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TEXAS STATE / Government / GOVT 2310 / Who are the key members who wrote the pieces of federalism but publish

Who are the key members who wrote the pieces of federalism but publish

Who are the key members who wrote the pieces of federalism but publish

Description

School: Texas State University
Department: Government
Course: Principles of American Government
Professor: Rick henderson
Term: Summer 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Review
Description: Hey Guys, This study guide covers the passed three tests and includes all of the information for the past three tests. this material is in depth and may help you study for the final, that will be administered on Monday, December 7th, 2015. Good Luck!
Uploaded: 12/04/2015
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Who are the key members who wrote the pieces of federalism but published them anonymously?



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Exam l: study Guide General Concepts 1. Collective Action problems

A. Prisoner's dilema i arises whenever individuals

decide that even though they support some collective undertaking, they are personally better off pursuing an activity that rewards them individually despite undermining the


What is the difference between aggregate and individual opinion?



Collective effort.

lo these dilemmas especially interest us because the a solution is depends heavily on providing the kinds of incentives to

individuals that governments are well suited We also discuss several other topics like In what country has the highest frequency of thunderstorms?

to provide. B. Tragedy of the Commons: À situation in

which group members overexploit a common resource, causing its destruction.


How many federalist essays were published between 1787-1788?



lo Real world Analogy: Collapse of the

cod fishing industry Off New England entire communities based their economies on fishing Cod in nearby waters, but so many fishnermen exploited the Resarce without allowing nature to replenish it. If you want to learn more check out In what year did adam smith publish "the wealth of nations"?

adequetly, Co Free riders: A situation in which individuals

can recieve the benefits from a collective

activity whether or not they helped to pay

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for it leaving them with no incentive to contribute We also discuss several other topics like In presque vu, how many black tutus are needed?

To the problem arises whenever individuals recognize that their small contribution to the collective enterprise will not affect We also discuss several other topics like How did noah build an ark?

its Success or failure. DPower and Autherity,

lo Power: refers to an Officeholder's actual

influence with other officeholders and as La consequence, over the goverment's action 2. Authority: the right to make and implement

a decision. IE. unitarity, Federal, and Confederal systems If you want to learn more check out What is the frequencies of different alleles at each locus and the frequency of different genotypes in a population?

li Unitary: National government minopolizes

constitutional authority

Numerous Governments comprise

America's Federalism National

state

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3,033 municipal

19,492 Township and town

16,519 School district

13.051 other special distincts

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2o Federal" under a federal system, the constitution I divides authority betweeen 2 or more distinct

levels of the government 3. confederatto. Chybrid government mixes elements]

in which lower-level governments possess primary

authority. F. Declaration of Independence: the document

drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the second continental Congress on

July 4, 1776, declaring the independence

of the thirteen colonies from Great Britain IG. Articles of Confederations. The compact among

the thirteenth original states that formed the I basis of the first national givernment of the | united states from 1777 to 1789, when it

was supplanted by the constitution. He constitution? A document outlining the furmal

nies and institutions of government and the

limits placed on its powers. I. Ratification Debates' series of events that

occured from 1787 to 1789 (the first few years after the new constitution was introduced

ed to bitter disagreements that divided the constitutional Congress into rivals. The Federalists & that supported the ratifications and the Anti

federalists that did not

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Public Opinion TA. Polling the act of recording the opinion

or vote of the general public Bo Political Socalization the process in

which people form their ideas about politics lo most ocars in childhood, it continues to

shape throughout their lives. 2. Several influences. personals, social/economic

Classes, education, peer groups. 3. mass media and wind key events and also

inflajenee socialization. Co Aggregate Vs. individual opinion

1. Aggregates the sum off all individual

opinions. Lin a democracy)

2. Individual opinion, a perscha D. Ideology and Partisanship

to Ideology. Elaberately organized sets of

political attitudes Often take the form of. political ideology

ao promote consistencies among political attitudes by connecting them to sumething greater, a mire general principle or set of

principles. bo ideological labeis commonly used by Amencang politics are liberal and conservative

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12. Partianship the proportion of poll respondents

Labeling themselves' Republican and Demcerats To Shifts changes in economic conditions,

political events, and presidential approval Federalism

1. Dual: A system of government in which the

federal government and state governments each have mutually exclusive spheres of action.

