Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide ARH 209
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Final Exam Study Guide – ARH209 Function & Ornamentation 1: Jômon and Yayoi Pottery Jômon Period (c. 11,000–400 BCE): Sannai Maruyama Site (c. 3500-2000 BCE): -shows evidence of Jade & Obsidian trade/import -discovery of designated grave site suggests the introduction of separating life & death in this society; children & adults were buried in separate areas (purpose unknown) -discovery of a communal space separate from living quarters Wood Structure/Monument: -made of six tall posts holding up 3 platforms at different levels -thought to represent the winter solstice as a celebration of the death of the old crops and the birth of the new crops, and the sun’s role in agriculture Clay Figure: -cross-shaped, flattened figure of a woman with earrings and possibly makeup, wearing some sort of undergarment -emphasis on breasts and stomach area places importance on fertility -intentionally broken neck suggests the figure was used as a talisman/ritualistic tool *Clay Figure (Jomon/Yayoi Exam Slides, pg 2): -female figure wearing a helmet-like hat; more of a 3-dimensional figure than the previous one -emphasis on breasts, stomach area, and hips which also placed importance on fertility -discovered unbroken in a gravesite which suggests it was not used as a talisman/ritualistic tool Jomon Pottery: -“Jômon” means “cord marks,” in that ropes were pressed into the surface of the pottery to make marks Deep Bowl with Scalloped Lip (Detail): -showcases cord marks as well as incision-like details *Deep Bowl with Raised Line Pattern (Jomon/Yayoi Exam Slides, pg 3): -has cord marks as well as portions of wavy lines towards the top, placing emphasis on the upper portion -pointed bottom implies that the pottery may have been hanging or buried in order to stay upright -discoloration towards the bottom also suggests it may have been buried *Deep Bowl (“Flameware”) (Jomon/Yayoi Exam Slides, pg 4): -extremely detailed ornamentation suggests it was not for normal everyday use; may have been decorative rather than functional -flat bottom allows for free standing *Lacquered Shallow Bowl (Jomon/Yayoi Exam Slides, pg 5): -from the final Jomon period -inside coated with red and black lacquer that formed a tribal looking patter; meaning unknown Other Notes: The early Jomon period produced one type of pottery, but with progression towards the end of the period, more variety of pottery emerged. However all Jomon pottery was made with coils and was open-fired. Lacquer was introduced in the late Jomon period. It was collected from the lacquer tree, used to make pottery less brittle and porous, and since it exists in multiple colors it also had a decorative use. rd Yayoi Period (c. 400 BCE – Latter Half of 3 Century): -introduced rice cultivation which lead to the development of a controlled and equally distributed irrigation system and storage houses, as well as the idea of praying to a divine being for healthy crops and electing a shaman-like figure to do so -Korean peninsula migration brought over different metals and aided in rice cultivation; lack of evidence of a battle suggests the migration was for peaceful reasons; the mythology of a god-like figure lighting the path to a new land with a torch is thought to originate from the Korean migration Yoshinogari Site (c. 300 BCE – 300 CE): -town center is separated from living quarters -buildings are raised on stilts; thought to be used as a defense mechanism and as watch towers -tombs located on the outer edges of the town center; thought to be the tombs of important figures in the village which introduced the idea of social status and the class system Bronze Bell (dotaku): -represents life and communication due to the ornamental artwork on the outside -not made to function; suggests it was a ceremonial artifact Bronze Mirror with Petal Motif: -idea may have been brought over from China, but the Japanese mirror motifs were much larger in scale and had radial designs carved into the surface -thought to be a ceremonial focal-point involving the sun *Vase (Painted Earthenware) (Jomon/Yayoi Exam Slides, pg 6): -near-perfect rounded shape suggests it was made with a wheel -sleek, smooth surface without decorative elements suggests a move towards emphasis on the shape and craftsmanship rather than detailed elements Pedestals & Accompanying Vessels: -introduced a new way of utilizing vessels -differing pedestal heights and functions represent ritualistic use in that a vessel on a pedestal becomes more important in status than a vessel without a pedestal Ideas of the Afterlife: Tombs and Funerary Objects Pit-Shaft Tombs: -These can be extremely large tombs where important people were buried; built by forming a mound and digging down into the mound for burial (hence “pit-shaft”) -Two main components make up a keyhole shape: a circular portion where the body is buried and a rectangular portion which leads up to the burial site -Visitors could get near the burial site, but not directly to the sarcophagus -Main decoration was the placement of “haniwa” Haniwa (“Clay Cylinder”): -These are statuesque artifacts found surrounding pit-shaft tombs to define a clear path from the rectangular portion to the circular portion where the body is buried; they block off all other routes to the tomb so that there is only one access point for visitors -They served as pedestals where offerings could be placed, meaning they have a talismanic purpose -The earliest haniwa were simple cylinders, but as time progressed, they became figurines such as warriors, animals, attendants, weapons, houses, etc. -The haniwa figurines are thought to be means of protection against evil spirits as well as assistance for the deceased