Final Study Guide for 2300 Intro to Comparative Politics
Final Study Guide for 2300 Intro to Comparative Politics POLC 2300
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This 55 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ian Seaman on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLC 2300 at Tulane University taught by Professor Mark Vail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Comparative Politics in Political Science at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Final Format: December 12th, 812 am Identification (4030% of the final grade): ● You can pick 810 terms out of a total of 12 ● You must identify either the name or the concept and be able to link it to readings and lecture topics Essay (6070% of the final grade): ● two sections of two essays each, you will be asked to pick one of two essays in each section ● essay must include thesis statement, and reference to readings ● there will be an essay on the topic of Chaudhry’s analysis of neoliberalism, practically guaranteed ● overall topics that will be stressed; democracy, revolution, and economic liberalization FIRST HALF OF SEMESTER: August 24th, 2015 Introduction of Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method: Terms: 1. Post Hoc, ergo Propter Hoc erroneous conclusion that if one thing happens after another, the previous event caused the event that followed. 2. Correlation vs. Causation association of 2 variables does not mean one variable caused the other 3. Teleology presupposed outcomes, inevitable events 4. Stephen J. Gould biologist, see reading for findings 5. “Punctuated Equilibrium” point in which a state of growth becomes stable, and little to no change occurs for a long time 6. Hannah Arendt see reading in week 6, political writer, theorized prospective view of revolution 7. Dependent Variable element that is being measured, i.e responds to independent variable 8. Independent Variable element that is manipulates dependent variable 9. Ceteris Paribus principle that “all else is equal”, meaning we do not account for factors that are either small or impossible to measure 10. Spurious Correlation an association between two things that have no direct relation to each other. August 26th Paradigms, Politics, Language, and Problems of Interpretation Terms: 1. Empiricism theory that knowledge comes from our sensory experience. 2. Normal Science new knowledge is derived from research or assumptions stemming from accepted facts and paradigms 3. Paradigm Shift when a widelyaccepted set of assumptions and beliefs is proven false and a new explanation surfaces. 4. Phlogiston example of a paradigm shift, Phlogiston Theory was the theory that flame came from some invisible substance. Later replaced by the Oxygen Theory of Combustion. 5. Antoine Lavoisier founded Oxygen Theory of Combustion Notes: Empiricism: ● idea of facts as being ixed things ● allows blindness to facts that are not as obvious Kuhn’s Theory most science and knowledge has been developed through… Normal Science research and creating new theories off of foundational ideas (empiricism) Paradigm: ● coined by Kuhn ● a set of basic assumptions from which knowledge is developed ● Kuhn noticed that rejection claims rarely became accepted, i.e confirmation bias is extremely prevalent Paradigm Shift rejection of a paradigm Politics: ● Aristotle; people come together under politics, pairing ● anarchy is very rare ● politics apply to everyone, not just elites ● “Politics is what determines Who gets What, How much, and from Whom.” ● Aristotle theorized that men are inherently political due to their use of language ● George Orwell had preoccupation with language manipulation August 31st The Industrial Revolution and Adam Smith, Prophet of Liberalism Terms: 1. The Enlightenment period during the 18th century in which political and philosophical thought was particularly emphasized, Adam Smith was a political scientist during The Enlightenment 2. Labor Theory of Value theory that the value of a good should be equivalent to the amount of labor that was put in it. 3. “The Wealth of Nations” published in 1776 by Adam Smith, examined the question “Why was the economic basis changing?” 4. The “Invisible Hand” Adam Smith’s theory that human tendencies and behavior drove the market and therefore it was selfregulating 5. “Moral Sentiments” Adam Smith’s theory that people will restrain themselves in treatment of others, i.e everyone possesses some level of empathy. 6. Organic Notion of Society notion that the market was a living thing, it needed to be kept healthy to be able to sustain a level of productivity. Notes: Industrial Revolution: ● gradual transformation of nearly every aspect of life ● 4 separate events: ○ revolutions in production output, ■ textile industry boom created ripple effect for profit and demand ○ relations in town and country, ■ England transitioned from agrarian society to heavily urbanized society ○ working conditions ■ transition to regimented work day, 14 hours a day, 6 days a week ○ social class ■ created two new classes, working and middle. Working class had no legal protections ■ Enclosure Acts drove peasants to the cities by government seizure of land as well as the poor houses in the cities ● Fundamentally a EuroAmerican event Global Industrialization: ● Countries industrialized in different ways due to timing ● Each country had a leading sector (England textiles) ● Britain was a pioneer because of the supply of labor, the supply of capital, and the accessibility to markets abroad (Navy). “The Wealth of Nations”: ● Markets are not natural; they are created through politics ● Markets are selfregulating, not selfsustaining ● introduced concepts of the Invisible Hand, the Organic Notion of Society ● showed Classic Liberalism, more freedom to the market ● however recognized the flaws and inhumanity in laissezfaire ○ wanted government regulation to the extent of a healthy society ○ did not trust society to not collapse on itself “Moral Sentiments”: ● people tend to have a level of empathy ● there are limits to exploitation ● introduced Labor Theory of Value ● Smith “Put people together and human nature will provide economic efficiency” September 9th Max Weber and the Spirit of Capitalism Terms: 1. Martin Luther