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Constitutional Basis Of Dual + Shared

Governments National Governments

State Goverments Exclusive Pavers

Exclusive Papers - coin money

-Run elections | Regulate interstate foreign commerce -Regulate intra state commence

Tax imperts and Experts - Establish Republicnfums of - make treaties

State and local qvernments - make all laws a necessary and proper Protect public health, Safety,

and morals - Regulate postal system

- All powers not delegated to the Powers Denied

National gwernmenter denied |-Tax State exports

to the states by the constitutich. - Change State bandanes

Powers denied impost religious tests

-Taxe imperts/experts -Pass laws in conflict w/ the -coin miney Bill of Rights

center into treaties

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shared Authenty -Tax |- Borrow Money

Charter Banks and corporations Take property Leminent domain) - Enforce laws and admißlistera Judiciary 12. Cooperative Federalism: is a concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and colectively to solve common problems, rather than making policies Seperately. 30 coercive federalism: involves a strong centralized Inational government that exercises strict | control over its states through use of mandates

lor orders, often withat providing the finding

to camy out thouse requirements 14. National Government central government of

the United States 5. State Government: governments run at a state lever, with each of the 30 states having their lown. Illo local Government: the adininistration of a I particular town, canty, or district, with repre sentatives elected by those who live there.

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2. Nationalization of Politics i shifting to the Inational government responsibilities, traditionally

exercised by the states. I Congress 1.“ two congresses" Theory: Congress functions as a legislative institution and as a Repre sentative institution

To legislative: sendte; 6-year terms, 100

members [ two fur eveny state I 2. Representative: House of Representative;

2-year terms; 435 members. C Based

on population Ti members represent districts 12. Historical Patterns of Partianship: there has

been a rise and drop in partiansism thrughaut the years

(House) 3. Congressional Leadership John Bochner (R-OH) [Speaker 1 of the House ]; Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) C majenity Leadership

Steven scalisé (R-LA) [Maimnity whup]

To Senate Leadership Mitchell mcconnell (R-ky)

[Macrity Leadership J: John Cornun (R-TX) C Majenta whip]: Orin Hatch (R-UT [ President pro tempere) Hamy Reid (D-N E Minority Ludership] Dick Durbin

(D-IL) Minority whip ] Commiteesé commitee Systems of the House and senate are the second crganizational pillar upholding institutional power of Congress in fidexal System

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1. Types: Standing commitels: those that exist

from ine congress to another unless explicitly disbanded.

to standing commitees have fixed jurisdiction they generally always deal with the

same legislative togics. 2. Congress also furms Special, Select, joint, deci ad hoc, and conference commitles 3. Joint committes gather intex maticn and

oversee execctive agencies but do not repert

legislation

llibary committe: oversees the library of

Congress, the Uoso Botanic Garden

and Public Saturans 2. Printing commitle: oversees the las

Gwernment printing Office and arrangement and style of the congressional Reccrd" which publishes all Speeches and debates

on the floor and senate. * see chartt

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D/R: tort senate

Party Radio # of Sub-com. HOR standing commitees

Agriculture

19/26 Appropriations

21130 Armed services

261366 Budget

14/22 Education to woncfence 16/23 thergy to commerce 23131 Ethics"

515 Fiancial services 26/34

Foreign affairs | Homeland searity

12/16 Huse Administration

317 Judiciary

16/23 Natural Resources

18/216 oversiant Government Referm 13123

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411 Science, space, t Tech. 17/22 2 22 Ismail Buisness

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Party Ratio #of Sub-com Agricultne, Nutrition, Ferestry 1119 Appropriations

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14/12 Banking, Housing, urban Affairs 12110 Budget

12110 commerce, science, t Transportation 13111 Energy and Natural Resources 12/10 Enviernment of Public Works 1119

- 14/12 Foreign Relations

1019 Health Education, labur and pensions 12110 Homeland security o Government Affairs 911 Indian Affairs

8/16 Judiciary

1119 Rules and Administration

1018 Small Business and Entrepenver ship 1018 Veteran's Affairs

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4. Descriptive VS. Substantive Representation

lo Descriptives the idea that elected representatives will represent the interestes of their rall, SCUO

econemic grup, or geographic area of birth, 2. Substantive, the tendency of elective officials

to support an agenda based on their personal and political party's views.

