Final Study guide- ed psych
Final Study guide- ed psych Psyc3200
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc3200 at Tulane University taught by Sarah Grey in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Educational psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Study Guide Exam 1 Please remember that these are just suggestions and may not get at overarching themes offered either in class or in the text for which you will also be held responsible Relationship between theory hypothesis and data Theory created by psychologist based on experience and data Hypothesis a belief derived form the theory Data results from the test of the hypothesis is the hypothesis adequate Evidencebased practice practices backed by research and studies Quantitative research numerical data experimental quasi experimental data Describes the way things are Descriptive study asks how many good for testing the state of affairs Correlational study shows what things occur together Good for making Predictions when you are interested in a relationship but cant experiment Does not prove causation Positive correlation as one variable increases so does the other Negative correlation as one variable increases the other decreases Experimental study asks why things are Only method of research that can determine causation Contains an independent and dependent variable Random sample and extraneous variable are constant and controlled Quasiexperimental study not randomized Asks why things are but in a quali ed way Used when all factors cannot be controlled With quasi experimental studies one must consider alternative explanations Qualitative research ask how things are Not generalizable But descriptive theorygenerating and contextual Mixed Methods research combines both quantitative and qualitative methodologies Theory the place where researchers draw their data into meaningful and coherent methodologies Re ective Teaching Regular ongoing examinations and critiques of one s assumptions and instructional strategies and revision of them as necessary Self Efficacy the belief in your own ability to succeed and have a positive affect on ones students Domains of development physical cognitive and social emotional All very interconnected achievement in each domain in uence other domains Periods of development prenatal infancy early childhood middle childhood and adolescence Universality amp Diversity in development what we refer to as typical or atypical development is in uence by cultural values beliefs and expectations The sequence of development is somewhat predictable but children develop at Different rates Continuity amp Discontinuity in development Continuity is slow and steady development height and word attainment Discontinuity is abrupt development walking voice drop Plasticity the degree to which development is open to change and intervention Sensitive periods developmental period when certain biological or environmental events have especially profound effects Critical period developmental period when certain biological or environmental event are REQUIRED for normal development to occur Myelination insulates the neuron and increases the speed of reactions the last part of the brain to become myelinated is the prefrontal cortex decisionmaking planning and judgment Synaptic Pruning gets rid of unused synapses Constructivist cognition based theory Learn by doing Problem solving cannot formally be taught must be discovered Children construct their own reality based on how they interact with the world Accommodation changing old understanding because of new information After encountering disequilibrium you have to change the rules of your schema Assimilation addition of new understanding to old understanding Disequilibrium when knew information come into contrast with your created schema Something that is round and small and I can throw to mom ball tomato is small round and I can throw it but mom wasn t happy must not be a ball Schema mental concept that provides a model for understanding each aspect of the world Children have schemata for everything A unit of understanding according to Piaget Piaget s stages all of them Sensorimotor 02 sensory perception motor skills Lack object permanence Preoperational 26 basic representations of reality words gestures basic schemas egocentric thinking lack conservation of number mass volume if it looks longer or higher kids will think it has more regardless of shape Centration tendency of children to focus on one element of an object at a time Brown and white wooden beads Concrete operational 612 cant thinks abstractly Formal operational 1219 abstract thinking Understanding of others thoughts and perspectives Can answer hypotheticals More efficient problem solving Object permanence the understanding that an object still exist when it is out of view Equilibration when existing schema and sufficient to explain what a child perceives in the world around them ConservationCentration conservation the understanding that the amount of water in a glass stays the same when it is put in a different shape glass Or that the amount of beads stays the same even if you spread it out over a longer area Centration the tendency of children to focus on one element of an object at a time The bead is brown or wooden rather than both at the same time Critiques of Piaget s stages can occur earlier for some children age ranges are too strict Stages are oversimpli ed and it may over estimate adolescents Egocentrism belief that the world revolves around you don t realize that people aren t seeing the world from your perspective point of view when a kid stands in front of a TV screen they don t understand that other people aren t seeing it as well as them now English language learners amp bilingual concerns Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills BICS Day to day English but no suf cient for academic success Cognitive academic language pro ciency CALP mastery of English vocab and syntax sufficient to achieve academic success in English only curriculum Subtractive bilingualism when immersion in a newlanguage environment leads to a de cit in a child s native language Bilingual education from text 0 Teach early reading skills in child s native language o If you don t speak the language recruits other to help provide instruction in native language Use bilingual software Speak English