Art History 101 Quiz 5 Study Guide
Art History 101 Quiz 5 Study Guide AHI 101LR
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Art History 101: Quiz 5 African Art: Sub Sahara Africa Head of a King, Yoruba, 12-15 century à h -Africans believed in the divinity of kings, it was traditional to sculpt busts of the king -Cast of zinc brass using the lost-wax method -Face is covered with thin, parallel scarification patterns (decorations made by scarring) Memorial Head of an Oba, Benin, 16 Century -Tradition of casting memorial head for the shrines of royal ancestors Great Friday Mosque, Jenne, Mali -When the 26 king of Jenne converted to Islam in the 13 century, he transformed his palace into a mosque -The mosque’s eastern or “marketplace” façade has 3 towers, which contain the Mihrab at their center -The crowning ornaments at the top of each tower bear ostrich eggs, which are a symbol of purity and fertility -The current mosque is based on the 13 century original, and is a mix of African and Islamic architecture Four uses of African Art 1.) Royal art 2.) Shrines 3.) Spirits 4.) Masks Terms: Animistic Religion- Believe non-human entities are spiritual beings; spirits may be good or evil Oba- Hereditary tribal ruler in Africa Movie: How did Africans use their art? Give 2 examples. Masks were used in ceremonies, and to incite fear when going into battle. Why is African art unrealistic, what was it trying to express? African art seeks to express the emotional side of people, rather than to show them with correct proportions. What attracted Europeans to African art? The “psychological truth to human form”, they admired the aesthetic of simplicity and spiritual nature of the art. How do Africans feel about the display of African art in museums? They do not feel that it accurately displays the culture. The art needs to be seen in use in an African village to understand it, not showcased in a glass box. Art of the New World Teotihuacan, Mexico -Located 30 miles north of Mexico City -Experienced a period of rapid growth early in the first millennium, was the largest city in the Americas for a time, residents lived in walled apartment compounds -The city’s orientation was chosen for its calendric significance & response to surrounding landscape Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent, Teotihuacan, 200 AD -Located within the Ciudadela, a vast sunken plaza surrounded by temple platforms -Tlaloc (god of rain), and Quetzalcoatl (created mankind & gave humanity agriculture) are depicted on the pyramid Bloodletting Ritual, Teotihuacan, 600 AD -Fresco from Teotihuacan, pigment on lime plaster -Elaborately dressed man enriches & revitalizes the earth with his blood -Large animal headdress indicates a high rank -Stands between rectangular plots of earth and scatters drops of blood from his hand -Bloodletting rituals were widespread in Mesoamerica Cylindrical vessel with Ballgame scene, Mayan Cup, 700 AD -Shows four lords playing a ballgame -Painter has shown a moment of movement, where players are all in action -Vessel used for drinking chocolate, a frothy & bitter beverage consumed on courtly & ritual occasions Terms: Glyphs- hieroglyphic character or symbol Popul Vuh- Mayan creation myth Bonampak tomb-Mayan archeological site, includes the most well-preserved Mayan murals North America-Anasazi & pueblo Art Great Serpent Mound, Ohio, 1070 -1400 ft long, 5 ft high -Snake appears to be eating an egg -4 years before mound was constructed, Hailey’s comet passed over the area-this event may have spurred the building of the mound -Funerary monument-graves are buried inside Settlement of Cahokia, Illinois, 1000-1300 -One of largest settlements in North America -Central ball court surrounded by a series of smaller mounds, mound is aligned with the sun at the equinox & may have had special uses during planting or harvest festivals -Outside of stockade was a ring of 48 rods used as a sundial Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, 1200 -Town of about 4,000 people in the shape of a semicircle -Original structure was made of wood and 4-5 stories high, wood was brought in from pine forests over 50 miles away -Town was divided into summer & winter clans, and was closely tied to astronomy -Wealthy community that could afford semi-precious stones such as turquoise Hunter’s Petroglyph, Utah, 1300 -Engraving of a hunter in the rock face of Nine Mile Canyon -Either a record of a successful hut, or part of a ceremony to ensure good hunting Terms: Sipapu-Small hole in