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15. Incumbency advantage: the advantage of

holding an indicated position, wole, Office Currently (fer an extended period of time

lo Hese incumbent relection ratese

2010: 85%, 2012; 90%, 2014: 95% 2. why is there incumbent advantage?

- Name recognition - Office Resources -Legislative & service Record - Fundraising - Weak Challengers

Partisan districts 16. Advantages and drawbacks of term limits

lo Advantages have the potential of reducing

corruptions increased Hero Of new ideas in the legislative process, politicians might focus more on effectiveness rather than

reelection. 2. Dis ac ventages; consent influx of inexpierenced

politicians; potential consequences of Congressical

leaders who don't have any concern about

voter Opinions. 7. Appertion ment and Redistricting

"lo Apportionment: the redestrictivem redistribution

of representation in a Legislative 2. Redistricting to divide and renew districts Cpopulation

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18. Probational Representation. An electoral System in which legislative seats are awarded to candidates er parties in proportion to the percentage of vote's recieved. 9. The legislative process

To Hause and senate must pass identical

legislation 2. President may sign, veto, or refuse to

sign.

- If signed: becomes a law - If vetoed it can become a law

with a 2/3 votes in both houses - It preseident does not signi: it can

become a law in 10 days

unless congress Adicams;

it which case it will become.

La pucket veto. 3. Introducing legislation 4. Scheduling for elebate, and voting

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| Readings

Federalist to Anti- federalist Writings

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Federalist lolasted from Wam 1787-1824: Based on the ideas of a string central government to manage the affairs of the American people...

the party was made up of (primaryily) of Wealthy Landowners and bankers - wanted the government to protect the

emerging American industry, as well as to incentivize and of encerrage its

anwth. 12. many of the party's core beliefs and

doctrines are set it out in a collection of

Writings Known as the federalist papers 13. Key members wrote the pieces but published

them anonymously

- John Adams' - Alexander Hamilton

- John Jay

-James Madison 14085 essays were published between 1787 - 1788

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Ant-federalist - political coalition who opposed the runification of the constirution --less crganized than the Federalists

Political elites: Tames winthnp ( massachusetts)

and melancton Smith (new Yonc), Patrick Hinn and Ellicle Misan (Virginia) - though inorganized they shared the care view of beliving that the Greatest threat to the future of the bos was the giremments Potential for becoming compt and seize more power witilit heiane tuunnial and dominated over its people. -most power objection was lack of protection

for individual liberties, there was no Bill of Rights in oricinal draft of the constitution

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Exam 2: study Guide Presidency 1. Roles of the President

A. chief executive': executive power to enterce - and lead the nation. B. Commander-in-chief : directing military,

controls war fare efforts. C.Chiet legislature: Sets public policy, thrigh union initiates suggests, requests, insists,

and demands legislation D.chief Administator: Representative of the

Nation, runs and directs the 2-1 million government officials with a 2.5 trillion

dollar budget E chief of citizen: 5th role of all people F. Chief of the party party leader 6. Chief Diplomat: The 'bad main architect Of Us foreign policy and the nations

Spokesman to the rest of the world. Selection of the president A. Qualifications: Natural born citizen of

35 years or older, and at least 14

years of Uos residency. B. President serves a four year term C. 22nd Amendment requires that the

president may not be elected more than

twice, nor sere more than a total of 10 years. D. Constitution also created an elletroral college

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III. Enumerated and Implied powers

A. Enumerated powers'. The explicit pavers given to congress by the Constitution

in Article 1, Section 8.

l. Includes the powers of taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce and provision of the national

defense. B. Implied powers: pavers authorized by

a document that while not stated seemed to be implied by pavers expressly stated.

