Final Exam Study Guide for Functional Human Anatomy.pdf
Final Exam Study Guide for Functional Human Anatomy.pdf 80204 - BIOL 2220 - 002
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Kessler on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 80204 - BIOL 2220 - 002 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Final Exam Study Guide for Functional Human Anatomy Chapter 24: Lymphatic System Questions 1. What are the functions of the lymphatic system? Transports fluid and nutrients. Lymphocyte development and the response of the immune system. 2. What are the 2 semi-independent parts of the lymphatic system? Meandering network of lymphatic vessels and it is made up of lymphoid organs and tissues. 3. How does the lymphatic system balance fluid? It returns the fluid from IF space to circulation. It enters the lymphatic capillaries that form lymph. 4. What is lymph derived from? Plasma substances (because IF comes from blood plasma) and substances of derived tissues (derived from the tissues themselves). 5. Where are lacteals located? What is its function? In the GI tract. It absorbs fats and fat soluble substances, like vitamins. 6. Where do hormones flow? Circulation and blood vessels 7. What is the purpose of homeostasis in the lymphatic system? It ensures IF volume/blood volume 8. What is the lymph referred to in the lymphatic’s that pulls in fats? Chyle (milky substance due to absorbance) 9. How does the lymphatic system act as a defense? It acts as a filter that has lymphocytes that gets rid of stuff/foreign substances 10. What is unique about the lymphatic system? It doesn’t have a pump 11. How does the lymphatic system move things? It never moves things to and from a tissue, it only removes things from a tissue and removes things to the heart 12. Where does extra IF go to and how is it moved there? Circulation (venous blood circulation by the left lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct) 13. What are lymphatic capillaries? A lot like blood capillaries, but they have thinner walls, closed ENDED vessels that are comprised of simple squamous epithelium, present in ALL tissues, found weaving b/w cells and capillary beds in the CT element/wherever capillary beds are. Capillaries are not in nonvascularized tissues and neither are lymphatic’s. There is none in the brain, which is why brain swelling is dangerous. They have a larger diameter and are permeable. It has a minivalve-overlapping of simple squamous epithelium cells. The CT tether is called an anchoring filament and this is where the system pushes on the cells and opens the minivalves when IF volume gets too big. The minivalves suck in the fluid and when the pressure drops the minivalves float. It is all regulated by pressure. (when pressure falls the valves fall/no energy required/regulates itself) 14. Where does lymph flow? Capillarieslarge lymph vessels – the vessels have the 3 tunics and they are similar to veins, have many more valves and thin walled. 15. Why is there low pressure in the system? Low pressure and it always flows to the heart 16. Why do lymph vessels have so many valves? Decreases the weight b/c it divides the structures up. It also prevents backflow 17. What do lymphatic vessels form? Trunks 18. Where is lymph returned to when it returns to venous blood circulation? Internal jugular and subclavian vein 19. What is the cisterna chyli? What does it do? Enlargement of connections for the drainage for lumbar trunks, intestinal and lower trunks. 20. How is lymph transported? Since there is no pump, there needs to be flow from capillaries to larger vessels. The skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump (pressure changes in thoracic cavity) and rhythmic contractions within the walls of the vessels assist with transport. Lymphatic transport is slow and sporadic. 21. How much do you reclaim during capillary claim? 