Final exam study guide
Final exam study guide ANT 102
Popular in Human Origins
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
verified elite notetaker
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 363 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
Reviews for Final exam study guide
Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/04/15
ANTHROPOLOGY 102 1111 STUDY GUIDE 3 Pleistocene 25 million years ago supraorbital torus ridge on the frontal bone above the eye socket encephalization an increase in brain size by so much that it makes a difference Australopithecus afarensis Lucy is an example of this extinct hominid that lived from 3929 million years ago So far they ve only been discovered in Eastern Africa Pliocene about 5 million25 million years ago occipital torus an occasional ridge near the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone Homo ergaster species of homo who lived in Eastern Africa during the pleistocene Australopithecus anamensispart of an evolving lineage with Australopithecus afarensis found in Kenya and Ethiopia source of the oldest known human skeleton Paleolithic 26 million years ago10000 years ago denotes the beginnings of stone tools Nariokotome an 85 complete skeleton of homo erectus from 16 million years ago discovered in Kenya that shows how people started adapting to tropical climates by being taller and thinner EF1 1813 gracile Australopithecus but with small teeth homo habilis skull discovered in Koobi Fora Kenya estimated at 19 million years old Australopithecus F1 obustus not our ancestors but overlapped with homo s and didn t become extinct until about 1 million years ago they had large zygomatic arches broad deep cheek bones and a sagittal crest extra area for muscle attachment to support large jaws Hand axe or biface a tool that varied in size but is shaped by flaking off pieces of the entire rock Dmanisi an archaeological site in the nation of Georgia Lucy example of Australopithecus Australopithecus boisei lived in Eastern Africa during the Pleistocene discovered by Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge Tanzania F1 ichard Leakey son of Mary and Louis Leakey Lazaret Cave prehistoric occupation site in France Oldowan earliest evidence of human tool making and working discovered by Louis Leakey Australiopithecus garhi 25 million year old gracile australopithecine Homo rudolfensis early homo big brain big face big teeth ER 1470 Terra Amata one of the first discoveries of manmade human habitations in Europe Homo erectus initial appearance in East Africa 19 million years ago Eugene Dubois credited with the discovery of homo erectus Homo habilis species credited with the development of stone tools found at Olduvai Gorge have slightly larger brains Mary Leakey wife of Louis Leakey and contributing anthropologist on his team Ardipithecus ramidus one of the earliest ancestors to humans after we diverged from the ape lineage EF1 3733 homo ergaster early homo erectus EF1 1470 homo rudolfensis big face big teeth big brain Louis Leakey paleoanthropologist and archaeologist whose work established human evolutionary development especially through his discoveries and work at Olduvai Gorge Neandertal closely related to modern humans went extinct 41 00039000 years ago Orrorin tugenensis early species from 61 57 million years ago Miocene the Age of Apes when most of EuropeAfrica was a forest Middle Miocene saw the loss of forest and therefore a drop in apes Late Miocene shifted the climate to a cooler one and saw the takeover of grasslandsavanna Acheulian period of time 171100 million years ago that saw development of technology with the handaxe wooden tools controlling fire and adaptation to more inhospitable conditions Savannah this environment took over during the Miocene period after the loss of forest area adaptive radiation adaptation to certain foods in certain niches expanded cheek teeth allows for the consuming of just about anything evolutionary trait of a later australopithecine overlapping canines second thing to evolve out of Australopithecus first thing to evolve was bipedalism Bipedalism the first evolutionary measure of Australopithecus the ability to walk on two feet thick molar enamel in humans for crushing and grinding diastema gap for upper canine to fit into long legsshort legs adaptation to different environment sagittal crest protrusion of bone on the skull that serves as the base and support for jaw muscle sexual dimorphism the lack of a huge difference in size between male and female of the same species basinshaped pelvis modern human pelvis Laetoli a site in Tanzania known for the discovery by Mary Leakey of preserved footprints dated at 37 million years old brain sizebody size brain size generally increases with body size birth canal when our bodies switched to bipedalism the birth canal had to be reconfigured making