instrumental figure in the Protestant Reformation, founded idea of a “Calling” 2. Karl Marx essentially turned Weber’s ideas upside down, see notes on Karl Marx 3. Protestantism embodied ideas of Belief, The Calling, Asceticism, and Predestination 4. Rationalization logic, causeandeffect, movement, argued that world is calculable; antihierarchy, prorules 5. “The Calling” Weber’s notion that people must act according to God’s plan and this drove people towards economic rationale (Capitalism) 6. Asceticism grew out of protestantism, it is the distancing of oneself from materialism in order to get closer to God. Notes: Max Weber: ● proposed the Spirit of Capitalism was born out of Calvinist Protestantism. ● by fulfilling your job/duty, you were fulfilling God’s presupposed plan ( Vocational Calling) ● took the Calvinist notion of either being destined towards salvation or damnation ● believed that ideas and culture drove economic and political change ● Protestantism encourages rationalization which then created a large labor force ● One was theologically inclined to work but not indulge ● this idea ^ created a cycle of production and investment without consumption (Capitalism) Calvinist Protestantism: ● notion of “The Calling” from Martin Luther ● encouraged Asceticism; it was a sin to indulge Contrast of Smith and Weber innate tendencies driving economic patterns vs. culture and ideas (religion) driving economic behavior September 14th Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto, and the ClassBased View of History Terms: 1. Bourgeoisie dominant class during Marx’s time, the elite that mutually reinforced itself by using their wealth to drive political interests 2. Proletariat the working class, the masses of labor exploited by the Bourgeoisie 3. Economic Theory of History history is moved by class struggles; three phases according to Marx; Feudalism, Capitalism, and Communism 4. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel german philosopher who theorized that the clash of old and new ideas created a synthesis of new thinking (historical view) 5. Dialectal Materialism idea that social classes instead of ideas clash to create new thought. Notes: Marx: ● viewed capitalism as exploitation of the many by the few ● product of the capitalist society that he lived in ● theorized that Capitalism created two new classes; Bourgeoisie and Proletariat ● social and political relationships are defined by the economy ● class is determined by access to capital (everybody but the Proletariat had capital) ● Contrasted with Smith’s view of Capitalism as a society of individuals ● Historical View of Class Conflict: ○ Aristocracy vs. Peasantry, Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat ○ “Government favors the dominant class” ○ Political power is determined by who has capital Economic Theory of History: 1. Feudalism state could not continue to maintain a grip on the economy 2. Capitalism subsistence labor, exploitation to maximize output 3. Communism abolishment of private property Teleological View Marx’s notions that these events were inevitable Communist Manifesto: ● not characteristic to Marx’s writing, it was a unique work ● summarized economic climate of Europe at the time (1848) ● called for revolution while also explaining how revolution was inevitable September 16th Marx’s World: Alienation, The Working Class… Terms: 1. Teleology presupposed outcomes, events are inevitable 2. Division of Labor the allocation of different steps in the manufacturing process to specific persons who only performed that step in the process 3. Alienation Marx’s argument that the division of labor alienated the worker, their sole purpose is the job they perform 4. Labor Theory of Value the value of a good is equal to the amount of labor put into it 5. Surplus Value the labor theory of value minus the subsistence wage made profit, this is surplus value, the added value that comes from the worker working for more than the actual price of the good. 6. Fetishism of Commodities the larger value of a commodity due to its appearance or label, i.e the value is more than its actual functional purpose 7. Raw Materials + Labor Value = Profit + Wages the equation of how surplus value exploits the worker and creates profit for the business Notes: Marx’s Economic Ideas: ● Marx argued that Smith’s idea of division of labor in industrialization allowed for the exploitation of the worker through surplus value ● this specialization created a debasement of the worker’s identity, almost animallike ● Marx argued that the social ties and tendencies for harmony is undermined by Capitalism ● Marx saw work and identity as being inseparable concepts in Capitalism Class Conflict: ● process of proletarian revolution turning into a proletariat dictatorship (Leninism) ● class conflict is part of industrial society ● Political Side of Class Conflict: ○ state only reflects interests of the ruling class (bourgeoisie) ○ therefore improvement of the working class can only be achieved by revolution ● differential interests in the workplace define a modern era The Labor Theory of Value: ● Marx saw the labor value being taken away from workers, the surplus value was not being returned to the worker ● workers are alienated due to the loss of the value of labor Fetishism of Commodities: ● commodities become ends, they are not valued by the process of manufacturing ● value is forgotten by consumers, practicality of the object is ignored Base v. Superstructure base (economic institutions, factories) vs. superstructure (social institutions influenced by the base) September 21st “The Best of All Possible Worlds” … Terms: 1. “Containment” U.S’s duty to be police of the world, essentially stop the spread of communism 2. Marshall Plan model policy to recover Europe’s markets, made up 2% of Europe’s GDP, definitely not the chief contributor to its recovery 3. “Modernization Theory” dominant framework during the U.S’s postwar prosperity 4. USAID economic aid for international development 5. Alliance for Progress JFK’s policy of recovery aid mostly to Latin America Notes: 1945 “unbridled optimism” there was cries not for progress, but for openness” PostWar: ● developed American view of superiority of Capitalism and Democracy and inferiority