Crim Final CJA2225-01
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Peter Wright on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CJA2225-01 at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Joshua Battin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminology in Criminal Justice at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Becker 1963 and 1973 Wrote the book Outsiders Society creates norms Going outside of the parameters TOO WIDLY will lead to labels and an impact “Acceptance is the most important concept here. Because if you never accept it, it will never stick” Policy linked to labeling theory Promote conventional lines of behavior Focus on family and school to reinforce bonds Reconfigure offender’s self image Diversion and restitution programs We, over all, try to get juveniles through the system without giving them labels (hence terminology differences. Ex, adjudicated vs incarceration etc) “Becker 1963 (wrote the book Outsiders) but in 1973 (he addressed its criticism)” “Labeling theory is actually a PERSPECTIVE, not a complete theory because it relies on primary deviance for it to even occur. (also relies on other prior to factors/criminological explanations)” “Labeling was drawn out of Outsiders, even though the book was about subcultures” Social reaction/labeling theory Theorizes that people become criminals when labeled as such, and when they accept it Explains the role in society has in creating deviance Behaviors considered criminal are subjective Those in power define crime (just think about the 1960s) Both people and acts are labeled Subjective interpretation of a behavior could have positive or negative outcomes Social Disorganization (social institutions impact behavior. Chicago was perfect for this study, because it had the 5 concentric zones, transition, and cultural turn over. This is NEVER a micro theory. ONLY a Macro theory). Parks and Burgess 1925 studied the above theory but did not apply it to crime. They were not criminologists. Shaw and Mckay (students of the above) applied it to delinquency (not crime) but did not measure and connect it to informal social control Kornhauser wanted to put away the theory of social disorganization, and challenged Shaw and Mckay’s lack of measurement. She claimed it all had to do with lack of social ties and subcultures. This started the revitalization period. Revitalization period was a great big discussion as to how to measure the element of social disorganization. This led to Sampson and Groves theory of Collective Efficacy (the willingness to intercede, lumping all negative factors into the term Concentrated Disadvantage, and simplified things). In 1989 they made a complete measurement model. Theory of collective efficacy Sampson, Ravdenbush, Earls 1997 Attempted to improve the social disorganization theory First half of the complete model = Concentrated Disadvantage (all but residential mobility, which was a separate category). As this goes up, so does crime, positive relationship. Collective efficacy = The second half of the complete model. As it goes up, crime goes down, negative relationship. Informal social control = willing to intercede “This theory operates in the same way as social disorganization and it is an improvement” “Why was this considered an improvement? Because we refined our definitions and linked elements of the model together in a more effective and easier to understand way.” “Actual participation willing to support provided little support/help to the situation. (Just being willing wasn’t good enough and either was actual support). Willingness was a step in the right direction but it takes far more than that to be effective in stopping Classical School – Created by Cesare Beccaria, who said that punishment for a crime ought to be swift, certain, and severe. It was concentrated on deterrence. (Specific deterrence is when an individual learns from their mistake due to the proportionally severe punishment they endured. General deterrence is when others learn from someone else’s mistake upon hearing about how they were punished) Positivist Era – Created by Cesare Lombroso, known as the father of criminology because he incorporated science into his biological theories regarding crime, and the study of crime as a whole. Disciplines of Criminology – Sociology, psychology, biology, political science, etc are all disciplines that are now used in modern criminology. 