spirit’s travel in the afterlife Daisen Tomb (“Tomb of Emperor Nintoku”): -Largest known keyhole shaped pit-shaft tomb, surrounded by 3 motes (largest mote is 850m) -There is also a shrine on-site Rooster-Shaped Haniwa: -Roosters are tied to sun-worship, believed to “call out the sun” *House-Shaped Haniwa (Kofun Exam Slides, pg 2): -Believed to be a dwelling for the spirit in the afterlife -Was made using cloths to form the clay *Quiver-Shaped Haniwa (Kofun Exam Slides, pg 3): -Believed to be used for the spirit’s protection in the afterlife Haniwa of Shield-Bearing Figure: -Made to carry the weapons that would protect the spirit *Haniwa of a Male Warrior (Kofun Exam Slides, pg 4): -Also made to carry weapons, but also to act as a guardian for the spirit -Facial features are more realistic compared to Jamon/Yayoi clay figures Other Notes: The Kansai region was the major political center at the time of pit-shaft tombs and is the location of the largest pit-shaft tombs in Japan (including the Daisen tomb). Corridor-Type Tombs: -Came after pit-shaft tombs; made by building a structure out of large stones over the sarcophagus and then covering the structure in a dirt mound; generally smaller than pit-shaft tombs -Introduced the use of a corridor into the burial site where visitors could have direct access to the sarcophagus -Main decoration were painted murals on the corridor and chamber walls House-Shaped Sarcophagus with Arc-and-Line Motifs: -There are circular motifs, representative of mirrors, and knot motifs common to the time period Relief Motifs on Walls from Sengoko Tumulus #1: -Carved walls with mirror motifs and painted red to ward off evil *Mural Paintings from the Ozuka Tumulus (Kofun Exam Slides, pg 5): -Tomb was accidentally discovered in 1934 -Most elaborate mural paintings of all known corridor tombs -3 parts of the tomb: corridor, antechamber, and main chamber -4 people were buried there, although the bones were not recovered in the tomb -Mural in exam slides depicts 5 horses with tiny riders believed to be the deceased spirits, which introduced the idea of travel in the afterlife -Bows, quivers, and shields are painted before the exit from the main chamber, introducing the idea of keeping the deceased in the afterlife rather than providing them with protection -Constellations painted on the ceiling and towards the back of the main chamber serve as a way to orient the spirit *Mural Painting from Takamatsuzuka Tumulus (Kofun Exam Slides, pg 6): -Tomb was also discovered by accident and one wall was destroyed in the process -Overall much smaller than previous examples; the corridor is short and the main chamber is just big enough for the sarcophagus -Also has mural paintings, but the style and content is much more modern than previous examples, and the walls are plastered white -Different directional motifs from previous examples: 4 animals representing the 4 directions, sun and moon, and constellations -Attendants pictured in the exam slides wore heavy color-blocked garments with long skirts and frills, loosely tied; they wore makeup and had plump faces; their hair was tied back -Clothing painted on the figures resemble Korean fashion of that time -Animal paintings represent the 4 cardinal directions which help to orient the spirit: White tiger (west), blue dragon (east), red phoenix (south), black warrior (north) -Constellations painted on ceiling are fairly accurate, also meant to orient the spirit - Similarities to tombs in China and Korea -The figures seem to be traveling towards the south (entrance) of the tomb -Believed that part of the soul stays in the tomb and the other part is free roaming Closing Notes -These types of tombs are similar in their mound shapes and in that they were built for important people, but the methods with which they were built and their ornamentation are different Changing Worldviews: Buddhism and Shinto Buddhism Kansai Region: -Buddhist center of Japan -Gradual centralization of power -“Great King” = leader of the Yamato state -Within the Yamato region (now called the Yamato basin) - Ideal for building a kingdom due to the mountainous surroundings What is Buddhism? th -Founder: Gautama Siddharta aka Shakyamuni aka Buddha (C. 5 century BCE) - “Four Noble Truths”: Basically, not being “of the world” whether that consists of physical possessions, ideas, self-love, or believing that you are good (detachment), and instead practicing discipline, mindfulness, and meditation - Helping others is central to all types of Buddhism -“Mahayana” = the “great vehicle” version of Buddhism -Teaches that everyone can be “saved” -Multiple Buddhas -“Bodhisattva” = (a) one who is capable or destined to become a Buddha; (b) one who decided not to become a Buddha until all the sentient beings are saved. -Many other “guardian” figures who help feed newer Buddhists so that it is one less thing for them to think about. They are experienced enough to feed themselves without it being a distraction. -Meditation awakening detachment -Buildings are a central part of Buddhist worship Cremation: -Introduced when Buddha was cremated and became a common practice -Tombs became much smaller, perhaps demonstrating further detachment and avoidance of taking up physical space in the world Nakao-Yama Tomb: -Urn decorated with a phoenix, representing death and rebirth from the ashes (Buddhist ideas of reincarnation) *Shakyamuni Triad (Asuka Exam Slides, pg 2): -One central Buddha sitting atop a mountain with two Bodhisattva accompanying him; each figure has a large halo, the Buddha’s being the largest -Introduces Buddhist idea of the universe *Horyuji (Asuka Exam Slides, pg 3): -Buddhist temple grounds -Oldest wooden architecture in the world; was partially burnt down and rebuilt -3 main buildings: the five-story