of communism and totalitarianism ● “ All Good Things Go Together ” Geopolitical sources spread this notion ● Cold War strengthened victory of liberalism and capitalism ● Marxism was rebuked, Capitalism was thought to be inevitable Modernization Theory: 1) New Conception of History a) history is staged; not driven by class conflict 2) Dichotomous Conception of Change a) transition between Traditional Backward State OR Modern, Industrial state 3) Notion of Inevitable Progress a) goes back to rationalization in the Enlightenment; reinforced by American PostWar optimism 4) Interconnectedness of All Aspects of Change a) “All Good Things Go Together” all aspects of modernization are mutually reinforcing Limitations to Modernization Theory: 1. No mechanism of change a. no initiator of change 2. No explanation of institutional differences a. different flavors of capitalism and democracy 3. No explanation of different rates of change a. different systems developing faster than others September 28th What are Revolutions? Competing Understandings of Political Violence Terms: 1. Revolts/Rebellions isolated events that did not result in social or political change 2. Social Revolutions class revolts that lead to changes in social institutions 3. Zionism belief in a Jewish independent state (Israel) 4. Isaiah Berlin created theory of positive and negative freedom Notes: Revolutions: ● word is overused, revolutions are veryrareand extremely specific ● defined as “fundamental transformation in a given political order brought by violent sustained revolts” ● Purely a postmedieval type of event, Medieval era was static, hierarchal ● Revolutions need a previously established political order and a political organization fighting to replace that order ● Results in a “nogoingback” type of situation ● Outcome must be somewhat consistent with the ideas of the replacement organization Differencesbetween Revolutions and Rebellions/Revolts: 1. Revolts do not result in any systematic change 2. Revolutions need every citizen involved 3. Revolts are shorter 4. Revolts are disorganized, reactive, have no defined purpose 5. Revolts are negative (against mentality) while Revolutions are affirmative; they create something new Skocpol and Social Revolutions: ● emphasized revolt by the lower classes marxism) ● Structural frame, she looked for the circumstances and conditions before a revolution ● “Nobody makes revolutions; they come” ● they can come by fiscal pressures and weak political authority ● Theorized that the state is a set of lasting institutions that express interests in a political arena where they are contested Hannah Arendt’s View: ● She was a Zionis, Philosopher, lived through many examples of a lack of freedom ● Revolutions came down to the search for freedom ● Isaiah Berlin’s ositiveand Negative Freedom; ○ Positive freedom to define one's life, the dignity in pursuing what you wanted ○ Negative absence of constraint ● Arendt was pessimistic in the success of revolutions ● Problem of analysis; if they all fail, how can we compare them? September 30th Revolution as Modernization Terms: 1. Samuel Huntington theory of Revolutions as Modernization, see notes 2. Thomas Paine American political activist, wrote “Common Sense” 3. Mao Zedong (Mao TseTung) political figure in China’s Communist Revolution, founded the People’s Republic of China 4. Josef Stalin communist dictator of USSR from mid 1920s 1953 5. Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 example of an elite driven, minority driven revolution Notes: Huntington: ● theory of Revolution as Modernization ● caused by lag between political institutions reacting to social and economic change ● emphasized that it is not the type of government, but the degree of government that leads to revolutions ● Degree of Government was defined as the ability to absorb new interests ● revolutions often happen in nondemocratic societies because they have poor mechanisms to gauge feedback ● Refusal to adopt broad political processes huge focus on broad political processes > Modernization is negotiation between institutions ● Huntington and Skocpol had the structural frame that Politics must have institutions to negotiatebetween each other Explaining Revolutions: ● conflict of interests causes an erosion of institutions ● Revolutions rise to fill a void ● Violence is a symptom, not a cause of a revolution ● Political climate must be unstable along with a political group willing to replace ● This political group is eager to Participate, showing a huge element of Modernization ● Mechanism of legitimation of a Democracy is an election ● Nondemocratic societies breed revolutions because they are missing this legitimacy ● there must be a middle class, evidence that revolutions accompany Modernization ● external pressures (International threats), class conflict, and fiscal pressures often cause revolutions ● system of original government (Authoritarian, Monarchy) matters a lot Skocpol rapid transformation defines revolution, France, Russia, and China 3 Similarities: 1) Institutions are unwilling to adapt 2) Revolt by Peasants 3) Successful political organization to replace old authority Western vs. Eastern; revolts start in city (Western) v. revolts start in countryside (Eastern) October 5th The English Revolution Terms: 1. Magna Carta (1215) set stage for the questioning of noble authority 2. Henry VIII (15091547) his wives were executed, tried to raise money by seizing Church lands, slush fund, created Church of England 3. James I (16031625) after Queen Elizabeth died, peak of Absolute Monarchy, first appearance of conflict with Parliament, start of the Stuart King Dynasty, catholic 4. Charles I believed in unrestrained Absolutism; catholic, hated protestants 5. Calvinism/Presbyterianism called into question the social hierarchy (Catholicism) 6. Long Parliament (16401648) long fight over money and religious issues (abolishment of the book of common prayer), first time Parliament met in session after 1628 7. Roundheads (Supporters of Parliament) named so by the helmets they wore 8. Royalists catholic, supporters of the monarchy 9. Oliver Cromwell leader of the puritans, made them highly disciplined 10. New Model Army puritan army lead by Oliver Cromwell 11. Tunnage and