1. Necessary and proper clause: constitution al basis for implied pover. "elastic

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"Take care" clause

A. The provision in Article 11, Section 3

of the constitution instruction the president to "take care that the laws be faithfully executiden

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Judiciary 1. Judicial Review: The authrity of the court

inconstitulinal to declare legislative and exective acts on commoditto and therefore invalid.

• Marbury vsMadison (1803) the Supreme court announced for the first time the principle that a court may declare an act of Congress void if it is in consistant with the constitution.

•me Culloh Vi maryland: (1819): asserted national supremacy action in areas of constituationally granted authority Dred Scott Vs. Sandferd: (1857) : Landmane decision by the supreme cart in which the cart held but that African Americans, whether enslavedor

free, could not be an American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal cart, and that the federal gwernment had no paver to regulate slave trade in the federal terrorturies acquired latter the criginal 13 coloniesas United States v. Lopez: Was the first Supreme cart case since FOR's New Deal to set limits to congresses paver under the commerce Clause of the constitution. Concealed cam in school zone

• Rule of Four: Arule emplajeed by the Supreme Court's stating that when fur justices Support hearing a ease the centiurari petition is granted:

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writ of contentora : An order that is given hy a Superior court to an appellate cart. and that directes the laver court to send up a case the superior cart has choosen to review. In tentrat it means this is

the central means by which the Supreme ceret determines which cases it will hear

* Amicus curiae: " Friend of the cart' A brief filed in a lawsuit by an individual er cart that is not party to the lawsuit but that has an interest in the cutcome.

• precedent and stare decisis: " let the decision stand." In court vlings, a reliance on precedents, or previous Nulings, in furmulating decisione in new cases.

• court packing plan: An attempt my president

Franidin Roosevelt in 1937 to remadel the federal Judiciary, Its purpose ostensibly was to alleviate the overerowding of federal court dockets by allowing the president to appoint an additional Supreme cart justice for every sitting justice over the age of seventy. The legislatich passed the House of Representatives but failed in the senate by a single wth. It passed, Roosevelt card have added an additional Six justices thereby installing new curt sympathy to his I New Deal plan.

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Strueture of the court system: o Supreme Court: Highest court in the federal System

Nine justices, meeting in Washington D.C. Appeals jurisdiction though writ of certiorari Limited original jurisdiction aver some cases. Courts of Appeali intermediate level in the federal System. 12 regional :"circuit." courts, including the D.C. Cireit. No oniginal jurisdiction, strictly appellate District courts: lavest level in the federal system 94 junisdictinal districts in 50 states t terrortunes No appellate jurisdiction. Original jursdiction over most cases.

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Supreme court procedures : Selection of cases: through writ of certurari and

precedent Filing Briefs: both the defedent and plaintiff most case file legal briets whining their arqvements. "amiaus ariae" may be applied

fir curt approval as well. - Joral Arguements. If the cart decides to hold a

Theaning each side has 30-mindes to present Hits ease crally, with exceptional and controversal

cuses, time limit may be extended.

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The Judicial Appointment pruuss, o The President selects a Nominee

• The Senate Judiciany commitee holds hearings

The judiciary commitee votes on whether to recommend approval 1o The Senate debates the Nomite 10 the Senate votes ( Simple majmnity confirms Nominees

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Bureaucracks

• Purpose of Bureaucracy

- to impliment the law's passed by Congress -to fill in the details that missing from the laws - to handle ordinary interactions betweren gwernment

and citizens - to provide expertise and stability in administration Principle-Agent prblem

- Corigress and the President need to delegate

in order to get everything done - Bureaucrats have a degree of autonomy and

might have their own agendas

- oversight is a costly and ineffective.

• The Spuils System

- Parties pursue a collective good: victory for

Their candidates and policies - All prefer the winner benefit from the party's Victory whether or not they contribute to it. -the practice of the winning party dispensing

government jobs.