5 techniques of neutralization 1. Denial of responsibility (“They made me do it” “I had no choice”) 2. Denial of injury (“What’s one DVD to Wal-Mart?” “They have insurance, they can afford it”) 3. Denial of victim (“They had it coming” “They were asking for it”) 4. Condemnation of the condemners (“Everybody does this” “Why pick on me”) 5. Appeal to higher loyalties (“I had to protect my buddies” “God called me to do this”) Reporting systems UCR – Uniform crime report, created in 1927 by IACP. It is when police departments submit data on completed crimes to the FBI voluntarily NIBRS – National Incident Based Reporting System, 1920s, it is an off shoot/addition to the UCR that reports on all crimes (completed or not). It also ignores the hierarchy rule, recognizes male rape victims, and addresses crimes committed in both Part 1 and Part 2 offence categories NCVS – National Crime Victimization Survey, 1970s, administered by the Census Bureau and published by the BJS. Interviews thousands of homes so that people can report on crimes they have been victims of that may have not been reported to the police Contemporary Rational Choice theory – The weighing of risk vs reward. It derives from the Beccara’s Deterrence Theory. Differential association/Social Process – Social Process is the view that criminality is a function of people’s interactions with organizations, institutions, people, etc. And that everyone one has the potential of being criminal. Differential association (by Sutherland) ties into this because it is a learning theory, and touches on how an individual can learn criminality by interaction with others. Differential reinforcement – is when you mentally reinforce certain actions (and the way you view certain actions) in either a positive or negative way. Bio Social – Explores biological factors in the environmental setting to help explain criminal and anti social behavior. Conflict theory – Merton (1938) Individual adaptation is a result caused by strain (it can come in various forms) Universal focus on economic success and overall limited availability to achieve it causes strain This is a micro level theory that explains individual behavior Social adaptation varieties 1. Conformist (Agreeing to the means and goals and perusing both) 2. Innovator (Accepting the goals but finds/creates new means) 3. Ritualistic (Rejects the goals but still buys into and follows the means) 4. Retreatist (Rejects both the goals and the means of society) 5. Rebellion (Rejects both the goals and the means, and instead creates their own) “Innovator and rebellion are most likely to cause crime (but not always)” Conflict theory – Those in low socioeconomic statuses are more likely to commit crime because those in high socioeconomic statuses are causing an imbalance of their means and goals. This is all about social class. Social control theory Why people do NOT commit crime Assumes that deviant behavior is attractive because it is fun/rewarding/most efficient way to archive goals It doesn’t matter why people commit crime the action, only that it is attractive to them Social constructs/bonds stop people from committing crime Social Bonds Family, friends, organizations (the elements of informal social control) Without these nothing is holding you back from criminal actions You don’t want to disappoint loved ones, jeopardize your future, you have faith in rules and the law, and you have self control. General theory of crime = impulse control Self control – A strong moral sense that renders people incapable of hurting others/violating social norms (AKA - you believe it) Commitment to conformity – Develops w/ a strong commitment to conventional institutions and processes (AKA - you don’t always believe in it, but you do it anyway) Travis Hirschi 1969 Delinquent acts occur when an individual bond to society is either weakened or broken (there are of course exceptions) A person can break the bond themselves Contemporary social control - Links onset of criminality to the weakening of the ties that bind people to society The 4 social bonds 1. Attachment (family, friends, organizations) 2. Commitment (future, career, personal goals) 3. Involvement (Religious and social groups, activities in school and organizations) 4. Belief (Morality, honesty, responsibility, fairness, patriotism) A lack or a breakdown in any of these bonds and criminality is likely to occur. Once one starts to weaken the others follow Testing social control - Simply put, it can be easily measured (Just ask questions like – how close are you to family/friends? How involved are you? Do you care about your future? Etc) Routine activities theory – Theorized that crime was most likely to occur certain conditions were present (a lack of a suitable guardian, a motivated offender, and a suitable target). If any of these conditions are not present it is likely the crime will NOT occur Strain/Anomie – By Durkheim. It is a state of normlessness (anomie), where a person, or population feels stuck. This causes strain and often leads to crime (class unable to make ends meet as far as means and goals is concerned). Career criminal – An individual who is a chronic/habitual offender. A person who commits more than one crime in the span of several years (subjective). Usually make up 5% of a population, but commit 50% of crime within that area. Criminal career – The illegal life style of a criminal. Onset to dissidence defines the term criminal career Drifting – When an individual goes between acting like a law abiding citizens to committing crimes Validity (accuracy), and Reliability (you get the same result every time). You can NOT have one without the other.
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