slowly and clearly Use visual aids as supplements During small group activities encourage communication in native language Encourage but don t force participation in class discussion in EngHsh 0 Work in pairs to understand textbooks or readings 0 Have students read and report about their native country 0 Create art of native countries cultures 0000 O Vygotsky emphasized the importance of society and an outline promoting learning and development Self Talk talking yourself through it From external to internal regulations lnternalization is the process of consolidating and embedding one39s own beliefs attitudes and values when it comes to moral behavior Sociocultural theory emphasized the importance of society and an outline promoting learning and development Zone of proximal development when child is best able to master a skill The experience of a learner who works successfully with the support of another and extends hisher knowledge in the process Scaffolding applying the appropriate level of assistance and fading with time Mediated learning experience discussions between individuals where one is more knowledgeable or skilled than the other The more skilled individual helps the learners make sense of an event that they are mutually experiencing Ecological systems theory any large society encompasses various layers of environment that all have signi cant impact of development Microsystem directly impacts daily life parents siblings friends neighbors Mesosystem where locations kids spend their time Schools neighborhood Religious settings Exosystem systems at work that effect daily life Norms and regulations local gov mass media parents work place Macrosystem dominate cultural beliefs and ideologies Sense of self de ned as the way a person thinks about and views his or her traits beliefs and purpose within the world Ethnic ldentity having a strong ethnic identity is correlated with academic success Risk high probability of failing to acquire minimal academic skills necessary for Success in the adult world low SES single parents low self efficacy Socioeconomic status one s general social and economic standing in society encompasses family income occupation and educational level Protective factor reduce negative outcomes feeling included and empowered in educational experiences a role model or constant source of support Resilience success despite exceptional hardship Erikson s stages through adolescence lnfancy de ning event mutual af rmation trust v mistrust Toddler de ning event terrible twos Autonomy v shame and doubt Preschool de ning event play age initiative v guilt School age de ning event learning new skills industry v inferiority Adolescence de ning event delity and devotion to friends and causes identity v role confusion Young adulthood de ning event mutually satisfying love and af liation intimacy v isolation Middle age de ning event resolves quotmidlife crisisquot generativity v stagnation Retirement de ning event wisdom re ection and a sense of ful llment integrity v despair Moral development the development of prosocial behaviors Morality general standards of right and wrong Moral development is at its heart social development but relies on social cognition and the capacity for abstract reasoning Morality develops within a certain culture so schools and families may have e their own contradicting ideas on how things should be Kohlberg s stages all of them Preconventional moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments no he could go to jail 1 Obedience and punishment orientation if you get in trouble its wrong 2 Selfinterest exchanges self interested exchanges Conventional internal standards are imposed by others maintaining the expectations and rules of ones family group or nations yes he must protect his wife 3 Good boy good girl what would please someone else 4 Respect for authority and social order what would please someone else Post conventional morality is internal not based on external standards Autonomous moral principles life is more important than money 5 Law and order follow the law 6 Human rights and social welfare morality abstract human principles foster our moral principles Induction think about what you ve done and how it will affect someone else Heteronomous morality Piagets early stages of development Rules are seen as unchangeable Intentions are not considered Autonomous morality second stage in Piaget s theory Understanding that rules can and may be modi ed Take intention into considerations not just consequences Rejected students actively disliked Neglected students people don t care about them either way Diversity in moral development range in emphasis from individuals right and fairness justice orientation to compassion for others care orientation Social loa ng if you are working in a group you put forward less effort than when working alone Group differences consistently observed differences averages among diverse groups of students There is considerable variability within groups and considerable overlap between groups Examples Languages and dialects African American English is its own dialect Talkativeness and assertiveness African American cultures are more talkative Asian cultures are more tentative Physically active Boys are temperamentally predisposed to be active Girls tend to have advantages in reading and writing After puberty boys tend to have advantage in mathematically problem solving But why Socialization cultural expectations Stereotype threat being at risk of con rming as selfcharacteristic a negative stereotype about ones groups Students who are members of academically stigmatized groups are more susceptible to teacher expectancy effects lmplicit Bias attitude or stereotypes that are by de nition not deliberate of explicit Teachers are more likely to discipline minority children or interpret their behavior as less innocent Teacher expectations teachers show more negative expectations about Latinos and African American students relative to European students Direct less positive speech and less encouragement to students of color may be due to implicit prejudices Social identities a person s sense of who they are based on their group membership Race a categorization system that groups people by distinguishable physical differences Socially constructed Ethnicity ones values beliefs and norms that are shared with a particular cultural