• Civil service Reform

- reformed the civil service of the United States

federal government, partly in response to the watergate scandal - The Act (1978) abolished the U. So civil service

Commission and distributed the functions primarily among three new agencies: The office of Personnel management (opm) the Merit Sustems protection board (MSPB), and the Federal tabor Relations Authenith (LEAL (FLRA)

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secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson

-Headed the Department of state

• Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton

-Headed the Department of Treasury

• secretary of war: Henry Knox

-Headed Department of war 1. Attorney General : Edmund Randolph

-Headed No department

• Modern cabninet members and Departments

o Department of State: Juhn Kerry csecertany) o Department of Treasury: Secertany Jack lew o Department of the Interior: secretary sally Jewell o Department of Justice: Attorney General corretta Lynch o Department of Agriculture : secertary Thomas vilsack o Department of Labor: Thomas Perez

• Department of commerce: Penny Pritzker

· Department of Husing and urban development: Julian castro

• Department of Transportation: Anthony Foxx

• Department of Energy: Ernest Moniz o Department of Health and Human Services: Slyvia Mathews

3 Binwell

• Department of Education: Arne Duncan

• Department of veterans Affairs: Robert Mc Donald Le Department of Homeland security! Jeh Johnson

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Non capniet agencies

• Enviornmental Protection Agency (EPA): Gina Mccarthy

• Office of Management t Budget! Shaun L. S. Donovan

• United States Trade Representatives: Michael Froman

•United States Mission to the United Nations: Samantha paver

• corncil of Economic Advisors: Jason Furman Small Business Administration : Maria Contreras-Sweet

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Iron triangles and issue Networks Iron Triangus: Represent the close relationship among special interest groups; congressional commitee's, and the bureaucracy, who are all in close , frequent contact with each other. Charactenized by mutual Dependency: each element provides Ken services, information, or policy for others.

Issue Networks: a 1005€ and internal set of relationships that exist among a large number of people who werk in broad policy areas. Interest Grwps, PR Specialists, Lobbyists.

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Police Patrols and fire Alarms

Police Patrols: traditional oversight

-congress monitors agency activity

- Diligent observation discourages deviation

• Fire Alarms: reducing the cost of oversight

- congress relies on others to sand Alarms - Agencies want to avoid congressional Scrutiny

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max weber's definition of Bereaveracry o Bureacratic organizations arise when daders

try to solve the huge problems of coordination and delegation raised by many forms of large scale collective action.

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Exewtive Appointments o most emplajces are selected by through merita based civil service process ottign executive Officials like cabinet officers are appointed by the president (with senate Approval)

• Agency heads are appointed by the president (with senate ,

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vesting clause! provisions in Articel Section Il; Article Il Section 1, clausel and Article 111 Sections of the constiption that vest the United States' legislative power in the congress the executive paver in the President, and Ljudicial power in the judiciary. The constitution s'explicitly creates a seperation of pavers among

the three branches Presidential unilateralism: presidential policy that allows the conducting of foreign affairs with minimal consulation from congress and other nation's including its allies. Exective orders: A presidential directive to an executive agency establishing new policies or indicated how an existing policy is to be carried out. Going Publice Presidents “Go public" when they engage in intensive public relations to promote their policies to the voters and thereby induce cooperation from other elected Office holders in Washington.

Divided bevernment: A term used to describe government when one political party controls the exective branch and the other political party canthis one of or both hases of legislature,

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Iveto power the formal power of the president to reject bills passed by both hases of Congress. A veto can be overridden by a 2/3 1.5 vote in leach house . "Two Presidencies“ Theory: Aaron wildavsky's version of presidencies, thacry, the idea that there is a ." foreign policy" presidency and a " domestic policy" presidency. vice presidency and highest position in the executive branch. vice president wall successed the president in case of resiyninin, removal, death or disability. Din

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Exam 3: Study Guide I. Texas constitution and Government A. Early National claims on Texas: Six Flags