27 L. 3 L’s are left every 24 hours so this is why we have the lymphatic system 22. Where are lymphatic cells found? Cardio vasculature and lymphatic’s 23. What are T lymphocytes function? Protect against foreign cells virus infected cells and tumor cells 24. What are NK lymphocytes function? They destroy variety of infected/foreign cells that police peripheral tissues providing immunological surveillance 25. What are B lymphocytes and plasma cells function? Produce Ab’s and attach foreign cells and pathogens (B cells transform into plasma cells) 26. What are macrophages function? Phagocytosis of things that shouldn’t be there 27. Define dendritic cells – antigen presenting cell/ spiny-shaped cells in lymphatic nodules of lymph nodes 28. Which cells are specific to the immune system? B and T cells (recognizing specific cells) 29. Which cells are nonspecific? NK cells 30. What is lymphopoeisis? Process of lymphocyte development and maturation into B cells, T cells and natural killer cells 31. When is a lymphocyte referred to as immunocompetent? When it is FULLY mature and recognizes a specific intruder 32. What do lymphocytes arise from? Hemocytoblast 33. What can lymphocytes do after it arises and is in the red bone marrow? It can stay in the red bone marrow and mature into NK cells/B cells or the lymphcytes can leave circulation and go into the thymus and become T cells. 34. What are lymphatic follicles? Clusters of lymphoid cells within an organ. It has some ECM and it is NOT surrounded by encapsulated structure. 35. What happens when the lymphatic follicles are activated? They contain an outer ring of T lymphocytes and a germinal center that has B cells and macrophages 36. Where are lymphatic follicles found? MALT (Mucosa associated lymphatic tissue) lamina propria of GI, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tract 37. What do these ALL have in common? They open to the outside 38. Whats an example of MALT? Peyers patch 39. Define tonsils and what is interesting about them? They are hybrid b/w lymphatic follicles and organs. They form a ring around entrance of the throat. There are different tonsils based on the location. Palatine-posterior – largest/becomes infected. Linguinal – backside of the tongue that you never see. Pharyngeal-adenoids. They have crypts – invaginations deep into the tonsils/watch for microbes from food. This allows the body to be aware of what it coming into the body and get used to the microbe. 40. What are lymphatic organs? Collections of lymphatic cells that have ECM and COMPLETELY surrounded by CT capsule. 41. What are examples of lymphatic organs? Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus 42. What is the function of lymph nodes? Serves as filters for lymph – lymph passes through at least one lymph node before returning to venous blood circulation. It activates the immune system – an intruder can be picked up in the fluid of the tissue that gets into the lymphatics and the lymph nodes initiate a response to take care of the infection. 43. Where are 3 large aggregations of lymph nodes? Inguinal, axillary and cervical. These are where lymphatic ducts are turning into trunks and bringing the lymph back to the circulation. 44. Explain the structure of the lymph node – kidney bean shape, dense capsule surrounds them and invaginates into the lymph nodes. Cortex – lymphatic follicles are on the periphery and the medulla- is in the middle where the sinuses are. If the follicles are scattered throughout it is going to be the spleen, not the lymph node. 45. What is different b/w afferent and efferent? There are more afferent than efferent. This encourages that lymph flows into the structure and then it can meander around and looked at in the follicles, then leave. 46. What is known as the largest lymphoid organ? The spleen 47. What is the function of the spleen? It provides lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance/response, but perhaps most important role is its blood cleaning functions. (the primary function—filters blood NOT LYMPH—the lymph nodes filter lymph). The spleen catches anything the lymph nodes don’t get, such as intruders that pass through. It removes aged and damaged, defective RBC’s and platelets. It has macrophages that remove debris and foreign matter from the blood. It also stores/sends to liver breakdown products of RBCs for later reuse. It stores platelets. It is the site of erythrocyte production in fetus. You can live without the spleen. 48. What do you find in white pulp? clusters of lymphocytes ( T cells, B cells and macrophages)– looks like lymphatic follicle, but it is a cluster of lymphocytes 49. What do you find in red pulp? splenic tissue with RBC’s, platelets, macrophages and some plasma cells. 50. What is the thymus responsible for? Site of immunocompetence for T lymphocytes. 51. How does the thymus differ from lymphoid tissue in 2 ways? Functions strictly in T cell maturation and it is not the only lymphoid organ that does not directly fight antigens. It consists of epithelial cells rather than reticular fibers. 