it much narrower mid facial projection prognathic mid face Australopithecus Africanus gracile Australopithecus different niche than Robustus flat face vs prognathic flake tools a stone tool created by flaking parts off of a stone occipital bun prominent bulge of occipital bone on back of skull lower facial projection prognathic lower jaw ATG African Transitional Group the group that the Heidelbergs of East Africa evolved as blade tools a stone tool made by striking flakes from a stone Terra Amata archaeological site where tools from the early Paleolithic period were found in addition to evidence of domestication of fire CroMagnon first early modern humans in Europe Neandertals extinct population that overlapped with the existence of modern humans Omo Herto earliest fossil evidence of modern human appearance in East Africa Ethiopia assimilation model this model supports the idea that premodern humans interbred with each other ex Neandertals interbred with early homo sapiens FoxP2 gene a protein in humans that is needed for proper speech and development Broken Hill Kabwe an example of homo heidelbergensis complete replacement model modern populations started rising in Africa about 200000 years ago and then migrated from Africa to replace populations in Europe and Asia retromolar space space at the back of the mouth found in some Neandertals because of their prognathism Mousterian style of mostly flint tools credited to Neandertals in the Paleolithic H heidelbergensis post homo erectus 400000 years ago expanded brain size expanded brain case parallel sided skull cave paintings suggested to be part of religious ceremonies celebrating hunting Venus figurines statuettes of pregnant women to celebrate fertility flexed burial position body is purposefully placed in the fetal position Piltdown a hoax where someone combined the skull of a modern human with the jawbone of a chimpanzee and presented it as the remains of an early human Skhul Qhafseh descendant of homo heidelbergensis 1 What climatic change occurred at the end of the Miocene period What ecologic change did it cause What change in primate evolution did it precipitate hint end of the Age of Apes What kind of ecological context did humans evolve in big hint savannah At the end of the Miocene period India crashed into Asia to form a larger continent This changed the oceanic current and created a dryer cooler climate A lot of the forests could not sustain in the new cooler environment and the land was transitioned into grasslandssavanna Since apes primarily live in an arboreal niche they were forced to adapt themselves to live in this new open environment Humans came about from the apes having to adapt to the new savannagrassland environment 2 What makes Australopithecus afarensis an evolutionary mosaic That is what features are still ape what features are apereminiscent what features are clearly human What are the unique features of Australopithecines hint cheek teeth Ape features long arms and short legs that retain the ability to climb apelike skull with prognathism large canines with distal cutting blade small brain size Human features basinshaped pelvis bipedalism Iaetoli footprints aligned big toe foramen magnum is under the skull bicondylar angle femur angled inwards at the knee Australopithecine humongous cheek teeth 3 What is a gracile and a robust australopithecine How many different species of gracile and robust are there What is the evolutionary consequence of the robust forms hint extinction Gracile Australopithecine widespread throughout Eastern and Northern Africa bipedal with footprints very similar to modern humans small in stature in between 3 and 5 feet sexual dimorphism Robust Australopithecine not our ancestors more like bipedal gorillas have a sagittal crest to center and anchor chewing muscles overlapped with homo s and didn t become extinct until about one million years ago The robust forms of Australopithecus went extinct about one million years ago 4 Why are there so many different species of genus Homo ergaster habilis rudolfensis appearing around 2418 million years ago Which one had the big cheek teethbig facebig brain hint ER1470 Which had little cheek teethlittle brain hint ER1813 Which one had big brainsmall cheek teeth which ER is left Which one of the three survived to become H erectus There are so many different species of genus homo appearing around 2418 million years ago because homo s started spreading into different areas and had to adapt to different climates and food sources ER 1470 is homo rudolfensis and had big cheek teethbig facebig brain ER 1830 is homo habilis and had little cheek teethlittle brain ER 3733 is homo ergaster and had big brainsmall cheek teeth Homo ergaster is the primitive version of homo erectus 4 Why is the Nariokotome kid so important What do his long legs suggest The Nariokotome kid is important