Poundage Act tax by crown on exports/imports, expanded the range of taxable goods, way of bypassing parliament 12. Petition of right (1628 statement of the Crown not being able to tax without parliamentary approval, Notes: 17th Century: ● complete opposite to previous history of political stability and peace ● two civil wars between puritans and catholics ● restored different monarchy that derived its power from Parliament Causes: ● Monarchy was constantly contested (English monarchy was lowercase absolutist) ● Monarchy fought with the puritans (seen as radical; heretics) ● soon it became institutional Parliament vs Monarchy ● Queen Elizabeth had reconciled the two religions (Catholics and Puritans); Charles I destroyed that First Civil War (16421646) Puritans (Parliament) and Royalists, Puritans Won, imprisoned Charles I Second Civil War (16481649) Charles I escaped, returned with army, then got beheaded Weaknesses: ● monarchy was weak due to Military, Administrative, and Financial Factors ○ Military lacked strong army, shortage of money, nobility armies were illegal ○ Administrative alliance of King and Landowners against the nobility, created more taxes on the nobility ○ Financial parliament could keep monarchy poor, taxation system was weak because there was more focus on King Henry’s seizure of church lands (slush fund) Enemies: 1. Calvinists/Protestants/Puritans clashed with Monarchy a. they rejected the Church of England b. Charles I appointed a lot of catholics c. Puritans were highly organized, very motivated (Divine Calling) d. Religious and political affairs became blurred 2. Parliament a. Stuart Kings made a lot of enemies, antagonized large factions b. referred to themselves as called on by God to be king c. huge conflict after Charles I disbanded Parliament in 1628 King’s Mistakes: ● there was, medievally, an affection for the idea of monarchy ● Charles I, in fear of parliament’s rising power, struck first by arresting Puritan Leaders, resulted in first Civil War and his imprisonment in 1646 10/7 The French Revolution Terms: 1. Parlements (NOT Parliaments) quasijudicial bodies of the state, courts that approved and registered the King’s decree 2. Voltaire idea of “popular sovereignty” representative body of government 3. JeanJacques Rosseau government needs consent of the governed 4. Louis XIV 1714, proclaimed “semidivine”, epitome of the Absolutist Monarchy 5. Louis XVI 1760s, pale shadow of Louis XIV, scared of the Third Estate, made a lot of faulty moves 6. Vingtieme land tax, 1/20 of land value, nobility resisted this tax 7. Estates General (Clergy, Nobility, and the Commoners) parliamentlike structure that convened prior to revolution 8. Abbe Sieyes, What is the Third Estate? everyone else besides the clergy and the nobility 9. Jeu de Paume (Tennis Court Oath) (20th of June 1789) refuge of the Third Estate assembly while military troops were deployed in Paris 10. SansCulottes urban mob, illiterate, urbanized mass, stormed the Bastille 11. Bastille prison that is the symbolic start of the French Revolution Notes: Louis XIV vs. Queen Elizabeth unquestionable, Absolutist vs. constantly contested Advantages etween the French Monarchy and the English: ● no parliament ● King was supreme judge ● King had ultimate tax authority ● France was a military superpower Preliminary Conflicts 1) Ideological Conflict a) The Enlightenment called into question the King’s authority 2) Institutional Conflict a) concentrated authority in tBureaucracy (Estates General) b) bureaucracy was weak and ineffectivbecause it was not loyal to the king and abused its powerParlements) c) Crown went broke after a while due to this inefficiency ● institutional and ideological conflicts weakened the King’s power ● resulted in sociallydescending revolts against the nobility Four Waves of Liberal French Revolution ● resulted in ConstitutionaMonarchy, ended Absolutism,not the Monarchy 1) Aristocratic Revolutions a) tax revol, fiscal pressure b) parallelwith British conflict between Nobility and Monarchy over raising revenue c) “Libert from the King, resistance grew Parlements d) Crown backed down, Parlements called for convention of Estates General 2) UpperMiddleClass Revolution a) occurred afterConvention of Estates General (1789) b) pitted the Third Estaagainst Clergy and Nobility who had more motivation to maintain old order c) Third Estate called aassembly to separate from Estates General (quasiparliament) d) King Louis XVI deployed troops in Paris, Third Estate wexiled e) National Assembly moved to Jeu de Paume, Louis XVI backed down, legitimized the Third Estate and ordered Clergy and Nobilitjointhem 3) Popular Revolution a) King sent troopsonce again by order of the Aristocrasansculottesin fear of this deployment, stormed thBastillJuly 1789) 4) Peasant Revolution a) peasants feared Nobility counterrevolution, turviolentagainst Nobility b) in response, Nobilitabolished Feudalism, this was too little too late 10/12 The French Revolution Terms: 1. Le Chapelier Law (1791) banned formal organization of interest groups 2. Civil Constitution of the Clergy law forcing all officers of the Catholic Church to sign a loyalty oath to the revolution, demonstrated resistance between catholics and the clergy 3. Vendee Rebellion (1793) small revolt against the revolutionary government in reaction to totalitarianistic regime 4. Night of the Varennes night King Louis XVI tried to escape to England to join counterrevolutionaries, finally proved his allegiance 5. Robespierre leader of the Jacobins, extremely paranoid and hypertotalitarianist, think Andrew McCarthy 6. Jacobins instituted purge of all dissent, sought a pure republic, “Republic of Virtue”, ended when they started executing members of the original revolution 7. Girondins less radical, more moderate, they would have been fine with a constitutional monarchy 8. Danton leader of the Girondins 9. The Convention most radical formal expression of the revolution; called for deposement of the King, establishment of civil liberties etc. 10. Committee for Public Safety part of the “pure” republic, instituted the new, weird 300 day calendar, 1793 was year 1 Notes: Characteristics of the Liberal Revolution: ● tax revolt ● middle class centered ● abolishment of feudalism ● “all citizens are autonomous” ● banned assembly, equal representation by the people ● rejection of absolutist monarchy, wanted constitutional monarchy Factors the Distinguished the French Revolution and the English Revolution: Religious Conflict King’s power derived from God, catholic church was source of legitimacy Church then became target Civil Constitution of the Clergy Political loyalties became a question of whether or not you went to church Nationalism loyalty to the revolution meant loyalty to the state French nobility fled to England, hoped to launch a counterrevolution other countries feared spread of French revolutionary ideas; Russia declared war, hoped to restore Absolutist monarchy The Mob the masses fueled the fire, maintained momentum of revolution for a long time kept state from stabilizing The Radical Revolution 1) Total War a) reaction to threat of foreign invasion, National Draft b) everyone had to be committed to the revolution c) nationalism was now used more by the political left 2) The Great Terror a) many leaders, like Robespierre, started political camps b) Jacobins sought a pure state, often by fear c) 1793, King was tried and executed, then started the age of the guillotine d) new government was now extremely paranoid, hyperrationale e) The Terror was a victim of its own success, killed nationalist catalysts of the revolution, Robespierre then lost credibility f) mass then became antirevolutionary (Vendee), they turned against Robespierre Readings: Week 1: William Sewell(1967) “Marc Bloch and the Logic of Comparative History” Hypothesis Testing we can test if phenomena A in one society to the Condition B by seeing if societies exist with A but without B Purposes of the Comparative Method: 1) test explanatory hypotheses 2) discover uniqueness of societies 3) formulate problems for historical research ● Bloch used the comparative method for invalidation ● Bloch never realized that these 3 purposes shared the same logic of hypothesis testing ● Studying a phenomenon through comparative framework can: ○ invalidate local explanations for general phenomena ○ distinguish between genuine local peculiaritie and universal occurrences Units of Comparisons: ● the 2 units being compared must vary in the aspect of social life and explanatory hypotheses we are studying/testing ● “comparison units need not be geographical units” ● if the units of comparison depend upon the hypothesis then they are invalid Limits to the Comparative Method: ● one limitation is that it may only be applied to certain problems ● another is that it does not supply us with explanations to test John Stuart Mill(1843) “Of the Four Experimental Methods of Inquiry” Method of Agreement: ● comparing different events in which the same phenomenon occurs ● the circumstances that are excluded without the phenomenon disappearing has no connection to its causation; therefore what circumstance remains is linked to causation Method of Difference ● comparison of similar situations that have similar circumstances but the absence of one phenomenon is present in the other ● if all but effect can be excluded, then it is the cause of the given phenomenon Week 2: Stephen Jay Gould(2003) “The Hedgehog, The Fox, and The Magistrate’s Pox” Scientific Revolution: ● idea that a bad “before” replaced by a good “after” is refuted by: ○ Science behind Aristotle and Renaissance was more or less continuous into Scientific Revolution ○ Idea exclusively focused on physical science *example of original debate between arts and sciences Arguments: 1) initial conflict between science and humanities beham during birth of modern science aka Scientific Revolution 2) The goals of scientists during Scientific Revolution failed because they could not do so without insight from humanities 3) This onflictis silly, it is timepeace Gould 4) There is a right and wrong way to resolve the conflict ● Woodward, heavily religious geologist, railed against humanists ● Woodward and Newton only called upon God when natural explanation had obviously failed ● Myth that science utilizes pure and unbiased observation ● Science has manifested its preference for clearer language into “factual content becomes debased if Author also has talent for decent prose” George Orwell (1981) “Politics and the English Language” Politics and Language: ● “decline of a language ultimately has political and economic causes” ● language becomes ugly because we are lazy but then the ugliness of the language makes it easier to have lazy thoughts Dying Metaphors wornout metaphors that are worthless, people still use them to save the trouble of reinventing new ones Operators of Verbal False Limit extra syllable padding Pretentious Dictio unnecessary words that suggest impartiality to bias Meaningless Words long artistic criticisms with no meaning ● language covers up the true cruelty of mass oppression Rules: ● never use a figure of speech that you are used to seeing ● never use a long word in place of a short word ● if you can delete it, delete it ● never use passive if you can use active ● never use a foreign or scientific word instead of plain english Thomas S. Kuhn (1996) “Normal Science” Normal Science: ● based on the assumption that experts know what the world is like ● therefore normal science suppresses novelties because of its commitment to basic assumptions (aradigms) Scientific Revolutions shift of scientific commitments, required the rejection of a oncehonored theory in favor of one that was incompatible with it Paradigms: ● rarely copied, more likely to be added upon and applied to different conditions ● paradigms allow scientists to be assured within the world that they know and can solve problems in ● Wittgenstein networks of identification are made through marking similarities Aristotle (Trans. 1992) The State: ● the state is anssociationthat which is political ● distinct roles by the king or master of slaves; i.e they do not have similar jobs ● the state is the natural “final” state of all other associations, just as man is at the end of his natural process ● The Two P airs: ○ man and wife, ruler and the ruled. This is created by nature for preservation ● Formation of household and village is made by pairing two entities State and the Individual: ● the conception of good and evil allows the formation of the household and state ● man is at his best when apart of the whole, the state, he is worst when separate from “law and justice” Week 3: Max Weber (trans. 