Final Exam Study Guide Dec 4
Final Exam Study Guide Dec 4 HIST 1010 - 001
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Friday December 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Final Exam Review Tang Dynasty Expanded China enormously They were very open to foreign in uences due to being part Turkish Li Shimin most important emperor of the Tang Dynasty He was a great military leader and spread most to the West and Northwest He was also a writer and poet and wrote of what would be a good emperor which include military strength warrior and a man of word educated An Lushan Rebellion this is when all of the openness to foreign cultures religions and goods came to a hault This happened in 755 when general An Lushan who was supposed to gather armies of foreigners to protect the outskirts of China declared himself emperor of Northern China This is when China decided to close off to foreigners and later Tang became very suspicious of everything Song Dynasty The heir to the Tang Dynasty There emperors embraced Confucianism instead of Buddhism really big during Tang so this was a great age of Confucian revival The goal was to make Confucianism more personable to the people so they could live their daily lives by it and added it as a huge part of the civil service exam Song neglected the military and border protection because they were so turned off by rebellion This made them very vulnerable to invasion by the Mongol Empire Mongols An empire north of China they are very tribal and extremely advanced and scary militarily They are very intimidating and great on horses and used ags to communicate on horseback Chinghis Khan the leader of the empire He began the conquest of China and uni ed the Mongol tribes Kublai Khan Chinghis s son who completed the takeover and allowed foreign uidity The Chinese were very bitter towards the Mongols so they fell from power Their dynasty was known as the Yuan Dynasty Marco Polo an Italian who travelled to and lived in China for 17 years He maintained a travel journal and wrote extensively and emphasized how blown away he was by China for it is ancient advanced and wealthy Ming Dynasty Next after the Mongol ruled Yuan Dynasty Very legalistic and Confucius they were very harsh and law and order If someone betrayed the Dynasty that persons family and anyone ever in contact would be mass slaughtered could be thousands of people and later were jailed and left to starve instead All emperors relied heavily on the scholar gentry Ming Taizu Hung Wu Founder of the Ming Dynasty He was orphaned young and became a Buddhist monk early on He is important because he laid the blueprints for how China would be ruled by the Ming s He had a huge hand in everything so he did everything himself which was exhausting and inef cient Zheng He Cheng Ho The Christopher Columbus of China He travelled to Mecca and Africa and many other places in enormous and wellmade ships He took gifts to governments all over and brought gifts back to China leading to intellectual curiosities and commercial relations This was soon halted Matteo Ricci a missionary Jesuit who went to China and gained interest for his religion in the Chinese elite He brought goods to provoke interest and the clock did just that He was not the rst and only but was the most important Ottomans This was an Islamic Empire that ruled from Constantinople and led by a Su an Mehmet the Conqueror He was important because he conquered Constantinople and nished off the old Byzantine empire using guns Suleiman the Magni cent A Sultan during the Protestant Revolution he laid seize on Vienna which helped Martin Luther previous chapters He was a very powerful and extremely talented military leader and built a mega army Janissaries these are the special forces of the Sultan They were born Turkish or Muslim and mostly Greek Orthodox but were taken from their families as a levy and reared into ghting machines Even though they were technically enslaved they were privileged and treated well They couldn39t own property or marry so they had nothing to lose aka not afraid to die or hold back Viziers High of cials in the Empire Koprulus the top Vizier family Grand Vizier The family almost became a small dynasty in their job because it was family member after family member John Sobieski The King of Poland Ottomans had some land here and he didn39t like that so he wanted to stop them which ended up in him intervening and saving Vienna from being seized Safavids An Islamic Empire with Iran the heart of it They are Shi39ite Muslim and want to reform and revitalize it in their part of the world They ran into Sunni Ottomans and began a long and ongoing battle Ismail He is the founder of the Safavid Dynasty They built off of Su mysticism Abbas the Great A Safavid emperor who worked towards and wanted to be a commercial superpower He did a lot of infrastructure to make trade easier like roads and rest stops He encouraged the creation of high quality luxury goods to trade with Europe and they are most known for their rugs Mughals This is an empire in India and reintroduces Islam to India Babur Founder of the Mughal Empire and descendent of Chinghis Khan and reintroduced Islam to India Akbar Grandson of Babur He took over the area militarily which was hard due to the disunity of India but he ended up uniting India politically He is the most important ruler of this Dynasty He made the government more modern and focused on talent rather than class forjobs He had minister in charge or parts of government and focused on social reform He constructed housing for homeless permitted remarriage for women forbade Sati tried to stop purdah and he was extremely tolerant He was extremely interested in religion so he invited people of all religions to come and discuss them in his court He wanted to combine Hindu and Islam to make Divine Faith but it failed Shah Jahan An emperor of the empire and had a huge hand in architectural developments such as the Taj Mahal that he built for his dead wife Taj Mahal an extremely important palace built by Shah Jahan for his dead wife Scienti c Revolution a revolution encompassing all of the sciences but most importantly astronomy and physics Geocentric The Theory that the earth is the center of the universe