pagoda, the two-story golden hall/image hall where the “Three Torii” is located, and the lecture hall on the northern end of the temple grounds -The three buildings are surrounded by a corridor with a large gate to the south; 2 guardian figures are at the entrance as a reminder to get rid of excess *Five-Story Pagoda (Asuka Exam Slides, pg 4): -A square structure made up of beams and brackets bearing all the weight; walls are unnecessary but still used -Structural support: Everything is held together by wooden “joinery” carved out to fit together instead of nails; a “bracket” is a whole section of joinery; roof tiles weigh it down for more support; wood is painted which protects against the elements -The “heart pillar” runs from the very top of the building to the base-stone underneath it; the heart pillar is not connected to any other structural parts; the top of the heart pillar has a tall metal extension that is supposed to protect against lightening, but doesn’t exactly work -The “base stone” is thought to contain the Buddha’s ashes and is inaccessible -Only the first story of the pagoda is accessible and the rest are just for show -Overall the pagoda represents Buddha’s presence Shinto -Shinto = “way of the gods” -Indigenous Japanese religion heavily based on mythology and practiced through rituals; also involving animism which is the belief that non-human entities including plants and animals have a spiritual essence -Shinto had no religious architecture until Buddhism influenced the building of shrines -Shrines are meant to house spirits and sacred objects -Shinto and Buddhism exist in harmony Mt. Miwa: -One of the oldest sacred sites in Japan -Inhabited by gods and spirits, although they are not physically confined there -The “Three Torii”: shrines built on Mt. Miwa for the spirits and also a barrier to keep people from defiling the area *Inner Shrine at Ise Shrine (Asuka Exam Slides, pg 5): -Built for the Shinto Goddess of the Sun, Amaterasu -Only accessible by the shrine priests and anyone other than the priests can only enter the outermost gate of the shrine, making it difficult to even view the outside of the shrine in person -Similar to the pagoda in religious function, but different in architectural style -Build out of unpainted, untreated wood; thatched roof weighed down by beams; one level, built up off the ground; covered walkway up to the entrance *The New and Old Sites at Ise Shrine (Asuka Exam Slides, pg 6): -The inner shrine is rebuilt every 20 years since the wood is untreated and has a thatched roof, meaning it doesn’t stand the test of time -There are two lots for the inner shrine: one where the aging one is located, and one where the new one is constructed; once the new one is finished, the old one gets torn down and a small hut is built over the heart pillar for protection Youtube Video: Ise Jingu Grand Shrine The Meaning of Chineseness and Japaneseness: Calligraphy Beginning of a Centralized Government: th -Established in the latter half of the 7 century -System established for appointing a successor to the emperor; generally happened between brothers before moving onto the emperor’s sons, but was switched to direct inheritance in the end -Justification for imperial legitimacy: bloodlines and Buddhist appointment -Construction of a water-clock controlled by the emperor -Idea of a permanent city acting as the political center introduced; before, the political center’s location moved from the previous emperor’s location to the successor’s location -Unifying unit of measurements -Idea of subjugated ethnic other and ceremonial domination within Japan Japanese Envoys to China: -Earliest record: 57 CE -Yamato envoy to Sui Dynasty, China; only recorded in China; 600 CE -Envoys to Tang, China; roughly 20 attempts between 630-894 -Envoys took place roughly every 16 years; it was too expensive to attempt more often -Only 60% success rate due to cold, rapid current making for a dangerous journey; many people that made it to China did not attempt the journey back -Duration of stay varied from 1 year to a lifetime -They purposely traveled in time to attend New Year’s ceremonies in China -3 different routes from Heijo Capital to Chang’an: Northern route was the safest (shortest distance); southern and middle routes began being used later on Heijo Capital: -Layout of the city was highly influenced by China: palace to the north, grid-like city blocks, symmetrical division down the middle of the city (one major market on the left, the other on the right, etc.) -Residential buildings close to the palace (courtiers’ homes) had tiled roofs and imported Chinese décor; buildings further away had wooden roofs and were less decorated *Beauties Decorated with Applied Bird’s Feather (Nara Exam Slides, pg 2): -6-panel folding screens made with ink, color, and bird feathers -Shows ideas of beauty and fashion of the period: plump face, thick tied-back hair, red lips, jewel-like ornamentation between the eyebrows -Clearly influenced by Chinese culture History of Writing in Japan: -Characters in China = c. 1300 BCE -Most revered art form in East Asia -Four treasures of the study: brush, ink stone, ink, paper th -Written objects came into Japan in the 5 century (Kofun period) -Chinese-style of writing practiced in Japan since the 7 century -In the Nara period, to be able to write means to be able to write Chinese, not Japanese -How it’s done: ink stone holds the ink, brush strokes are made very expressively based on controlled or free movements (takes a lot of practice); every character has a sense of rhythm and flow within itself and how it reacts with the characters around it -Paper was hand-made and thus was more revered; when someone just needed to jot down notes, they would use wood scraps instead and once those