1. Spain: The Spanish empire in america

began in the carribbean, with Christopher colombus. Alvar Nuñez, cabeza de vaca,

and Hernando cortes came later. (1519-1821) 2. France: led by René- Robert cavelier and

Sieur de la salle, they only managed a brief presence in Texas and had better results

With the colonization of Louisiana. (1685-1690) 3. Mexico: began colonization of Texas with

Stephen F. Austin and 300 Angio families in 1820. By the 1830's there were about 10,000 anglo Settlers in Texas. By Net 1835, tensions betweens the anglo settlers and mexico's new president Antonio lopez de Santa Ana. (1821-18366)

lo santa Ana sent troups to enterce laws 2. The revolutionary war ended on April.

. 21st, 18846 at the Battle of San Jacinto. 4. The Republic of Texas, on september 5th,

1836, samz Houston became the first president of the Republic of Texas. The capital was established at a settlement on the banks Of Bufhlo Bauw, eventually it was named Huustun. (1834-1845).

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5. The United States of America: Texas furmally

entered statehood on Febuary 19th, 18416

under president James K. Polk. (1845-1861). u. The confederate states of America. when the civil war broke out, Texas seperated from the union until after recronstriction (1861-1865)

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I Types of Political culture.

1. Political citire is the shared values

and beliefs about the nature of the political wond that give the public a common language as a foundation to discuss and debate ideas.

A. Individualistic: the idea that individuals are best left largely free of the invervention Of gwernment, and that government should attempt only those things demanded by the

people it is created to serve... B. Tradionalistic! The idea, must prevelant in

parts of Texas most like the old Suth, the government has a note that limited role Cancerned with the preservation of existing

social order, c. Moralistic: rare in Texas, the view that the

exercise of community pressure is sumetimes necessary to advance the public goodo it also holds that awernnents can be a positive force

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c. vertical and Horizontal Federalism

lo vertical: the distribution of power between

the national and state governments 2. Horizontal: refers to the relationships

between the states. D. constitution of 1876

A. The constitution of 1876, was written after the civil war and Reconstruction B. It is very long and expressively

detailed, C. like previous constitutions, the

constitution of 1876 limited government

influence and emphasized individualism Il legislature:

A citizen and pruffessional Legislature.

1. Citizen: a legislature that attempts to Keep the role of a state legislator to a part time function so that many or must

Citizens can perform it, normally, a citizen legislator is provided minimal compensation, offered atew staffing resources, and has Shert or in frequent legislative sessions 2. Pruffesional: a legislature that meets annually often for a mines of the year or more, a proffessional legislature is providld a proffessional level te Salary and generus allowances to hire a keep support and Research staff.

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Bl Qualifications for the chat qualifications

1. Texas Huse of Representatives: at least 21 years old, resisdent of Texas ter 2 years, resident

of the district for at least one year 2. Texas senate: at least 2 1 years old, resident

of Texas for 5 years, and resident of the drict for

me yeur. A. Bothes Representatives and Senaters must

be Vos. citizens and quality to vote. 3. Informal Quallifications: must identify with

a party affiliation, i.e. democrat, Republican

or another C. Elections and Redristicting : Representertione e relationship

1. Elections: term of office of the Hor is 2-years Texas senchers are elected every 4 years, but

elections are staggered so that one-half of the texas senate is choosen every 2 years. 2. Redistricting is the periodic adjustment

of the lines of electoral district hanclanies, this adjustment is made after the release

of los census data. D. Legislative Leaders

Á. Representatives to the House and

senators to the Senate.

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E. Legislative sessions and processes.

A. Sessions

1. Regular. Texas legislature meets every Other year. The session lasts for 140 y days. The legislature handes the 2-year budget, appointments, and other

issues. 2. Special. The govenor may call a Special

Session outside of legislators reqular meeting time, special sessions may last up to 30 days The gwenor will a identify the topics the

legislature will consider. The gwenor may call special sessions when how often he/she

wishes. IV. Executive Branch

A. Powers of the govenor:

1. Appointment the governor appoints about

3,000 positions, Recess Appointments [ appointments made was to fill vacancies when Senate is not in session, subject later to be approved are

common. 2. Executive orders: an order that comes from the

guvernor and must be obeyed like a law. 3. Agenda Setting: State of State Address,

Emergancy Legislation. Special sessions.