the floor of the kiva used as a fire pit Kiva-Underground meeting room used for a wide variety of activities (education, prayer, social gatherings) Kachina- Underworld spirits associated with bringing rain & animals Petroglyph-pecked or engraved rock art Medieval Europe Chi Rho Iota page from the Book of Kells, Scotland, late 8 or early 9 Century th -Monasteries rose dramatically, Christianity was a major binding mechanism of people during this time -Illuminated manuscript-monks wrote the word of God on pages made of velum, highly decorative -Combined text, image & illustration Matthew writing his Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospel, 720 à -Created in the Classic style-the monks who created these manuscripts had looked to Roman prototypes Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Germany, 800 -Marks a return to monumental architecture with stone structure -Displays aspects of Islamic architecture -Functioned as Charlemagne’s private place of worship, the church of his imperial court, a place for precious relics & the imperial mausoleum Monastery of Saint Gall, Switzerland, 819 - Centered around cloister (central, open courtyard) -Building housed the poor & sick- a reflection of the religion’s beliefs Reliquary of St Foy, France, 900 -Reliquary was a chest that held the remains of a saint rd -St Foy held the remains of a teenage girl martyred in the 3 Century -Silver gilt over a wooden core, with added gems & cameos Christ in Majesty, Church of St Pierre, Moissac, 1115 -Major stop on pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela -Flattened figure of Christ in Majesty dominates entrance way arch, visualizing the Second Coming described in Revelation The Last Judgment Tympanum, Cathedral of St. Lazare, France, artist Gislebertus, 1130 -Town named after Lazarus, the man Jesus brought back from the dead -Annual festival where all the sick come to spend the night in the cathedral, praying for health -Scene depicts the Last Judgment, when every person will be evaluated by God to see whether or not they lived sufficiently holy lives Saint-Denis, Paris France, 1140-1144 -First gothic building, founded over the tomb of Saint Denis, an early Christian martyr sent to convert the pagan population -Housed the tombs of France’s kings 4 Characteristics of Gothic architecture: 1.) Architects believed that God made the world- this was reflected in the geometry & symmetry of everything in Cathedral 2.) Feeling of tremendous height & weightlessness 3.) Full of color-appears to be full of precious jewels 4.) Glass panels told a story-majority of population was illiterate Chartres Cathedral, France, 1155-1220 -Gothic Cathedral, became a center of learning where staff began teaching -3 tempera on West Façade -Birth of Jesus -Resurrection -Last Judgment -Took on the role of a university Terms: Cloisonnee-type of metalwork where glass or gemstones are placed in flattened metal wire Illuminated manuscript- monks wrote the word of God on pages made of velum, highly decorative Scriptorium- Separate room in monastery established for the production of illuminated manuscripts Renovatio Romani Imperii-Emperor saw himself as restoring the Roman Empire Carolingian miniscule- Standardized script, allowed for better, more efficient production Reliquary-chest that held remains of saint Tympanum-Decorative vertical, recessed triangular space forming the center of a pediment Ambulatory-aisle around the apse or cloister in a church Gallery-balcony in a church providing space for audience or musicians Clerestory-Upper part of nave, choir & transepts of a large church, containing a series of windows Sancta Camisa-Sacred relic-tunic worn by the Virgin Mary as she gave birth to Jesus Scholasticism-System of theology & philosophy taught in medieval cathedrals & universities Northern Europe: Flemish Art January, February-Book of Hours, Limbourg Brothers, 1415 -Book of Hours-prayer book for the wealthy -Artists were interested in portraying realistic detail -Switched from the use of Tempera (egg white mixed with color) to oil paints, which allowed for much better detail Merode Altarpiece, Robert Campin, 1432, Engelbrecht Family -Triptych-wings folded in on hinges in painting -Was commissioned for family chapel -Symbolic realism shown -Mary sitting on the floor represents her humility -Lilies in the vase symbolize her virginity Ghent Altarpiece, H & J Van Eyck, 1432 -Paneled altarpiece in Belgium -Oil painitng -Incredible detail- can see individual strands of hair