52. What do thymocytes secrete? Hormones Chapter 25 Respiratory System 1. What divides the upper and lower respiratory tract? Larynx (this is in the lower respiratory tract according to the book) 2. What is the conducting zone? Upper portion – nose, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles (terminal) 3. What is the respiratory zone? Bronchioles, alveolar duct and alveoli’s 4. What are the functions of the respiratory system? Pulmonary ventilation (breathing), gas conditioning (warm, filter, humidify), sound production for communication (forcing air through the larynx), olfaction and defense – filtering/humidifying – secretions (mucus/lysozyme, twisted passageways and hair) 5. What is the anatomical flow of air? Tracheabranch into 2 primary bronchi->secondary bronchitertiary bronchiterminal bronchiolesrespiratory bronchialveolar sacsalveoli (this is where gas exchange occurs) 6. Why is the conducting system rigid? It needs to get air to gas exchange (alveoli) 7. What is the function of the upper respiratory tract? Brings in air and conditions it. 8. What is the purpose of the terminate bones (meatus) that make elevations and vallies? It conditions the air. This makes “turbulence” and the air comes into contact with the surface and helps the air become conditioned. 9. What is found in the nasal cavity? Swell bodies. This is composed of erectile tissue. 10. Why is erectile tissue (swell bodies) in the nasal cavity? It regulates air flow and helps different sides of the nose to recover while the other side has air flow. 11. What is the purpose of the paranasal sinuses? It decreases the skull bone weight because they are hollowed out areas. It is also for resonate chambers for sound resonance. 12. What are paranasal sinuses lined by? Mucoperiosteum – thick mucus membrane fused onto the bone. The cilia that is on here allows the air to be warmed. 13. What are the 3 parts of the pharynx? Nasopharnyx, oropharynx and the laryngopharynx (near the epiglottis and the esophagus). 14. Function of the pharynx? It is a conduit for respiratory and digestive system. 15. What is the larynx covered by? Elastic cartilage 16. What is the function of the larynx? Air passageway, prevents food from getting in the epiglottis, assist and increases pressure in the abdominal cavity—valsalva maneuver: abdominal muscles contract which increase the pressure. This helps bowel movements. It aids in sneezing and coughing (explosive flow of air). 17. What is the function of the trachea? A conduit to bring air in 18. Why aren’t the rings in the trachea complete? The trachialis and the tracheal rings make up the trachea. Since the esophagus lies right beneath this it allows the esophagus to expand as food moves through the digestive tract. 19. What do the trachea rings do for the trachea? It gives the trachea support and protection. It makes sure the airway doesn’t collapse or over expand. 20. What is the purpose of the tracheal lining? It is made up of numerous goblet cells that are ciliated. There are mucin producing glands. This creates a mucus rich fluid that lays on the surface of the trachea. The cilia moves the mucus in an upward direction so you can cough or spit up. The mucus helps humidify and cleanse the things that moves through it. It is sticky, which helps filter the air that moves through it. 21. What else does the trachialis muscle aid the trachea in? coughing 22. What is the function of the bronchiole tree? It creates an anatomical architecture that allows us to spread air quickly to a wide area of the lung. 23. What does the primary bronchi mimic? The composition of the trachea. 24. What happens as you move through the bronchiole tree? Cartilage rings are replaced by the cartilage plates. The cartilage plates are absent in the bronchioles, but they do have elastic fibers. The epithelium is mucosal and then goes from pseudostratified. To columnar to cuboidal to squamous. There is an increase in smooth muscle as the passageways get smaller. 25. What is the carina? Interior ridge where bifurcation occurs 26. Why is the right larger than the left? Heart is on the left! Right lung has 3 sections. 27. What is the place that is centralized and all things move from it to the lungs? The root of the lung 28. What are lobules? These are where each terminal bronchioles deliver to a single lobule. 29. Which structure allows bronchoconstriction/dilation? Why? Bronchioles – the cartilage is replaced with smooth muscle and this allows the air to flow directly. (they don’t have any cartilage!) 30. Which bronchioles are the conducting pathway? Terminal 31. _______ account for most of the lung volume and provide tremendous SA for gas exchange. ANSWER: alveoli 32. What is a respiratory membrane? It is the site of gas exchange. 