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4. Veto power: power to not apprve pieces of

legislation ivetos can be evenidden by senate with a 2/3 vote.

To No veto has been overridden since 1979 2. line item veto: guenor can scratch out on certain items, without vetuing the entire

bill. 5. Pardons'an official act that states that a

person who was judged to be guilty of acrime will be allowed to go free and will not be

punished. . l. Requires a Reccomendation from the

board of pardons and parules. to commander-in-chief of the Texas National

guard and the Texas state Guard. B. The plural Executive

1. Six elected executive Officials

A. Governor: Gregg Abbott B. Lieutentant Guvernur berre poteterna Dan Patrick C. Attorney General. Ken Paxton D. comptroller of Public Accounts: Glen Hager F. Agriculture commissioner: sid miller Filand commissioner: George P. Bush. G. secertany of states: carlós cascos

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V. Judiciary

A. Selection : All judges above the municipal [city/tun ]

level are elected. They are partisan [ firm adherence to a party; contests. Judicial incumbents often run inoppossede the Governor can appoint judges

to fill vacancies B. Removal: 3 ways for a judge to lose office

1. voted out in an election 2. Removed by the Supreme court fur incompetence,

Official misconduct, or negligance I district courts)

3. Impeachment: 2/3 vote in the House and senate C. Supreme Court

A highest court in the state for civil cases B. Eight justices, plus one chief Justice

Co case is decided by simple majurity vote Do inembers

lo Chief Justic: Nathan Hecht 2. Justice : Paul Green 3. Justice: Phil Johnson 4. Justice Don R. Willett 5. Justice: Eva Guzman la Justice: Debra lehrmann 7. Justice: Jeffery so Boyd 8. Justice: Juhn Philip Devine 9. Justice', Jeff Brown,

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D. Court of criminal Appeals

meinbers:

lo Presiding Judge Sharon Keller 2. Judge: Lawrence E. Meyers 3. Judge: Bert Richardson 4. Judge: Kevin Yeary 5. Judge: Cheryl Johnson 6. Judge: Michael Keasler 7. Judge: Barbara Hervey 8. Judge: Elsa Alcala

9. Judge: pavid Newell e.original vs. Appellate Jurisdiction

To original: the authority to hear the initial case, the evidence and the case record are

established in this court 2. Courts with anginal Jurisdiction

A. Federal district courts Bo state trial carts C. traffic courts D. Family courts to Juvenile carts F. Bankrupcy courts 6. tax courts H. United States Supreme court,

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13. Appellate Jurisdiction: the authority to hear

an appeal from a lower court that has already rendered a decision, an appelate court reviews the court record from the original trial

and does not hear the evidence courts with appellate Jun's diction

1. state courts of appeal 2. State Superir courts 3. Federeal district courts

4. Uosi Supreme Court 4. Criminal law and punishment

1. Individual responsibility has always been central to Texans' strong sense of Justice, 2. As a state, it is a struggle with balanung

protecting individual nights against preventing the behavior of individuals who make take advantage

of the system. 3 when Texans' sense of a right and wrong collides with rights of individuals, the nignts

of individuals often with lose. 5. Prison Reforms

attempt to shift from incarceration to rehabilitation ( faces on thearpy or eduction to reterm criminal behavior I.

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A. Consist of county, and muncipal governments, school districts, special districts, and Hume ainer Associations Bo County governments i canty courts, publie

health, vital records, taxes and fees, Elections,

law enforcement; Roads and Bridges Co City Governments: General law vse Home

rule

lo Perscribed nuus vs. flexibility -string-major vs weak-major

lo centralization is broad participation = council Manager Systems

- Proffessichal expertise Do Electing local govemments

1. Single-member district system 2. At- large system 3. cumulative rating System

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