and each individual petal on flowers in the field Arnolfini Wedding Portrait, J Van Eyck, 1434 -Oil painting -Symbolic realism -Man has removed his shoes, this symbolized the sacred sacrament of marriage -Dog symbolizes fidelity -Bed symbolizes the procreation of children -3 oranges-symbolize heaven & the afterlife -Single lit candle in candelabra represents Christ as the sole light of the church Terms: Symbolic Realism- when realistic portrayals of things symbolize deeper meanings Triptych-Picture or relief carving on 3 panels Oil Painting-Gave much more detail to paintings, allowed artists to layer colors to create more realistic effect Recitation Movie Questions: 1. What was the medieval cathedral meant to be a facsimile (symbol) of? It was a new architecture of light, a way of reaching out to God, and a symbol of learning & enlightenment. 2. How was the pilgrimage understood by the medieval European? It was a way of getting closer to God & making the faith more real to them, seeing the ancient relics made them more aware of the religion. Some went for a miracle or the intercession of a Saint, but the pilgrimage was important to nearly all Christians. 3. Why were the medieval cathedral and its windows thought of as the "illustrated book of the poor?" Because the majority of the population was illiterate, the illustrations in the windows of cathedrals allowed them to learn Christian stories & teachings. 4. How was the role of light understood in the Middle Ages? Light is how all things were made, and it enlightens everyone. 5. What did the labyrinth at Chartres Cathedral symbolize? It symbolized the pilgrim’s path to God on Earth. All photos from Google.com Art of 14 Century Italy Altarpiece of St Francis, Berlinghieri -Life-sized, St Francis stands about 5 feet high -Not a realistic depiction-meant to show people that he was holy & blessed by God -Shows 6 scenes of St. Francis that represent his teachings and personality -Moment of transition between Medieval & renaissance -Shows the wounds of Christ on St Francis’s hands & feet Virgin and Child Enthroned, Cimabue, Florence -Over 12 feet tall-sets a new precedent for monumental altarpieces -Hieratic structure showcases Mary & Jesus with angels around them -Ambitious attention to space, and delicate use of light and color to give figures a naturalistic glow largely impacted the future of Italian painting Virgin and Child Enthroned, Giotto di Bondone, Florence -Painted about 30 years after Cimabue’s version -Greater spatial consistency and sculptural solidity -Figures are shown as 3-dimensional, do not appear to be floating or especially radiant Arena Chapel, Giotto di Bondone, Padua -Commissioned by Enrico Regibaldo to atone for his father’s sins & seek absolution of his own (they were a family of tax collectors) -Called upon Giotto and Giovanni Pisano (two famous artists) to decorate the interior of his chapel -Use of perspective to lead the viewer’s eye to a certain point on the painting (sloping rock face pointing to Jesus’s face) -Includes background information that creates for a more interesting visual, something that tells a story -Incredibly emotional, viewers are struck by detail of the human dimensions of the painting -The kiss of Judas portrays the scene with riveting power-each person embodies the emotional state they are said to have had in the Bible (Jesus’s calm stance, Judas’s betrayal, and Peter’s anger) The Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country, A. Lorenzetti, Siena -Panoramic landscape painting -Idealized portrait of Siena highlighting the activities associated with good government -Figures of Hope, Faith, Peace & Charity are all recognizable -We can see entertainers and people working, no one is simply sitting on the street- the population is employed and prospering -In the countryside we see sowing, hoeing & harvesting -Woman in center of painting represents Security, she has taken away the power of the guilty who would harm them Terms: Maniera Greca- Formal Byzantine style that dominated 12 and 13 Century th Italian painting, characterized by shallow space & linear flatness Tempera Painting-Use of egg mixed with pigment to create a fast-drying paint Buon Fresco- Painting technique where pigments ground in water are applied to wet plaster J. de Voragnie- Author of The Golden Legend The Golden Legend- Collection of hagiographies by J. de Vorangnie that became a late medieval bestseller All photos from Google.com
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