scraps were used up, they’d be made into paper Buddhist Scripture Making: -Very sought after job; pay was good since the ability to read and write was uncommon -Different positions: scribe, editor/proofreader, format/mounter, title writer, polisher -Scribes had to pass an exam to secure the position; consisted of perfectly copying a sample sutra (line of characters) -Created a sense of hierarchy Document on Recycled Paper: -Abbreviated form of scroll with official documents written on it -Scroll made from paper scraps that were pasted together *Flower Garland Sutra (Nara Exam Slides, pg 3): -Gold calligraphy on purple paper considered the highest ranking form of calligraphy; scribe had to cut the gold to make the ink and the dye for the paper was very expensive *Zasshu Handscroll by Emperor Shomu (Nara Exam Slides, pg 5): -Made to commemorate the death of his son *Gakkiron (Yueyi-iun) Handscroll by Empress Komyo (Nara Exam Slides, pg 4): -Written in response to Emperor Shomu’s scroll -Illustrates the subtle differences in style between scribes in comparison to Zasshu Calligraphy by Wang Xizhi: -A copy of Emperor Shomu’s and Empress Komyo’s scrolls to further illustrate subtle differences, even when trying to exactly copy a document Development of Kana: -By Nara period: Chinese characters adopted in Japan to phonetically write Japanese -46-48 phonetic characters today -Kana means “temporary language/characters”; based on mana -Mana is Chinese meaning “official” Page from a Copy of the Poetry Anthology: -Illustrates the difference in meaning between kana and mana; mana is bold demonstrating its “official” meaning, where kana is written lightly and with less control demonstrating its “temporary” nature *Collection of Poems by the Thirty-Six Poets (Nara Exam Slides, pg 6): -Another example of different paper and the expressive quality of calligraphy Yamato vs. Kara: -Concept that separates calligraphy into two categories Yamato (Japan) Kara (China) | | “woman’s hand” or kana “man’s hand” or mana | | used in private and written lightly used in public and written boldly Pictorializing Time & Space: Narrative Handscrolls Heian Period -Emperor and courtiers still have political power -“Japaneseness” is becoming more distinguished and separate from China -City planning of the Heian capital corresponds to directional animal motifs -Cessation of Japanese Envoys to China (894 CE) -Changes in aristocratic living quarters: more emphasis on garden areas and connecting the home to the garden, Chinese furniture disappears and beds are replaced by grass mats, sleeping quarters are central rooms surrounded by corridors -Changes in clothing and aesthetics in women: begin wearing “12-layered” clothing which is very heavy, long, and flowy and has emphasis in color coordination between the layers; begin letting their hair hang loose and long (the longer the hair, the more beautiful the woman was considered); a large exposed forehead and straight eyebrows were also considered to be desirable -A woman’s role in aristocracy was to marry into another important family as an attempt to bring her family closer to the emperor and to increase the chances of bearing children with the potential of becoming emperors -Marriage was polygamous; wives were ranked in order of importance/social status -A woman could not refuse a man’s advances even if she was married, so the woman would have to bear it and keep it a secret Japanese Handscrolls: -Painted scrolls depicted stories, meant to be unrolled and re-rolled for each “frame” of the story, making it a very active form of viewing art and story-telling *Tale of Gengi (Heian Exam Slides, pgs 1-3): -Example of a yamato-e handscroll th -Deemed to be the first “novel” of Japan, first written in the early 11 century -Summary: Genji is the son of the emperor by his favorite wife and is considered to be a “dream prince,” but the emperor decided to make him non-royal. His mother dies and the emperor ends up marrying one of her relatives. Genji is very promiscuous and ends up having an affair with the emperor’s new wife and has a son with her, although it is a secret. He is then arranged to marry his best friend’s sister Aoi and has a son with her also. Genji moves away for awhile and marries another woman, The Akashi Lady, and has a daughter with her. Genji returns to the capital and marries several more women. He rises back up in status and marries The Third Princess who is very young and he doesn’t connect with very well. She ends up having an affair with Genji’s best friend, having his son, and becoming a Buddhist nun. Genji finds out about the affair when she gives birth and is upset. His best friend dies shortly after. Then, the story moves on to center around Genji’s children. *Tale of Counselor Ban Dainagon (Heian Exam Slides, pgs 4-5): -Example of a kara-e handscroll -Based off of a true event involving the Otenmon Gate in 866 CE -Summary: The Otenmon Gate is set on fire and crowds of people attempt to put it out while Ban Dainagon circulates a rumor that the minister set the fire. Later on, the emperor declares the minister’s innocence. A government official came upon information that Ban Dainagon was behind the arson as well as the death of the official’s daughter. The information is confirmed, resulting in Ban Dainagon’s exile. Yamato-e (“Japanese” picture) Kara-e (“Chinese” picture) | | onna-e (“woman’s” picture) otoko-e (“man’s” picture) | | viewed in private viewed in public | | love story/fantasy historic/temple stories | | long text + short picture short text + long picture | | 99% kana + ornate paper Chinese characters and kana + undecorated paper | | tsukuri-e (“built-up picture”) horinuri (“carved picture”) | | hikime kagihana (line of an eye, hook for nose) exhibition of emotions | | fukinuki