sister chromatids align between poles Anaphase sister chromatids attach at opposite poles Telophase chromosomes decondense nuclear membrane reform C A Homologous pairs form bivalent or tetrad crossing over Separate sister chromatids D True Deletions duplications inversion translocations B A Two copies of gene separate from each other during transmission from parent to Genotypegenetic composition Phenotypephysicalbehavioral characteristics B Alleles of different genes assort independently of each other during gamete False True XY XO ZW 165 166 167 168 169 a b C d e f 170 171 172 173 a b C 174 175 176 177 a b C 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 mass 185 a b C 186 187 188 189 True Simple Mendelian incomplete dominance codominance False F Describe brie y the 6 steps in the viral reproductive cycle Attachment phage binds to proteins in outer cell membrane Entry phage injects in DNA into cytoplasm Integration into chromosomes via integrase i Go through lysogenic cycle end cycle phage DNA excised ii Or skip lysogenic cycle Synthesis of Viral Components phage DNA circularizes host DNA degraded Viral Assembly phages make new phages Release cell lysis and new phages release A True C What is a theory of the origin of viruses Evolve form macromolecules inside living cells Regressive evolution Evolved parallel with cellular organisms B C False Brie y describe the three gene transfer between bacteria Conjugation direct physical interaction from donor to recipient Transformation DNA released from dead bacterium and taken up by another Transduction transfer from one bacterium to another A Carrier for DNA segment to be Cloned Plasmid and viral Restriction enzymes DNA ligase Recombinant vector taken up by bacteria B D Separate macromolecules DNA or proteins on a gel Charge sizelength and Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Denaturation heat DNA to separate strands Primer annealing lower temp so primers can bind to template DNA Primer extension incubate at higher temp Yeast A Insulin transgenics GMOs D 190 191 192 193 194 Haemophilus in uenza Extensive mapping and Shotgun DNA sequencing False True DNA that move from original site to a new site Can insert themselves and replicate do harm and benefit a species new genetic combinations 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 them True True Posttranslational covalent modification Homologous genes in different species BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool D Brie y describe how these people contributed to the theory of evolution Buffon life forms change over time Lamarck some animals change while others don t Malthus only fraction of population will survive and reproduce Slow geological process that leads to substantial change D Variation natural selection True Naturally found in particular location A C Anatomical developmental and molecular are the three homologies Explain Anatomical set of bones undergo evolutionary change Vestigial no function but resemble common ancestor b Developmental similar in embryonic stage but differ as adults 210 211 212 213 214 215 9 216 9999 217 Molecular similar at molecular level and evolved from ancestor Homologous genes within single species Exchange of genetic material among different species False All of the alleles for every gene in a population Population HardyWeinberg Equation p2 2pq q2 1 What does each component mean p29 homozygote dominant 2pq9heterozygote qz homozygote recessive Conditions No new mutations No natural selection Population is large No migration between different populations Random mating True 218 Adaptations 219 Brie y describe the four natural selection patterns a Directional individuals with extreme phenotype have advantage b Stabilizing individuals with intermediate average phenotype have advantage c Disruptivediversifying favors two or more genotypes and produce different phenotypes not being average d Balancing maintains genetic diversity 220 Intrasexual between members of same sex competition Intersexual between members of opposite sex female s choice showy males 221 B 222 E 223 False 224 True 225 Brie y describe the three types of nonrandom mating a Assortative similar phenotypes mate b Disassortative dissimilar phenotypes mate c Inbreeding mate based on genetic history 226 Diversity 227 Different similar 228 Brie y explain the five Prezygotic barriers of reproductive isolation a Habitat isolation geographic barrier prevents contact b Temporal isolation reproduce at different time of dayyear c Behavioral isolation important in mate choice d Mechanical isolation size in genitalia prevents mating e Gametic isolation gametes fail to unite 229 Brie y explain the three Postzygotic barriers that block the development of fertile individuals a Hybrid inviability fertilized egg can t progress past early embryo b Hybrid sterility interspecies hybrid viable but sterile c Hybrid breakdown hybrids viable and fertile but subsequent generations have genetic abnormalities 230 E 231 Allopatric members of species become geographically separated Sympatric members of species within same range diverge into two or more species 232 A 233 Species in equilibrium for long periods and then short rapid bursts of change 234 B 235 Domain 236 Italicized or underlined 237 Evolutionary history of species 238 Anagenesis 239 Evolutionary relationships 240 Symplesiomorphy shared primitive character inherited from ancestors older than last common ancestor Synapomorphy derived character originated in most recent common ancestor 241 True 242 True 243 Archaea 244 Oxygen plastids 245 A 246 What are the shapes of bacteria listed a Spheres cocci b Rods bacilli c Commonshaped vibrios d Spiralshaped spirochaetes exible sprilli rigid 247 Evade host defenses and hold colony together biofilms 248 Purpleblue pink 249 Flagella and pili 250 Winter 25 1 Positive 252 Brie y describe the organisms of nutrition classification a Autotrophs produce all or most of own organic compounds b Photoautotrophs uses light energy for synthesis of organic compounds c Chemoautotrophs use energy from chemical modification of inorganic compounds d Heterotrophs require at least one organic compounds often more e Photoheterotroph use light energy to make ATP but must take in organic compounds from environment f Chemoorganotroph obtain organic molecules for energy and carbon source 253 Brie y describe the organisms of oxygen response classification Obligate aerobes require oxygen Facultative aerobes can use oxygen or not Obligate anaerboes can t tolerate oxygen Aerotolerant anaerobes don t use oxygen but not poisoned by it 254 What are the symbiotic roles of biotechnology applications Symbiosis organism lives in close association With one another Parasitism one partner bene ts from other s expense Mutualism association benefits both partners Pathogens parasitic microbe cause disease systems by obtaining organic compounds from living hosts parasites 999 999


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