which is what Aristotle believed along with the church and the rest of the world Aristotle divided the universe by lunar the heavens which are perfect and sublunar the earth and its atmosphere which is imperfect Heliocentric The theory that the sun is the center and not earth This made the church very angry and offended Copernicus he came up with the heliocentric theory He wanted to x the theories that involved major overlapping of epicycIes so he did by switching the sun and earth which got rid of a majority of the epicycIes Epicycle the use of loops within a circle to better calculate the planetary motions Tycho Brahe He was set up in a state of the art observatory enlisted by Denmark where he got the most accurate views and data before a telescope He had extremely accurate and detailed data Kepler the assistant of Tycho Brahe and a mathematician He used Tycho39s ndings to gure out planetary motions The three laws he came up with 1 made the paths ellipses 2 they travel at different speeds in different places so velocity changes 3 Speed changes the closer they are to the sun Kepler wrote the Starry Messenger which basically showed that the cosmos were imperfect and undermined Aristotle and his lunar v sublunar theory Ellipse Kepler39s planetary motion this is an oval basically which is the path of planets around the sun Galileo Galileo used a telescope to see more of the universe and wrote the Dialogue which made the Pope and Aristotle seem dumb Galileo39s best works were his experiments He rolled a ball down an inclined plane and realized 1 It wouldn39t stop unless acted upon by a force and 2 It would speed up if acted upon continuously by the initial force The other was dropping different objects and realizing they reached the ground at the same time Pope Urban VIII He was very educated and loved science but he had to stick up for his institution so he put Galileo on forever house arrest due to publishing non proven work about the universe that de ed the church beliefs Newton He used Kepler39s and Galileo39s works to discover gravity and inertia which he had the math to prove it Inertia Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion including changes to its speed and direction or the state of rest It is the tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line at constant velocity Gravity the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth or toward any other physical body having mass For most purposes Newton39s laws of gravity apply with minor modi cations to take the general theory of relativity into account scienti c method a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century consisting in systematic observation measurement and experiment and the formulation testing and modi cation of hypotheses John Locke He argued for the best kind of government and how government control is not unlimited so he argued to limit control He is the rst to think and speak freely of limiting control without going to an authority rst He believed in natural rights in the state of nature and that the government should only be a thing to help protect the right of its people and do as the people say state of nature the beliefidea by Locke that at one point there was no government natural rights the beliefidea by Locke that we naturally have rights to life liberty and prosperity tabula rasa blank slate He believed people are born with a blank slate and are a result of environment and experiences Voltaire a reformer during the early enlightenment who wanted to reform western society for he believed everybody should be treated equally He was a deist and was also thrown in jail for practicing free speech Montesquieu He wrote the Persian Letters in which he used a Persian character to criticize traditional institutions and western society because they don39t make sense and aren39t rational Montesquieu wrote the spirit of laws which was huge for America This is pondering which government would best protect the natural rights of individuals England after the glorious revolution is the model he thought best because they had limited power and increased parliamentary power He liked the separation of powers between executive and legislative branches and checks and balances Diderot he was the editor of the encyclopedia He headed a mass collaborative effort to have all of the knowledge into one place which ended up being the 17 volumes of the encyclopedia Rousseau Rousseau wrote a work the Social Contract He envisions more of a democracy and wanted to see a government in which people are governed by the general will of the people He believed in hiring people to rule for the peoples will He wanted to see everybody in society being involved in the political process This isn39t majority rule because the problem with majority is it has to only be 51 so the other 49 is not represented This is extremely idealistic Adam Smith He believed in supply and demand natural laws in the economy which is selfregulating and adjusts itself when needed laissezfaire a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course without interfering Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft and her counterpart Olympe de Gouges addressed how limited the issue of women was addressed during the enlightenment Abolitionism the movement to end slavery Map Asi l 1 Constantinople 2 Ankara 3 Hormuz 4 Kandahar 5 DabrizTabriz 6 Tehran 7 Bombay 8 Goa 9 Calcutta 10Jaipur Book Notes She said that book questions would be all about Japan Merry Christmas Japan39s Middle Ages ca 14001600 The Kamakura Shogunate had its capitol at Kamakura This was succeeded by the Ashikaga Shogunate which returned the government to Kyoto and helped launch the great age of zenin uenced Muromachi culture The arrival of civil war in the 16th century brought castles and rulers who eventually uni ed the realm Muromachi Culture This culture is headquartered at the Ashikaga capital Kyoto It is known for its re ned and elegant style Shoguns patronized Zen Buddhism and because monks could read and write Chinese they often assisted in foreign affairs Zen ideas are very simplistic Shogun Yoshimasa in uenced the development if the tea ceremony which was practiced by warriors aristocrats and priests but not women Simple imperfect