group usually related to shared national or geographic origin Culture behaviors and belief systems of a social group students with strong ethnic identity tend to have higher academic achievement Cultural mismatch situation in which a child s home culture and the school culture hold con icting expectations for behaviors Culturally responsive teaching use of instructional strategies that build on students existing knowledge and skill and are consistent with their culturally preferred ways of learning and behaving Differentiated Instruction practice of individualizing instructional methods to align with each students existing knowledge skills and needs Individual differences diversity in abilities and characteristic among students at a particular age and within a particular gender or cultural group Intelligence theories including Spearman s g theoretica general factor in intelligence that in uences one s ability to learn and perform in a wide variety of contexts Fluid intelligence ability to acquire knowledge quickly and adapt effectively to new situations CA39ITELL Crystallized intelligence knowledge and skills accumulated from prior experiences schooling or culture CA39ITELL Multiple intelligences At least 8 independent abilities linguistic spatial musical bodily interpersonal intrapersonal naturalist GARDNER Cognitive styles way in which someone tends to think and process information typically not by choice Dispositions general inclination and desire to approach and think in a particular way Flynn Effect Average IQ scores have increased over time around the world Entity vs Incremental view of intelligence entity is focused on true ability when faced with challenged more likely to avoid the task and are more affected by stereotype threat lncremental focused on improving rather than proving more likely to increase effort to overcome hard tasks And less affected by stereotype threats Study Guide exam 2 Theories of learning cognitive behavioral social cognitive contextual Cognitive general theoretical perspective that focuses on the mental processes underlying learning and behavior Behavioral theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are descried and explained in terms of stimulus response relationships Social cognitive theoretical perspective that focuses on how people learn by observing others and how they eventually assume control over their Own behavior Contextual theory of learning that focuses on how peoples general physical social and or cultural surroundings support their learning development and behavior Learning longterm change in mental representation or associations as a result of experience Information Processing Theory theoretical perspective that focuses on the speci c ways in which learners mentally think about or process new information and events Sensory Memory component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief period of time Short Term Working memory component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information for a short time Executive Functioning guides how you allocate your processing power Determine what we attend to and what we encode Cognitive Load cognitive burden that a particular learning activity places on working memory at any onetime includes both the amount of information students must simultaneously think about and the speci c cognitive processes students must engage in to understand what they re studying Long Term Memorycomponent of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time Declarative memory knowledge concerning that nature of how things are was or will be Procedural memory knowledge concerning how to do something Rote learning learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it Meaningful learning Cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know Elaboration cognitive process in which learners embellish 0 new information based on what they already know Organization cognitive process in which learners make connections among various pieces on information they need to learn Previewing aka prior knowledge activation process of reminding learners of what they already know relative to a new topic Schemas in memory tightly organized set of facts about a speci c topic Ability to mentally save something that has been previously learned also the mental location where such information is saved Retrieval amp Retrieval cuesstimulus that provides guidance about where to look for a piece of information in longterm memory Situated learning knowledge behaviors and thinking skills acquired and used primarily within certain contexts with limited or no retrieval and use in other contexts Automaticity ability to respond quickly and efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing a task Consolidation neurological process in which newly acquired knowledge is firmed up in the brain often takes several hours Decay gradual weakening of information stored in longterm memory especially if the info is used infrequently Hot cognition learning or cognitive processing that is emotionally charged Metacognition knowledge and beliefs about the nature of human cognitive processes including ones own as well as conscious attempts to engage in behaviors and thought processes that increase learning and memory Components of metacognition developing maintainingmonitoring evaluating Developing a plan of action Maintainingmonitoring the plan Evaluating the pan Learning strategies one or more cognitive processes used intentionally for a particular learning task Overt strategies learning strategy that is at least partially evident in a learner s behavior taking notes during a lecture Covert strategies learning strategy that is strictly mental rather than behavioral in nature and thus cannot be directly observed by others Self explanation process of occasionally stopping to verbalize to oneself and hence to better understand material being read or studied Selfquestioning process of asking oneself as away of checking understanding of a topic Epistemic beliefs belief about the nature of knowledge or knowledge acquisition Developmental in uences on metacognition what children understand and believe about learning changes Extraneous cognitive load imposed by the manner in which information is presented lntrinsic cognitive load imposed by the learning task Germane cognitive load devoted to processing information constructing