because the specimen suggests that people had started adapting to their environments His long legs suggest that the evolution of sweating had already happened 5 What obstetric problems accompany the evolution of greater brain size How does that show up on the skeleton When we evolved to walk on two legs a reconfiguring of the birth canal took place to make it a lot narrower Because the birth canal was now narrower and the brain size bigger there had to be a way to allow the head to come out of the mother In homos there is a skull structure called a fontanelle that allows the frontal skull bones to slide over each other during birth compressing the head to allow it out The fontanelle remains open until about two years of age to allow for the growth of the brain On a skeleton one would be able to observe a not yet fully closed fontanelle 6 What morphological features distinguish Homo erectus Note where maximum cranial breadth is located Note that it is the lower face tooth bearing portion that is forward projecting Expanded brain case looks more human at this point braincase is broadest at the base of the skull low forehead with brow ridges reduced prognathism but still more so than modern humans no chin because of larger teeth prominent nose 7 When do you find H erectus What parts of the world are they found How is this different from Australopithecine distribution Homo erectus is found initially in East Africa but expanded into South Africa Europe Asia and Indonesia about 1618 million years ago Most fossils for Australopithecines are found in the Great Rift Valley in South East and Central Africa 9 What is a hand axe How is it different from an Oldowan tool What is the Levallois technique How it is an improvement over the core tool What is a flake tool What is a blade tool A hand axe is a tool made by flaking off pieces of stone from all over the tool it looks like an arrowhead An Oldowan tool is different from a hand axe because it is not completely chipped away at Only the top piece of an Oldowan tool has flakes chipped off of it The Levallois technique creates more of an edge by cutting the stone into a turtle shell shape and then whacking off the edge The Levallois technique is an improvement because it produces two tools with more variety and more usefulness A flake tool is one that has been shaped by flaking off pieces of the material A blade tool is one made in the same general way but it is at least twice as long as it is wide 10 Who are Neandertals and what is their distinctive morphology Why are they an evolutionary problem What is their relationship to anatomically modern Homo sapiens Neandertals are short and stocky They are built for colder climates and are a more primitive race as the homo sapiens although they lived during overlapping time periods They are an evolutionary problem because they lived during an overlapping time frame with homo sapiens so they can t be a part of our evolution It is debated whether or not Neandertals and anatomically modern homo sapiens interbred 11 What is the ATG When do anatomically modern H sapiens appear Where What features characterize them site Herto What is Out of Africa II The ATG is the African Transitional Group Anatomically modern homo sapiens appear about 160000 years ago in Ethiopia Herto and Omo The distinguishing characteristics of modern Homo sapiens are change in cranial vault shape of the skull to high and round we have a smaller orthognathic flat face face supraorbital torus brow ridge is absent lower cheek margin is at a right angle much smaller teeth mean that it can be pulled back into our face and expose our chins Out of Africa II is our moving out of Africa for the second time This time we moved into Skuhl and Quafzeh lsrael about 80100000 years ago 12 What does the Neandertal DNA reveal Are they similar to us How long have they been separate from African Homo sapiens sapiens Is their evidence of premodern admixture with modern humans hint Asian DNA data The Neandertal DNA reveals that they had equal language capabilities as we do FOXP2 gene The MCRf variant in Neandertals also suggests that some of them had pale skin and red hair They are similar enough to have interbred with us 13 of Europeans and Northern Asians have Neandertal DNA Neandertals have been separate from homo sapiens for about 200000 years after they split off from Heidelbergensis 13 Why did modern humans stay in the Middle East for thousands of years before entering Europe When did modern humans enter Australia North America Modern humans stayed in the Middle East for thousands of years before entering Europe because they had not yet adapted to the colder climate They still had somewhat dark skin and a tropical adapted body build Modern humans entered Australia about 50000 years ago and North America about 30000 years ago
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'