2010) “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” (Ch.s 2,3 and 5) The Protestant Ethic: ● the acquisition of money in modern times falls under a “vocational calling”, a concept stemming from the Calvinist movement ● this is the “social ethic” of modern capitalism, the notion duty for individuals to work and never toconsume for one’s own enjoyment ● by way of economic selection, Capitalism binds people to whatever positions or class they were born into ● approach to economic activity as a realization of selfpotentiaand dispassionate selfcontrol yields extreme productive capacities Luther’s “The Calling”: ● Beruf in german, it means “one’s task given by God” ● Asceticism (withdrawal from the world) is now replaced by the morality of fulfilling one’s duty as designated by God. ● The Reformation achieved a sense of work by a Calling and putting religious value to it Asceticism and Capitalism: ● English Puritanism is most consistent with the idea of a vocational calling, to which it can also be referred to aAscetic Protestantism. ● The “wasting of time” is considered the most serious of all sinswithin this sect ● this virtue of “maximum potential ” from Puritanism leads to Adam Smith’s division of labor which does provide the most output and efficiency ● Asceticism also shines light on the “‘selfmade man’” of the middle class ● the transformation of social and economic from Ascetic Protestantism is the beginnings of the “Spirit of Capitalism” Adam Smith (1776) “The Wealth of Nations” Division of Labor: ● “greatest improvement in production” ● separation of different trades is result advantage production ● increase in production due to: ○ increase in dexterity ○ saving of time lost in switching transitions ○ invention of machines that maximize work ● Came from naturalendency to barternd exchange ● by exchanging, we came to specializein a particular good ● different talents and skills are brought into common stock and benefits others ● extent in which one can divide labor depends on populus Money free competition allows failure without mass consequence Unproductive Labor does not add value to subject of labor Robert L. Heilbroner (1961) “The Wonderful World of Adam Smith” Adam Smith: ● Smith was famously absentminded ● 1759 “The Theory of Moral Sentiments” by Smith made him a prominent philosopher ● Smith’s description of the market cannot be applied to today’s industry ● although industrialist society is much different todaprinciplesof selfinterest and competition still explains behavior ● Smith was optimistic about capitalism, no ceiling of growth Law of Accumulation accumulation of Capital is primary aspect of Capitalist society, this accumulation would raise wages, increase size of working class Law of Population workers want higher wages, demand for labor increases, market expands E.J Hobsbawm (1968) “Industry and Empire: An Economic History of Britain since 1750” Britain History: ● most free trade and empire moved through Britain ● Single Liberal World Economy” collapsed between 1917 and WWII ● The British two party system expresses 2 classesthat count namely “middle” and “working” ● Marx; Britain had revolution combination of ideology vs. institution superstructure ● British system was based on government concern for needs of middle class ● Industrial Revolution; acceleration of growth due to economic and social transformation ● Noted Reformation ( Protestantism) happened 2centuries beforeIndustrial Revolution Week 4: Robert L. Heilbroner (1961) “The Inexorable World of Karl Marx” 1848 fear of revolution by the Communists, spontaneous disorganized revolts occurred but failed Marx: ● coauthor of the “Communist Manifesto” was Friedrich Engels, member of the Bourgeoisie ● Marx was a revolutionary, wrote at several newspapers, moved toManchester where he witnessed theerrorsof capitalism ● Ultimate causes of all social and political revolutions result from changes mode of production nd exchange, it is in the economics of the epoch ● theorized that the baseand the superstructurof the capitalist system weincompatible and that this would lead to revolution ○ base was interdependent, all of society’s output came from the base ○ superstructure was highly individualistic; all the output went to very few ● result in Capitalism destroyingitself and breedincommunism ● hypothesis that the surplus value is what makes capitalism work for the individuals Takeaways from the “Manifesto”: ● Heilbroner sees a mistakein the surplus value exploitation, the world is based on prices, not labor value ● Marx predicted two very capitalist events ○ business cycle ○ domination of big business ● USA proves Marx wrong in the flexibility in the social institutions to adapt to Capitalism Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels “The Communist Manifesto” (pgs 245271) Class View of History: ● history is a constantbattlebetween classe, it has grown into the division of society into two, now very distinct, classes; Bourgeoisie and Proletariat ● the Bourgeoisie set up “Free Trade” direct, brutal exploitation ● they “agglomerated population, centralized production, and concentrated property in the hands of the few” ● Bourgeois createdweapons of theirdestruction; the Proletariat ○ Proletariat lost identity due to division of labor ○ they develop in stages alongside the development of industry ■ small civil wars break out into open revolution ● idea that in the fight between Bourgeoisie and other Bourgeois (either abroad or domestically), the Bourgeois asks for help from the Proletariat, arming them ● Fall of the Bourgeoisie and the Victory of the Proletariat are equinevitable Communists: ● aim is to overthrow theBourgeoisie by theProletariaas a class, and hold the political power ● Biggest feature is the abolishment of Bourgeois property (private property) ○ abolishment of the family, classbased education rights, and nationality ● Proletariat will use political power seizeallcapita,centralizeallproductionto the state, and tincreaseotal productiveforce ○ property is now all public ○ graduated income tax ○ one