and automating schemas Sustained attention for sustained period of time Selective attention focus on a speci c aspect while ignoring others Divided attention focusing on more than one input at a time Critical thinking evaluating he accuracy credibility and worth of information and lines of reasoning Divided attention and classroom learning divided attention tanks your performance on both tasks Behaviorist view of learning focused on the observable and objectively measurable Assumed people were born a blank slate Classical conditioning form of learning in which a new involuntary response is acquired as a result of two stimuli being presented close together in time Unconditioned stimulus stimulus that elicits a particular response without prior learning Unconditioned Response response that is elicited by a particular stimulus without prior learning Neutral stimulus stimulus that does not elicit any particular response Conditioned stimulus stimulus that beings to elicit a particular response through classical conditioning Conditioned response response that begins to be elicited by a particular stimulus through classical conditioning Generalization phenomenon in which a person learns a response to a particular stimulus and then makes the same response to a similar stimulus Extinction gradual disappearance of an acquired response in CC result from repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus Response burst immediate increase behavior to try to gain attention Differential reinforcement what s effective will differ for every student Monitor results of reinforcement to make sure it is working Instrumental conditioning vs classical learning process in which a response either increases or decreases as a result of being followed by either a reinforcement or punishment Effective reinforcerswhat s effective changes with development Extrinsic reinforcement reinforcers that comes from the outside environment rather than from within the learner Intrinsic reinforcement reinforcer that is provided by the learner or inherent in the task being performed Positive punishment aka presentation punishment punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus presumable one a learner nds unpleasant Negative punishment aka removal punishment punishment involving removal of an existing stimulus presumably one a learners doesn t want to lose Contingencypossible outcomes Should be made explicit Positive reinforcement consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation of a stimulus Negative reinforcement consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal of a stimulus Delay of grati cation and rewards ability to forego small immediate reinforcers in order to obtain larger ones later on Continuous reinforcement reinforcement of a response every time it occurs Using reinforcement effectively regularly reinforce desirable behavior Use extrinsic motivation only when absolutely necessary Antecedent stimuli stimulus that in uences the probability that a particular response will follow Antecedent response response that in uences the probability that a certain other response will follow Cueing use of a verbal or nonverbal signal to indicate that a certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop Using punishment only if absolutely ncesarry Shouldnt be overly severe and make sure students understand why the behavior is punished Use punishment privately When punishing provide examples of preferable behavior Basic principles of social learning theory interdependence of environmental behavioral and personal variables in in uencing learning and development Modeling demonstrating a behavior for another person or observing and imitating another person s behavior Live models a person Symbolic models a character Verbal instruction listening Conditions for modeling attention retention reproduction motivation most successful modeling when child is paying attention and remembering model behavior when they are phsyclly able to reproduce behavior and when they want to Most effective model will be someone with whom the student can connect with Vicarious reinforcement amp punishment phenomenon in which a response decreases or increases in frequency when another person is observed being punished or reinforced for that response Nonoccurrence the non occurrence of an expected consequence can have a reinforcingpunishing effect in and of itself Selfefficacy belief that you will be successful effects motivation Pygmalion effect high expectation high success Teachers expectation indicate student outcomes Selfregulation regulation of ones own cognitive processes and studying behaviors in order to learn successfully Social Construction of Knowledge Learning and development are inextricably dependent on and bound to various physical social and cultural contexts Constructivist teaching teachers should make use of authentic activities to prepare students Learning fueled by student interest Role of social interactions and culture in contextual constructivist theories of learning interactions facilitates organization of thought exposure to different views discovery of inconsistencies in your own thoughts and practice in learning Role of schema in contextual theories schemas are the starting point for new learning Worldviews general culturally based set of assumptions about reality that in uence understanding of a wide variety of phenomena Constructivist vs Traditional classrooms constructivist is drive by student interest students are seen as thinkers with emerging theories teacher behaves interactively assessment occurs through observation and students work primarily in groups Over justi cation effect extrinsic reinforcement of an activity that students already nd intrinsically reinforcing may undermine student interest in the task Expectancy times value theory amount of effort is determined by the degree of expectation of success in interaction with the degree to which the reward is valued Extrinsic motivation motivation resulting from factors external to the individual And unrelated to the task being performed lntrinsic motivation motivation resulting from internal person characteristic or inherent in the task being performed Entity belief that intelligence is a distinct ability that is relatively permanent and unchangeable Vs incremental view of intelligence belief that intelligence can improve