yatai (“blown off roof” iji dozu-ho (“multiple moments in one and tilted composition) background”) meaning one character can be drawn multiple times to illustrate their actions in one scene Architecture: -Outer structures of official buildings were built with Chinese aesthetics, but the interior structures were built in a way that was uniquely Japan’s. This mirrors the idea that Chinese is the public image and Japanese is the private image in Japan. Function & Ornamentation 2: Castles and Armor Medieval Period 1 -“Samurai” = to serve -Nara period emperor introduced the idea of hierarchy within warriors: emperor elected courtiers to take care of the villages, who hired caretakers themselves, and the caretakers hired warriors in case of conflict -Shogun period introduced the warrior as a “ruler”: warriors gained status and power and would go to the emperor to get permission to control certain areas -Kyoto was technically the political center, but the actual political action moved East to Kamakura (“bakufu”=tent government) Armor -Different armor showed difference in status between warriors (great warriors were rewarded in more impressive armor); motifs on armor were unique to the warrior and depicted specific aspects of their life -3 different styles of armor: yoroi, domamaru, and tosei gusoku Keiko-Style Armor: - Earliest known armor style which became a template for later armor styles -Suit-type armor made of layered metal plates (scales) lacquered to harden and protect from water damage and tied together with silk strings -Silk strings were both functional and ornamental Haniwa of a Male Warrior: -The earliest evidence of Japanese armor (Keiko-style) Yoroi-Style Armor (Heian-Kamakura Period) -Best suited for archer on horse Yoroi-Type Armor with Red Leather Lacing: -Is draped over the shoulders with an additional piece worn on the left flank, two additional smaller chest pieces, a neck piece, and a 4-panel skirt-like piece with slits for mobility -Made with scales and leather lacing *Yoroi-Type Armor with Lacing of White Threads (Medieval 1 Exam Slides, pg 2): -Similar to the armor with red leather lacing, but the lacing is white instead to make the warrior more visible, the leather is dyed to show Buddhist motifs (symbolic of the warrior becoming the diety), and the helmets are fashioned with ornaments that relate to the warrior’s family -Armor ornamentation was also treated as burial garb since there was a good chance the warrior would die in the armor, thus motifs were a means of orienting the body Domamaru-Style Armor (Muromachi Period) -Originally for infantry; suited for close-combat with swords -Foot soldiers didn’t have helmets due to their weight, but the horse-back warriors did *Domaru-Type Armor with Lacing of Black Leather Thongs (Medieval 1 Exam Slides, pg 3): -Retains the shoulder drapery and helmet style of yoroi-type armor, but the body armor began to be tied all the way around the body and the skirt portion was divided into 8 panels providing for more mobility Tosei Gusoku-Style Armor (Muromachi-Momoyama Period) -Designed for organized battle between large groups of foot-soldiers with additional protection against European style muskets -Large elaborate helmets which retain the neck guard, but the ornamentation becomes large and overpowering to emphasize the warrior’s presence on the battlefield; most elaborate helmet ornamentation of the 3 types or armor -Armor over the torso was completely metal, put together with hinges instead of thread (sometimes strings were added to retain the ornamental quality); other portions of the armor retained the string lacing; thigh guard is smaller with the addition of pieces that tie around the legs; shoulder drapery covers the entire arm *Tosei Gusoku-Style with Lacing of Black Threads (Medieval 1 Exam Slides, pg 4): -Armor was discovered accompanied by a painting of a warrior wearing it which is rare -Made of lacquered leather, silk, and metal Video: “Fog Battle” Scene in The Last Samurai -Shows a variety of all armor styles discussed Castle Architecture Site of Takeda Mountain Castle: -Introduces the idea of fortification -Built up on man-made staggered hills away from the village; motes were used both horizontally and vertically; bridges were used so that they could easily be burned down for further protection -Meant to be a temporary structure Reconstructive Painting of the Azuchi Castle: -Shows that the castle elaborately decorated and was built on a hill adjacent to a lake and major cross-road, meaning the castle was meant to be seen, impress, and intimidate -The base of the castle was made of built-up stone, elevating the castle itself as a defense mechanism -Castle was burned down in battle *Matsumoto Castle (Medieval 1 Exam Slides, pgs 5-6): -Surrounded by several motes and bridges that could be burned down in case of a threat, but also has an escape route as a last-resort -Lacquered exterior and tiled roof meant for protection against fire as well as decoration Visualizing Divinity: Buddhist Sculpture Medieval Period 2 Pre-Mappo *Shakyamuni Triad (Asuka Exam Slides, pg 2): -Typical representation of Buddha: Buddha is not ornamented other than the cranial protrudence and curled hair which signifies his identity, as well as a monk’s robe; serene face; enormous halo that radiates his light; head and hands are larger than normal people’s -Wide eyes and large smile suggest he has just woken up from meditation; smile is also a promise that everyone will eventually attain awakening -Raised open hand is the gesture of communication, meaning he is preaching -Made of bronze which is difficult to work with, and the necessary dedication is exactly why they chose to represent Buddha with it *Healing Buddha (Medieval 2 Exam Slides, pg 2): -The thin robe emphasizes