single State bank ○ Public education and abolishment of child labor Types of Socialism: 1) Reactionary Socialism a) Feudal Socialism aristocracy battling the bourgeoisie by appealing to the proletariats b) PettyBourgeois Socialism pseudobourgeois (petty) seeks to restore old order of society c) German or “True” Socialism antiliberalism, antirepresentative government 2) Conservative, or Bourgeois Socialism a) faction of the Bourgeois that seeks reformation to continue Bourgeois society 3) CriticalUtopian Socialism and Communism a) seeks to destroy class struggle, reconcile class conflict Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels “The German Ideology” (pgs 184200) Division of Labor: ● divides society into opposing parties ● locks Man into whatever he is born into ● Alienation of the Worker ● interests of the worker community separates from that of the State ● “these conditions of life decide whether the revolutionary force will be strong enough to overthrow the current political system” *The class that has access to the means of productions control the mental production i.e the State Revolution: ● proletariats now make the mass of means of production subject to each individual ● every revolutionary strugglein the past has been directed towards thclass inpower ● for this reason, only revolution by the proletariat will improve the conditions Egoism and Communism communists acknowledge that egoism is central to the assertion of the individual Karl Marx “Das Kapital” (pgs 472480, 488508) The Fetishism of Commodities: ● as soon as the good becomes a “commodity” it transcends its functional purpose ● this fetishism, thismystique of the commodity, comes from the social relations between producers of the good ● a portion of society consumes the subsistence of the goods produced, the other portion desire these goods and makes them commodities ● the value of something implies exchange, commodities arise from thissocial exchange Labor Power: ● worker’s capacities that he/she exercises when determining the usevalue of a good ● the consumption of labor power is the same as production of commodities and surplus value ● Surplus Value ○ the subsistence wage is not equal to the total amount of labor value that the worker makes in a day, therefore profit occurs when the subsistence wage is lower than the total labor value of the goods produced ● this is evident in the production of raw materials, they are not the final product therefore the final price does not reflect individual efforts in the process ● capitalist production of commodities = production of surplus value Week 5: Daniel Lerner (1958) “The Passing of Traditional Society” Conflicts: ● village vs town, land vs cash, illiteracy vs enlightenment ● people unite under the problem of modernizing traditional ways of life ● Europeanization (only upper class) vs. Modernization (all classes, public and private) ● Urbanization > literacy > mass media > economic participation > political participation ● Middle East wants modern institutions but not modern ideologies Empathy: ● embracing social change, encouraging social mobility, while protecting “equal opportunity” ● empathy is #1 skill for people moving towards modernization ● Traditionalism is nonparticipant in contrast to Modernization wide participation Mass Media: ● mass communication facilitated mass, increased empathy ● media manipulates how we see (simple) and what we do (complex) ● mass media and modernization are quasimutually exclusive ● always oral transitioning to media, degree of this change correlates with other social change Statistic 10% of urbanization starts rise of literacy up until 25% where literacy grows independently Stages: 1) Urbanization 2) Literacy 3) Mass Media 4) Participation Limits: ● where man:land ratio is high, urbanization is difficult ● density without urbanization Alexander Gerschenkron (1962) “Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective” Elements: ● difference between industrialization in a “backwards” and “advanced countries” ● readily eager industrial work forcis extremely scarce in backwards countries ● high tensions, not small little break outs, lead to industrialization Banks: ● German vs. English; investment vs. depository ● Russia grew out of the English style to German Style ● Possessing capital leads to banks which shows proof of industrialization Conclusions: ● Due to pressure from highly industrialized countries, backwards countries’ governments have tendency to push the state into industrialization rather quickly and abruptly ● However, quest for largescale industries may not have the same motive as to industrialize ● Cannot stress enough the importance of native elements/ideologies in industrialization of backward countries. W.W Rostow (1960) “The Stages of Economic Growth: A NonCommunist Manifesto” Alternative to Marx’s view of modern history 5 Stages: 1) Traditional Society a) limited roduction functions, prenewtonian science b) had increases in output but a ceiling existed c) power in those who owned land 2) Preconditions for TakeOff a) transforms tradition to exploodern technologies b) arose out oforeign invasio by more advanced societies c) decisive factor was often political 3) TakeOff a) forces of progress expand andake over b) “proximate stimulus was technological” c) growth is usuallyselfsustained 4) Drive to Maturity a) sustained progress,technology then dominates all economic activity 5) Maturity a) transition from original industries that started the TakeOff tocomplex industries 6) Age of High Mass Consumption a) real average income allows consumption beyond basic necessities b) USSR is ready for this stage but Communist leaders force social and political issues if they try to adjust Joseph R. Gusfield (1967) “Tradition and Modernity…” *major focus on India Peasantry: ● peasantry in India is very much involved with State policy and often feel the effects thereof ● peasants who own land no longer confront an exploitationby another class ● relation between State and Peasantry is no longer taxdependent as it was before ● move to urban areas is no longer anecessityfor the peasantry ● all peasant areas of production are fully integrated into the market ● there is no longer a subsistence way of living, culture has determined