33. What kind of cells do the alveolar walls have? Type 1 – squamous epithelium and type 2 – cuboidal: produces surfactant (important for sufficient gas exchange) 34. What are important features of the alveoli? Surrounded by elastic fibers, alveolar pores and alveolar macrophages. The pores are here so that there will always be an exit for anything blocking a pore. Macrophages get rid of things. 35. What is the respiratory membrane? Fused membrane b/w the type 1 and simple squamous of the capillaries. The distance is small for diffusion to occur quickly. 36. What is the stroma? Elastic tissue of the lung 37. What are the 2 circulations of the lung perfused by? Pulmonary-systemic blood to be oxygenated and the bronchial-systemic arterial blood to the lung tissue. 38. What is the important of bronchopulmonary segments? The regions of the lung that is autonomous. Pulling one of these sections wont hurt the entire part of the lung. It is protective and encapsulation prevents the spread of disease. 39. What are the functions of the pleurae layers? The parietal covers the inner surface and extends over the diaphragm and the mediastinum. The visceral lays on the lung surface proper it covers the outer surface of the lungs and extends into fissure between the lobes. 40. What is the function of the pleural fluid? It is the fluid between the parietal and the visceral. It provides lubrication (reduces friction) as you breathe and it gives surface tension due to the presence of the pleural fluid that keeps the lung clung tightly to the thoracic wall. This is important for ventilation. 41. How do we move air when we breathe? Atmospheric and alveolar pressure are the ends 42. What muscles are working when you inhale? pectoralis minor, serratus anterior & sternocleidomastoid 43. What is the trachea, bronchial tree and the lungs innervated by? ANS 44. What do the parasympathetic and the sympathetic fibers control? They form a pulmonary plexus and SNS open and dilates the air tubes while the PNS closes and constricts the air tubes. 45. What makes up the respiratory rhythmicity center? The ventral respiratory group (VRG) and the dorsal respiratory group (DRG) 46. What are the VRG and DRG controlling during respiratory? DRG- inspiration center that initiates inspiration. VRG controls forced exhalation and increases thoracic volume. 47. What does the pneumotaxic and the apneustic centers do? The apneustic (green) enhances and stimulates the DRG inhibits inspiration. Chapter 26: The Digestive System 1. What is the digestive system composed of? Digestive organs and the accessory digestive organs. The digestive organs are what makes up the GI tract. The outgrowths and the connections to the GI tract are the accessory organs. (look at the picture below) 2. What are the functions of the digestive system? This is where food is broken down, elements are absorbed and it eliminates wastes. 3. Give a summary of the 6 activities performed by the digestive system: Ingestion - take foodstuffs into digestive tract via mouth Digestion – process to break down larger food items into smaller structures o Mechanical - physical manipulation & distortion of foodstuffs; prepare for chemical digestion – chewing/churning/segmentation – all this does is set up the chemical breakdown. o Chemical - catabolic process involving breakdown of larger food molecules into smaller molecules (monomers) Propulsion – activity which moves food through the digestive tract (how we move the foodstuff along the GI tract) o peristalsis o segmentation Secretion – production/release of fluid products into GI tract lumen to facilitate digestion & passage/lubricate without any friction. Absorption - movement of digested end-products from digestive tract to blood/lymph. transepithelial transport-this is what we move across….Active (selective bc it cost a lot) & passive processes Elimination - removal of indigestible substances & wastes from the body. (Process of defecation) 1. Compare the differences between peristalsis and segmentation. Peristalsis – moving along the GI tract. It is responsible for propulsion. It involved alt waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles in canal walls. It is a reflexive response by contracting. Segmentation – GI tract massaging. It has rhythmic contractions. It mixes food with digestive juices. The primary job is to mix and mechanically break down elements. 2. What is the oral cavity lined by? Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium (it is living and not as thick) 3. What is the function of the tongue? Participates in sound production, manipulates and mixes ingested materials during chewing and forms a bolus 4. What is the different between extrinsic and intrinsic glands? Estrinsic are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. Intrinsic are buccal glands. 5. What secretory types of cells make up the salivary glands? Serous cells – produce watery secretion containing NZ’s and ions. Mucous cells – produce mucus 6. What is salivary amylase’s function? Breaks down carbohydrates 7. Whay is saliva made? Lubricates the bolus and keeps oral cavity clean while lubricating the surface 8. What initiates saliva? chemoR, mechanoR and the site/smell of food 9. What is the function of the pharynx? It is the common space used by respiratory and digestive systems. 10. What are the parts of the pharynx made up of? Nasopharynx - pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Oropharynx and larngylpharynx are made up of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. 11. What is the peritoneum? The serous membrane of the GI tract that is made up of the parietal – lines the body wall and the visceral – covers external surfaces of digestive organs. 12. What is the peritoneal cavity? potential space between visceral & parietal peritoneum that contains fluid secreted by serous membrane that lubricates mobile digestive organs. 13. What is the mesentery? Double folded layer of the peritoneum. 14. What does the mesentery provide for the GI tract? routes for bld vessels, lymphatics & nerves, holds organs in place, store fat 15. What are the 2 layers in the muscularis? The muscle fibers are circular so we can constrict and dilate. The longitudinal are short and long that aids in mixing. 16. What influences blood vessels, lymphatic structures and nerve supply in the GI tract? ANS 17. What does parasympathetic and sympathetic do in terms of digestion? Para – promotes digestion and symp. – inhibits digestive activity 18. What is the job of the innervation of the GI tract? Regulates activity of the digestion and preparation of the food. 19. What are the 2 major nerve plexus in the nerves in the GI tract? Submucosal – regulation of glands and smooth muscle and myenteric – controls motility of the GI tract. 20. What are the 2 sphincters in the esophagus and what are they responsible for? pharyngoesophageal (superior ES)-- thickened ring of circular SmM and marks area where pharynx & esophagus meet. esophagealgastric (inferior ES)-- cardiac (or gastroesophageal). It is a thin band of circular SmM at orifice between esophagus and stomach 21. What kind of contractions make the food move into the laryngeal and esophagus to the stomach? Peristaltic 22. What is deglutition? process of moving ingested materials from oral cavity to stomach 23. What does the stomach mechanically and chemically digest? Chyme 24. What does the pyloric sphincter do? It moves small amounts of chime into the small intestine 25. What is the advantage of rugae (gastric folds) in the stomach? It allows stretching of the stomach without ripping. 26. What are the function of the muscularis and the mucosa tunics? The muscularis allows the stomach to mix, churn and knead. The peristalsis is unique to this tunic because of the additional oblique layer. Mucosa has secretion that comes from the gastric pits, leads into glands that makes the juice. 27. Which cells influence the pH? Parietal cells 28. What do chief cells produce? Gastric lipase 29. What do interoendocrine cells do? They aid in H’s with digestion/gastrin 30. Why do we need the intrinsic factor in the GI tract? Absorbs B12 in the small intestine. 31. What is linguinal lipase? It is produced in the mouth and helps with milk fats 32. Why isn’t the stomach broken down by its own secretion? It forms a mucosal barrier that is created by thick coating of alkaline mucus of the neck cells. The tight junctions b/w mucosa epithelial cells that prevent leaking of gastric juice to the underlying tissues. It is deep in the gastric glands, external faces of PM are impermeable to HCL for protection from the acidity that they are found in. the damaged cells are quickly replaced. 33. What is the duodenum? It is mainly retroperitoneal 34. Where does the duodenum become continuous? At the duodenojejunal flexure 35. What does the sphincter in the duodenum regulate? Bile and pancreatic juice 36. What is the duodenal papilla? This is where secretions are released into. 37. What does the jejunum and the ileum do? Jejunum functions in chemical digestion and nutrient absorption. The ileum controls the entry of material into the LI 38. What is gastroileal reflex? Ingestion of food initiates ileum peristaltic movements and frequency of ileocecal valve openings. 