his perfect and lean body instead of engulfing it with heavier robes like the previous example -Eyes are half-shut and his smile is subtle, meaning he is currently meditating as a message to focus on your own meditation *Standing Healing Buddha (Medieval 2 Exam Slides, pg 3): -Appearance is disproportional with larger hips, shorter torso, and smaller hands; the robe is carved out in a way that further emphasizes these disproportions; hunched forward figure; hair and protrudence are larger; facial features are very low on the head -Meant to be seen with candlelight which causes the deep carvings to appear even more dramatic; instills a sense of awe in stark contrast with the sitting healing Buddha -Buddha figures began being made with wood like this piece (idea came from a monk traveling from China) since it was already a sacred material and existed in abundance -Made with single-block construction (carved out from a single piece of wood); core of statues were normally carved out to make them last, but the core was left in this figure (more wood = more sacred power) Post-Mappo (Latter Day of the Law) -A wide-spread belief within Mahayana Buddhism in East Asia -In Heian Japan, it was believed that the world would go into “mappo” in the year 1052 -After Buddha’s nirvana (ultimate awakening), his teaching would go through three phases of generation: Age of Law, Age of Semblance Law, and Age of Latter Days of the Law -During the final stage, the teachings of the Buddha survive, but the actual practice died out, meaning nobody could attain awakening -Belief in Amida Buddha deity and his Western Pure Land: much like the Christian idea of heaven, however, you only stay there until the next Buddha comes to earth and you are reborn here with him; believed that if you are worthy of the Pure Land, Buddha comes to you on a cloud with all the other people in the Pure Land to bring you there Video: Mukaeko (Taimadera) -Shows a ceremony that demonstrates moving onto the Pure Land Hoo-do (Phoenix Hall): -Most important site in relation to mappo, representing the western paradise; completed in 1053; conversion of a residential building into a temple -East-west orientation, with garden in the front; complex “three-step” bracket system raises eave much higher to create a wing-like roof; two phoenix figures on top of the building; cheerful exterior paint and tiled roof; interior has small statues of deities lining the walls and is painted to match the exterior Dancing Heavenly Being (or Celestial Nymph): -Example of the small wall-mounted statues found in Hoo-do *Seated Amida Buddha (Medieval 2 Exam Slides, pg 4): -Large, central statue located in Hoo-do; created by Jocho (the master artisan) who made it by carving small pieces of wood and assembling the pieces -Represents Buddha coming to retrieve you for the Pure Land -Style returns to the leaner version of Buddha with the thin robes, but with a much more relaxed and open posture with the hands resting in his lap; more “Japanese” style and can be considered to be a more feminine version of Buddha; wider face and smaller cranial protrusion than the first example -Believed that the sculptor achieved rebirth into the Pure Land and that his representation of Buddha was the most accurate, so his version was replicated in mass quantities *Standing Amida (in the posture of Welcoming Descent) (Medieval 2 Exam Slides, pg 5): -Made of cut gold and crystal eyes which gives the figure a very human appearance -Robe has cuts for ornamentation; distinctly different face which is not as soft and gentle with sharper eyes and a parted mouth; smaller hands -Preferred version of Buddha by the warrior class -Buddha is standing on a cloud, showing that he is coming down to bring you to the Pure Land *Standing Welcoming Descent of the Amida Buddha and his Attendant (Medieval 2 Exam Slides, pg 6): -Another similar version of Buddha, but heavily influenced by China The World of Awakened Sages: Zen Buddhism Medieval Period 3 Origins of Zen Buddhism: -Started in India where Buddhists meditated through yoga; Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who brought the idea of Zen Buddhism to China which then spread into Japan Sudden Awakening: -Disciple teaching; experience/initiation of practitioner from studying under a master -Secular cultural activities: the belief that you couldn’t be awakened became popular and evolved into “mini” awakenings that eventually led to dharma awakening -Inspired new art and architecture -Zen Buddhism was exotic and inspired hope, new art, and architecture which became the “Japanese tradition”, but retained traditional grand Buddha halls *Jizo Hall (Medieval 3 Exam Slides, pg 2): -Introduced a new, more economical way of propping the roof up with structural posts -Open concept, tall ceilings, ornamental gable roof Daisen-in (Tacchu), Daitokuji Monastery: -“tacchu” = Abbot’s residence, but literally means “tip of pagoda” -Became a residence for retired abbots Hojo (Abbot’s Quarters) of Daisen-in: -Living quarters, guest spaces, patron’s room, and long rectangular Zen gardens surrounding building -Partial walls separate sightlines between the garden and the building *Garden at Daisen-in (Medieval 3 Exam Slides, pg 3): -The Zen garden is a “dry garden” (karesansui) with raked lines in pebbles/sand that imitate water; flat rocks symbolize ships and the other objects are supposed to make up a miniature world -Zen gardens usually incorporated a theme of travel across water which symbolized the journey to awakening -Garden is not to be physically entered, but entered with the mind as a form of meditation Whispering Pines: -An example of a Chinese landscape which Zen gardens are modeled after *Ryoanji Garden (Medieval 3 Exam Slides, pg 6): -One of the most famous Zen gardens -Abbot’s quarter was burned down, so there was another built elsewhere and transported to the location -Contains 15 large rocks; the large rocks are placed closer to the foreground and smaller rocks are placed in the back to give it depth and make it look larger than it is -Everything looks straight, but the garden and walls slope down towards the eastern corner -Walls are low enough to show the natural landscape as a part of the scene rather than designing vegetation within the garden *Juko-in Compound (Medieval 3 Exam Slides, pgs 4-5): -Abbot’s quarters (hojo) inhabited by warriors -Fully decorated with ink and gold painted wall panels; art very similar to Chinese images imported to Japan -Separation between rooms is very porous (top portion of walls made up of vent-type ornaments and wall panels can be completely removed -Central Room: -Most important ceremonial room due to the altar rooms placement within it -“Flowers and Birds of the Four Seasons”: made up of 16 sliding-door panels -Landscape paintings make up a singular panoramic scene circling the entire room -Misty landscape; plum tree is blooming which signifies spring; several other flowers; two birds perched on tree; ducks in river; more birds in the sky; small rock formations connect the panels and allow for seamless transitions if the panels separating the rooms are removed -Chinese influence: “crane” panel is almost identical to the crane panel in the “Crane, Kannon, and Monkey” triptych imported from China -Altar Room: -Contains a sculpture made in the likeness of the abbot residing there -When panels to the altar room are opened, the panels in the central room show that all the animals are bowing down to the sculpture -Panels below the sculpture also connect with the panels in the central room, but depict a more summery scene and include a lotus -The lotus is significant in Buddhism since that they grow out of muddy waters, representing detachment and purity -Patron’s Room: -Paintings depict the “4 Accomplishments”: Chess, paining, calligraphy, music -Paintings contain all four seasons; clouds suggest pure land and sacred space -Meant as a patrons’ waiting area to meet with the abbot (who would enter from the central room); paintings cause the patron to reflect on their accomplishments and think about their worthiness in the presence of the abbot -If separating panels are removed, the panels still connect seamlessly ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Visualizing Power 1 – Ostentatiousness and Rusticity: Tea Rooms and Utensils Medieval Period 4 Emperor and Courtiers – Shogun Warrior Class – Buddhist Monasteries (particularly Zen) | Commoners as cultural advisors (like the members of the Ami School or Sen no Rikyu) Societal Changes: -Zen Buddhism spread but was secularized to an extent with the appropriation of the warrior class Kano Eitoku School: -Painters’ guild found most active between the late Muromachi to Edo period -Patronage by shoguns and Zen temples -Invented new dynamic composition for large scale mural and sliding-door paintings -Accomplished in ink painting and “blue-and-gold” style painting -Specialized in paintings of Chinese motifs, Chinese-style painting of “blue-and-gold”, and monochromatic ink painting Azuchi Castle: -Shows use of gold and monochrome painting *Landscape with Japanese Cypress (Medieval 4 Exam Slides, pg 2): -Compositional similarities to the Abbot’s quarters paintings -Came out of the Zen monastery but stylized to fit the warriors’ aesthetics -Distributing and permeating this art style outside of the Buddhist context Types of Homes: -Shoin-style (warriors/abbots), grass hut style (commoners), and sukiya-style (courtiers) Shoin: -Architectural elements: alcove, staggered shelf, small room to the side with built-in desk, all-over tatami mat; transmitted into secular architecture -Tatami mats are multi-use but mainly used to sleep on, so they are generally the size of an average man -Changes in the style of tea ceremony and reflection of aesthetic/political concerns of the social groups involved Tea Drinking: -Originally came from China and was introduced to Japan in the 8 century so that monks could stay awake during long periods of meditation -Re-introduced into Japan by Yosai (1141-1215) as a health supplement and popularized among warriors -Tea drinking parties among warriors were similar to wine tasting: everyone would try to guess where the tea came from and there would be a precious object on display as a prize for the first person to guess correctly; oftentimes warriors would let a specific person win in order to form an alliance -Tea parties typically happened in Shoin-style rooms Ninomaru Palace, Nijo Castle: -Castle located very close to the emperor and courtiers -Meant for ruler-emperor tea parties -Central keep was not inhabited, but the palace area to the south was inhabited by the regional ruler -Motes and limited access serve as military function -The further into the palace compound you get, the more private it becomes -Tiled, hip and gable roof with rooms connected by corridors Entrance Gate, Ninomaru Palace: -Inside the main gate to the castle, so only those that were friends of the master of the house came through it -Four pillars, thatched roof, gold leaf ornamentation, cusped roof on front incorporated from Zen Buddhism Entrance, Ninomaru Palace: -Large open space where medieval “vehicles” could be parked -View of roofs from other buildings are staggered and ornamented to show a combination of friendliness and grandeur Tosaburai (Waiting Room), Ninomaru Palace: -First room entered in the 4-room palace -Lush decor with green and gold paintings on sliding doors and floral motifs on ceiling -Paintings depict tigers drinking water among bamboo: tiger motif was popular among warriors’ artwork