a minimum for a decent life that is neither excessive nor wasteful Political Power: ● an independent judiciary, a permanent bureaucracy, and electedleadership characterize India’s current government system ● the passive revolution was thought of as transitional, from colonial to some sort of modernity Informal Sector in India: ● groups are highly organized but are not corporations ● they have ties to political parties, often peasant production is dependent on the success of political parties, which is in turn encouraged by democracy Week 6: (Special Thanks to Michael O.) (notes from 9/28 and 9/30 provide additional information on these readings) Theda Skocpol (1979) “States and Social Revolutions…” (pgs 343) Social Revolutions: ● class struggles are major role in revolutions ● modern developments, foreign and domestic, build up revolutionary organizations and dismemberment of old order AggregatePsychological Theories revolutions start through psychological transformation System Value Conscious Theories violent responses to severe inequilibrium PoliticalConflict Theories different groups vying for power overthrow government ● “revolutions do not usually begin with revolutionary intent” ● Industrialization in England lead other countries to emulate the West ● heavy emphasis on role of military prior to revolutions ● definition of State as arena for social conflicts; contrast to Marx’s dominant class theory ● there are clashes between upper class and state Hannah Arendt (1963) “On Revolution” Revolution is Search for Freedom: ● freedom becomes justification for massive means of destruction ● military can no longer protect civilians ● believed in nuclear weaponry as function of policy ● Negative vs. Positive Freedom ● tradition of believing poverty is part of the human condition ● rulers deprive themselves of political peers ● Machiavelli argued that a “revolution” constituted violence ● Revolution is inevitable in all societies ● incredibly rapid in nations under tyranny ● The French Revolution gave birth to revolutions of modern definition Samuel P. Huntington (1968) “Political Order in Changing Societies” Revolution as Modernization: ● revolutions are peculiarities of Western Culture ● occurs when political institutions lags behind social development ● success only happens when political institutions are stable again ● Western Revolutions vs. Eastern Revolutions ○ Western begin with seizure of capital ○ Eastern end with seizure of capital ● Political institutions must absorb new social groups in order to be stable ● peasants are most critical class in revolutions Week 7: Theda Skocpol “States and Social Revolutions” (pgs 4767, 112128) Revolutions in France, Russia, and China: ● developed when the old regime failed to deal with international situations ● the landed upper classes controlled most agricultural product ● although the landed upper class and the imperial state worked side by side against the peasantry, there is often conflict between upper class and the state, one that could destroy the imperial state itself. ● these states also were in competition militarily with industrialized states ● either defeat in war or revolt by the upper classes resulted in the crippling of the military and leadership that made up the social and political order France: * Intendants representatives of King’s authority through tax collection, justice etc. ● Between 1715 and 1789, France lost military power and its hold over Europe ● French agriculture was “backwards” to English agriculture ● French growth masked need for fundamental changes needed to match England ● the dominant class, prerevolution, was “to a certain degree feudal” Proprietary Wealth exploitation of tenants through land ownership ● proprietary wealth was property basis of dominant class ● Revolution appeared only when international challenges and conflicts of interest between the monarchy and the upper class emerged ● France had difficulty raising revenue due to faulty tax collecting and loaning system ● the King attempted to equalize all tax burdens but faced resistance from the Parlements ● the Parlements then called for convening of Estates General ● “the price to be paid for American Independence was a French Revolution” ● By summer of 1789, the “Municipal Revolution” had started Peasant Insurrections: ● peasant revolts often sought the hiatus of governmental supervision ● this helped marginalized political elites to start a centralized, massincorporating state ● revolt by the agrarian peasantry was successful, not the urban worker (sansculottes) ● the orders most susceptible to peasant revolt included peasant solidarity and autonomy ● the breakdown of a state lead to irreversible revolts by the peasants ● before “Municipal Revolution” had begun, urban bread riots had broken out ● Social revolution started, spurred the revolution during the Convention of the Estates ● repressive military force was disorganized, allowing peasant resistance to grow ● despite huge importance of peasant revolution, little redistribution of land occurred after E.J Hobsbawm (1962) “The Age of Revolution” The French Revolution: ● the revolution’s ideas spread and left more impact than any other revolution in history ● the conflict between new social forces and the monarchy were more emphasized in the French Revolution than any other, the new organization knew what they wanted ● fiscal pressures pushed landowners to squeeze peasantry more; push for peasant revolt ● American Revolution made France bankrupt ● the ideas of Bourgeoisie in classic liberalism made a cohesive unity in the revolution ○ revolution would have happened anyway, this just lead to substitution ● believed in representative body, “a propertied oligarchy” Grande Peur great panic and town uprisings of late July and early August of 1789 ● peasantry did not present an alternative, but an immovable force in the revolution Timeline: 17951799 Directory Regime 17991804 Consulate Regime 18041814 Empire 18151830 Restoration of Bourbon Monarchy 18301848 Constitutional Monarchy 18481851 Republic 18521870 Empire All these regimes were attempt to maintain Bourgeois society while avoiding Jacobin Democracy and Monarchy Michael Walzer (1965) “The?
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