things were seen as beautiful Shoguns were patrons of N6 theatre This was popular entertainment that involved comical skits and dances directed to the gods The most known actor and playwright is Zeami The 2 actors used simple props like a a backdrop robes and masks as well as musicians Civil War Civil war started in Kyoto in 1467 over the succession of a Shogunate Arson was the choice weapon during this so much was burnt down Many people died while these people and their followers fought to be the shogun and once Kyoto was destroyed it moved to outlying areas The Lotus League was a politic vacuum led by commoners who are believers of Lotus Sutra this was made to collect taxes and settle disputes Powerful Buddhist monastery Enryakuji attacked the league and killed believers During this time the daimyo developed who are warlords These were not of the Shogunate they simply took what they needed and used it to build up their territories and recruit more samurai To raise revenue they encourage irrigation and trade The violence encourages caste building these were surrounded by moats and walls of stone The Victors Nobunaga and Hideyoshi The rst daimyo to gain power was Oda Nobunaga who was a samurai of lesser class who recruited followers of masterless samurai who had been living by robbery and extortion To gain revenue he minted coins and promoted trade by eliminating customs barriers and opening the shing village of Nagasaki which became japans largest port Nobunaga was forced by one of his vassals to commit suicide so his general Hideyoshi avenged him and continued to drive unity Hideyoshi was a peasant39s son who rose through military talent He brought northern and western japan under his control as well as the island Kyushu He became japans rst single ruler in centuries He made sure future peasants sons couldn39t rise as he did so he had swords collected from farmers and nobody could wear them any longer He improved tax collection by doing details surveys of land and households In an attempt to overtake Korea and China he lost his life The Tokugawa Shogunate to 1800 Before he died Hideoyoshi set up a council of reagents to govern during the minority of his infant son the strongest being longtime supporter Tokugawa leyasu He began building his own government and took the title quotshogunquot The Tokugawa Shogunate lasted until 1867 in Edo Japans most important city Tokugawa Government The shogunate worked to consolidate relations with the daimyo leyasu set up the alternate residence system which compelled the lords to live in Edo every other year and to leave their sons and wives there essentially as hostages This kept tabs on the daimyo controlled them and weakened them nancially because they had to support two homes The peace imposed by the Tokugawa Shogunate brought a steady rise in population To maintain this they froze social status by saying what each class could or could not do as well as restricting construction and repairs on castles symbols of feudal independence Japanese castletowns because so many people weren39t allowed to own land became bustling sophisticated urban centers Japan sort of cut off ties with the outside world and tried to make schools teach only Japanese things Commercialization and Growth of Towns Trade grew and markets began at places where people congregate Towns and cities sprang up across the country Artisans of speci c crafts began to form guilds Money lending was a pro table business and had ridiculous interests Foreign trade ourished This all began the Japanese capitalism Particular families controlled different parts of the economy for example the Sake family which controls the Sake brewery and branches out into controlling some rice in order to brew the Sake controls those different parts of the economy for that product and what goes into making it They also ended up controlling a lot of banking Industrialization grew which meant people moved to cities forjobs this led to Kyoto becoming the manufacturing center of luxury goods like lacquer and ne porcelain and Osaka was a chief market mainly for rice The Life of the People in the Edo Period Many daimyo and samurai passed their lives in pleasure They spent extravagantly on ne silks paintings concubines boys theatre and redecorating their castles This helped gradually bankrupt the warrior class All major cities had places to amuse men like teahouses restaurants and houses of prostitution Many girls were sold into entertainment houses by desperate parents and the prettiest and most talented became geishas or quotaccomplished personsquot Kabuki theater originated by crude scripts of love and romance Actors wore costumes sang danced etc Men played all parts even seductive females so homosexuality among actors and samurai was accepted Kabuki and prostitution were accepted as necessary evils There were strict rules about travelling and there were strict rules for peasants and their wives Daimyo and peasants paid for their lifestyle through super high taxation so peasant protests where chronic during the 18th century The merchant class did well for themselves and lived comfortably Within a village you39d have families living relatively welloff and other barely scraping by Women were subordinate to their husbands at this time Weddings turned into a greater ceremony where there where betrothed gifts and the movement of the bride from the parents39 home to the husbands home Women had authority over their husbands land when the husband was away and if the father had children with concubines then she was the legal mother A peasant39s wife shared the hardship with the husband and did the lighter duties Inheritance switched to singleheir generally the oldest son and adopted if no heir survived Among elite the husband alone could initiate divorce all he had to do was tell the wife to leave or send off her possessions to her parents Many women were not expected to remarry for they are no longer chaste A poor woman wanting a divorce just had to leave or go to a temple and do rituals for three years until her marriage bond was dissolved The Buddhist temple priests would even go to villages and make the headman force the husband to agree to divorce
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