Comprehensive Bio 1023
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Hughes on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Plants and Humans Exam 1 Chapter 1: An Introduction to Biology ● Characteristics of living organisms: o Composed of cells o Metabolism o Respond to stimuli o Growth and development o Reproduction o Ability to evolve ● Hierarchy: o Atom: smallest “functional” unit of all chemical substances o Molecule: two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds o Organelle: membrane-bound sub-cellular structure with own unique function o Cell: simplest unit of organism o Tissue: association of many cells of the same type o Organ: two or more types of tissue combined to perform a common function o Organism: living thing that maintains an internal order and is separate from the environment o Species: group related organisms sharing distinct form o Population: group of individuals of same species that occupy same environment o Community: assemblage of population of different species living in same place/time o Ecosystem: biotic community of populations and the abiotic environment affecting that community o Biosphere: all regions of the Earth, and in the atmosphere, where organisms exist ● Scientific method: o Steps: ▪ Observation ▪ Identification ▪ Experimental investigation ▪ Theoretical explanation o Hypothesis: proposed explanation for natural phenomenon based on observations or experimental studies; must make predictions that can be supported or rejected o Theory: broad explanation of some aspect of the natural world; can never be proved true Chapter 2: Energy and Metabolism ● Energy: ability to promote, change, or do work o Kinetic: associated with movement – football player running o Potential: energy due to structure or location of substance – arrow in the quiver of a bow o Thermodynamics: ▪ Energy cannot be created or destroyed ▪ Transfer or transformation of energy from one form to another increases entropy ● Metabolism: process whereby chemical energy found in food is converted to useful biological energy; all chemical reactions within a cell that allows an organism to maintain structures and grow and most importantly respond to the environment ● Anabolism: chemical reactions responsible for “building” large macromolecules from smaller subunits o “Biosynthesis” requires input of energy ● Catabolism: the breakdown of larger molecules into subunits releasing chemical bond energy o Used for recycling subunits o Used to obtain energy for endergonic reactions o Energy stored in energy intermediates ● Oxidation: removal of electrons ● Reduction: addition of electrons ● ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) o Primary energy carrying molecule in the cell o Bond between 2 terminal PO ar4 high energy bonds o If PO4is removed, energy is released and can be “captured” by the cell to do work Chapter 3: Organic Molecules I ● Dehydration reaction: synthesis reaction that links subunits (monomers) together to form larger molecules (polymers); results in loss of water molecule ● Hydrolysis (water-breaking): polymers broken down into monomers; uses a molecule of water ● Carbohydrates: composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms; most carbon atoms are linked to a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group o Ex: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides ● Proteins: polymers composed of amino acid monomers; 20 amino acids with common structure; side-chain determines structure and function; amino acids joined by peptide bonds; joined by dehydration reaction; broken apart by hydrolysis o Stuctures: ▪ Primary: linear sequence; genetically determined ▪ Secondary: folding or pleating of primary structure; helices and sheets; key determinants of a protein’s characteristics; shape is specific and important to function ▪ Tertiary: bending and folding of secondary structure gives complex 3D shape; interactions among side chains; final level of structure for single polypeptide chain ▪ Quaternary: made up of 2 or more polypeptides ● Enzymes: speeds up rate of chemical reactions; special class of protein catalyst Chapter 4: Organic Molecules II ● Lipids: fats and fat-like substances; composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon; water-repellent properties and inability to dissolve in water (hydrophobic) o Triglycerides (fats): fats formed by bonding glycerol to three fatty acids; important for storing energy ▪ Unsaturated: 1 or more C atoms form double bonds; plant oils; usually liquid at room temp ▪ Saturated: every C chain bonded to 2 or more H atoms; usually solid at room temp; animal fats o Phospholipids: glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group ▪ Phosphate region: polar; hydrophilic head ▪ Fatty acid chains: nonpolar; hydrophilic tail o Waxes: comprise outermost layer of leaves, stems; control evaporation, ability to get wet, and hydration; harder and more water-resistant than fats ● Nucleic acids: large molecules made up of nucleotide subunits; responsible for storage, expression, and transmission of genetic information ● Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): store genetic information ● Ribonucleic acid (RNA): decodes this information into instructions for a polypeptide chain ● Cytosine → Guanine ● Adenine → Thymine (Uracil for RNA) Chapter 5: General Features of Plant Cells ● 3 tenets of cell theory: o All living things ae composed of one or more cells o Cell is the most basic unit of life o All cells arise from pre-existing, living cells by biogenesis ● Robert Hooke: noted that plant tissue was organized into compartments; coined “cell” after room monks live in ● Matthew Schleiden: proposed cells are living and plants are composed of aggregates of cells ● Theodore Schwann: animal tissues; proposed animals are made of cells ● Rudolph Virchow: proposed that every cell originates from another cell ● Prokaryotic (before + nucleus): simple cell structure; lack a membrane bound nucleus; genetic material located in nucleoid; first cell type to evolve o Ex: bacteria – abundant, not harmful; archaea – less common, found in extreme environments ● Eukaryotic (true – nucleus): exhibit compartmentalization; DNA inside nucleus; organelles; shape, size, and organization of cells vary considerably among different species and even among different cells types of same species o Ex: protists, fungi, plants, animals ● Plant cells o Cell wall: rigid, porous structure o Central vacuole: storage of water, enzymes, inorganic ions, protein, pigments; maintenance of turgor pressure o Cytosol/cytoplasm: region outside the organelles but inside cell membrane; aqueous environment; cytoplasm is all contents inside cell membrane o Nucleus: storage and processing of genetic information; cell’s genetic material o Endoplasmic reticulum: ▪ Rough ER: initial synthesis and sorting of proteins; insertion of newly synthesized proteins into membrane ▪ Smooth ER: detoxification of harmful molecules; synthesis and modification of lipids o Golgi apparatus: secretion; processing; protein sorting o Semiautonomous organelles ▪ Mitochondrion: double membrane; inner membrane highly folded; ATP production; contains own DNA ▪ Chloroplast: capture light energy and use some to synthesize organic molecules; contain own DNA ● Diffusion: o Passive: diffusion of solute through membrane without transport protein; no input of energy; high concentration to low concentration o Facilitated: diffusion of solute through membrane with aid of transportation protein; transport protein provide passageway for movement of some but not all substances across cell ● Osmosis: movement of water across membranes to balance solute concentrations o If solutes cannot move, water movement can make the cell shrink or swell as water leaves or enters the cell Important vocab ● Biochemistry: involves understanding of live and the chemical processes that govern it; organic molecules contain carbon and are building blocks of all living things; organic compounds, enzymes, nucleic acids ● Control group: controlled; not focused on during experiment ● Disaccharide: carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharides; joined by dehydration or condensation reaction; broken apart by hydrolysis ● Exoskeleton: structural role in polysaccharides as chitin ● Macromolecule: large, complex organic molecules; carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids ● Monosaccharide: simple sugars; most common are 5 (pentose) or 6 (hexose) carbons; ring or linear structures ● Polysaccharide: carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharides linked together (polymers); energy stored as starch for plants and moderately branched; stored in liver and muscle cells as glycogen for animals and highly branched ● Ribosome: protein synthesis
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