39. Describe the motility of the LI: LI musculature is inactive much of the time and when active, its contractions are sluggish and short-lived. It has haustral contractions - most frequent movement, very slow segmenting movements that mix contents of LI and aids in water absorption. Local controls regulate via stretch/distension as haustra fill. The mass movements are mass peristalsis, long, slow-moving but powerful contractile waves that move over large areas of colon. It is stimulated by distension of stomach and duodenum. 40. Defecation occurs by a _______ ________. Answer: Defecation Reflex 41. When does defecation occur? It occurs when mass movements force feces into rectum and is stretched. 42. What is the function of accessory digestive organs? Produce secretions that facilitate the chemical digestive activities of the GI tract organs 43. What is the significance of the liver? It is the bodies most important organ and has many metabolic and regulatory roles. Its digestive function is in the production of bile. 44. What enters and exits the portal hepaticus? It acts as a gate for various ducts, vessels and nerves to enter and exit. The hepatic portal system enters the liver through this structure. It also transmits lymphatics and nerves. The hepatic portal vein and the hepatic artery proper enter it while the common hepatic duct leaves it. 45. Where does blood flow from triad regions? It peculates through the liver sinusoids to central vein and then to the hepatic vein which drains the liver. 46. What do hepatocytes produce? They produce bile, process blood borne nutrients, sort fat-soluble vitamins and detoxify. 47. What is kupffer cells? Phagocytic cells involved with immune function 48. What does the portal triad do? The oxygen rich blood flows through and goes through, processes things and takes care of it. 49. What is the function of the gallbladder? It stores and concentrates bile. Then the bile is expelled into the cystic duct. 50. What is the function of the pancreas? It is an exocrine organ, producing digestive enzymes and buffers, which are delivered into the duodenum. 51. What is in the pancreatic juice? Water NZ’s and electrolytes 52. What cells produce the digestive enzymes in the juice? Acinar cells 53. What is the billary apparatus? A network of thin ducts that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Chapter 27: the urinary system 54. What do the kidneys and the ureters/bladder/urethra do in this system? The kidneys filter while the ureters/bladder/urethra transport and store urine until it can be eliminated. 55. What are the functions of the urinary system? regulating blood volume and blood pressure by adjusting volume of water lost in urine, regulating plasma concentrations of Na, K, Cl and other ions by controlling loss, helping to stabilize blood pH by controlling bicarbonate & hydrogen ions, conserving valuable nutrients by preventing their excretion, regulation of erythrocyte production via EPO, storage/excretion of urine 56. What is the basic mechanism of the blood supply to the kidneys? The renal arteryafferent arterioleglomulerusefferent arteriolerenal vein 57. What are the types of nephrons? Cortical and juxtamedullary 58. How is urine formed? Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion. Glomerular filtration is the movement of substances from the blood within the glomerulus into the capsular space. Tubular reabsorption is the movement of substances from the tubular fluid back into the blood. Tubular secretion is the movement of substances from the blood into the tubular fluid. 59. What factors influence filtration? (1) afferent arteriole is larger than efferent arteriole thus establish high pressure in capillary to support filtration (2) fenestrated capillaries – porous & allow plasma & solutes to pass from blood to capsular space (3) filtration slits of podocytes permit passage of filtered material 60. What are in the juxaglomerular cells? mechanoR, measure BP modified smooth muscle cells that contain renin filled granules. 61. Describe ureters: when urine from kidney enter them the distention causes the smooth muscle layer to contract, propelling urine to the bladder. 62. What is the function of the urethra? urethra is a tube that conveys urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
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