with effort and practice Effective praise praise effort not innate ability you worked so hard vs you re so smart Attributions for success and failure learner are eager to identify cause of things that happen to them Generally attribute success to internal causes and failure to external causes Internal vs external locus of control whowhat is in control of the outcome of a situation Stable vs unstable attribution will the cause be likely to change or is it long term Controllable vs uncontrollable can you in uence or change outcome Anxiety feeling of uneasiness and apprehension concerning a situation with an uncertain outcome Optimal arousal different people have different optimal arousals students more likely to stay on task when activites keep them sufficiently aroused Mastery orientation desire to acquire new knowledge or master new skills vs performance orientation desire to demonstrate high ability and make a good impression Learned helplessness generally fairly pervasive belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment Study Guide Exam 3 Includes ALL TERMS from Study Guides for exam 1 and exam 2 as well General principles in instructional strategies Backwards design approach to instructional planning in which a teacher rst determines the desired end result then identi es appropriate assessments and nally determines appropriate instructional strategies Differentiated instruction practice of individualizing instruction methods and possibly also individualizing speci c content and instructional goals to align with each student s existing knowledge skills and needs Authentic activities classroom activity similar to an activity that students are apt to encounter in the outside world Teacherdirected instruction approach to instruction in which the teacher is largely in control of the content and course of the lesson Learnerdirected instruction approach to instruction in which students have considerable control regarding the issues they address and the ways they address them Instructional goals desired longterm outcome of instruction Instructional objective desired outcome of a lesson or unit Expository instruction approach to instruction in which information is presented in essentially the same form in which students are expected to learn it Lower level questions question that requires students to retrieve and recite what they have learned in essentially the same way they learned it Higher level questions question that requires students to use previously learned information in a new way that is to engage in complex cognitive processes Direct instruction approach to instruction that uses a variety of techniques in a fairly structured manner to promotes learning of fundamental knowledge and skills Discovery learning approach to instruction in which students construct their own knowledge about a topic through rsthand interaction with an aspect of their environment Inquiry learning approach to instruction in which students apply complex reasoning skills in their examination and interpretation of new phenomena and data sources Jigsaw technique instructional technique in which materials are divided among member of a cooperative group with different students being responsible for learning different content and teaching it to other group members Bloom s taxonomy taxonomy of 6 cognitive processes varying in complexity that Lessons might be designed to foster Positive Behavioral Interventions amp Supports schoolwide positive behavior support Systematic tiered model of behavioral supports designed to facilitate supportive schoolwide environment that supports all students Based on socialcognitive and behavioral learning theories Meet needs of all students and recognizing that students have different needs Don t assume students know the rules or that they will learn without instruction School wide so that when students come from different classes they have shared understanding of what is expected quotCreating a setting conducive to learningquot highquality instruction physical arrangement strong working relationships psychological climate limits are clear monitoring of progress individualized developmentally appropriate culturally responsive Effective classroom management from class minimize crowding and distraction maximizing structure and predictability state teach and review expectations provide more acknowledgement for appropriate than inappropriate behavior maximize opportunities for students to respond to you maximize active engagement actively and continuously supervise respond to inappropriate behavior quickly positively and directly Establish multiple strategies for acknowledging appropriate behavior provide speci c feedback for errors and corrections Functional behavioral assessment Pro active should be used at rst sign of misbehavior Systematic evidencebased practice Guides behavior intervention planning DASH for use in functional behavior assessments DEFINE behavior in observable and measurable terms ASK about behavior by interviewing staff and students SEE the behavior HYPOTHESIZE a formulation Setting events Situations under which a problem behavior is more likely to occur quotSLOW TRIGGERsquot Antecedents Trigger When where why does the behavior occur Consequences what happens directly afterwards Conducting a functional behavioral assessment why does the behavior occur what function is it serving Complete ABC analysis What patterns do you see Formative assessment to improve learning by identifying areas that may need improvement provide feedback Administered continuously during instruction Used to check understanding and for selfmonitoring Summative assessment used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs and services Done after instructions at predetermined time to give grades and promotions Psychoeducational Assessments comprehensive assessment of a students cognitive abilities social and emotional development academic success and school adjustment Tier 4 after intensive intervention was unsuccessful Tiered systems for assessing academic and behavior problems Tier 1 2 3 Primary prevention school classroom wide system all students staff and settings Secondary prevention specialized group systems for students with atrisk behavior tertiary prevention Specialized individualized systems for students with highrisk
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