to represent their strength, but here the tigers are low to the ground to remain at eye level when guest is sitting and waiting, simultaneously complimenting the guest on their strength while also intimidating them *Great Audience Hall, Ninomaru Palace (Medieval 4 Exam Slides, pg 3): -Typical Shoin room with staggered shelves, painted gold wall panels, and an alcove -Split-level for the shogun to be positioned on the upper level and everyone else to be seated on the lower level in his presence; creates a physical division of hierarchy -Paintings: use of gold celebrates the grandeur of the shogun and the young pine tree shows increasing power Kuro Shoin (Black Audience Hall), Ninomaru Palace: -Similar to the great audience hall, but the ornamentation is different: the pine tree depicted is shorter, wider, and old -Color is a bit muted -All other trees are cherry blossom trees in bloom -Smaller room creates intimacy: only close friends and most loyal patrons would enter this room with the Shogun Alcove Decorations: -Hanging scrolls with Zen Buddhist motifs, flower vase, candle stand, incense (all central to Zen Buddhist ceremony) -Tea bowls, calligraphy tools, books, etc. would be placed on staggered shelves to show the intellect of the shogun or lords hosting the party -Commoners would be appointed as advisors (or curators) to choose and display these objects Ami School: -Started by 3 people who were advisors to the warriors; became a loophole which allowed commoners to achieve political influence -Advisors would decide what art objects shoguns should acquire, what objects to display based on the seasons, and what objects should be paired together to display *Iridescent Tenmoku Tea Bowl (Medieval 4 Exam Slides, pg 5): -Chinese object created using a wheel and fired at a high temperature -“Tenmoku” = eye of heaven (describes the iridescent spots which happened by accident in the kiln… considered bad craftsmanship in China, but precious in Japan) Sen no Rikyu (1522-91) & “Wabi Sabi”: -“Wabi sabi” = refined rusticity -Sen no Rikyu was a person who introduced the idea of wabi sabi -Prior to Rikyu: “In pursuing this way of tea, great care should be taken to harmonize Japanese and Chinese tastes.” Describing the mixing and matching of Chinese and Japanese tea wares. -Sen no Rikyu: “To those who wait/ Only for flowers/ Show them a spring/ Of grass amid the snow/ In the mountain village.” Meaning you should not just appreciate the obvious, but have the sensibility to find beauty in something imperfect, or something that is in the midst of imperfection. This concept became popular in the aesthetics of tea culture. *Taian Tea Room (Medieval 4 Exam Slides, pg 4): -One of the oldest tea rooms surviving today; attributed to Sen no Rikyu style -Very small, with only two tatami mats in the tea room, a small preparation room, and a small kitchen area; enough room for two guests -Entrance called a “crawl door” meaning you literally had to crawl into it, so that the guest couldn’t bring in a sword and to give the room the illusion of more space -Alcove and raised ceiling also give the illusion of a larger space -Two small windows give the room just enough light – not too much or two little -Rustic features include the tea room’s impracticality and location in the mountains, as well as patches of exposed wattle (internal wall structure) -The host would listen to the guest’s comments about the tea room to decipher if the guest was aesthetically intelligent of not *Black Raku Ware (“Oguro” or “Great Black”) (Medieval 4 Exam Slides, pg 6): -Example of Sen no Rikyu style tea ware -Made by pinching the clay rather than using a wheel, resembling Jomon pottery -Small imperfections due to handmade quality and bubbles created during firing process; finished product is brittle -Intended to allow for the drinker to feel the warmth of the tea in their hands Tea Ceremony Demonstration Historical Background -Sen no Rikyu brought the tea ceremony into common life in the 16 century; before the th 16 century, the tea ceremony was reserved for people of high social status -The tea ceremony has many different religious influences, but is most heavily rooted in Zen Buddhism -Originally tea ceremonies were only led by men, but women have become more prominent today; this transition happened because parents believed that teaching the tea ceremony to their daughters would make them more presentable for an arranged marriage Tea: -Tea used for the tea ceremony all comes from the same plant, so difference in teas depend on how they are harvested, cured, and prepared; the best tea retains all the nutrients possible Ornate Tea Bowl: -Example of the elaborate ornamentation and perfection of tea bowls before Rikyu Black Tea Bowl: -Commissioned by Rikyu; designed to bring the tea drinker closer to the earth Summer Bowl: -Shallow, wide mouth bowl used in the summer to release heat from the tea Winter Bowl: -Deeper bowl with an inward tapered mouth to trap the heat in the winter Tenmoku Bowl: -Only used in very important tea ceremonies since the bowl is very expensive and unique -Replication of this glaze style has been attempted, but no one can come close Sweets: -Tea used is bitter tasting, so there are “heavy” or “dry” sweets served with it -Sweets are served with a plate or paper and chopsticks -They resemble crackers or small cakes Tea Caddy: -A vessel that holds the tea leaves separate from the water Tea Scoop: -Used to scoop the tea from its caddy and into the tea bowl Brazier: -A hearth in the floor that contains coal to keep the tea warm -In the summer, a portable raised hearth is used to allow the heat to dissipate more Tea Whisk: -Traditionally made out of a single piece of bamboo -The end is split into 108 spines to create the whisk portion Tea Flowers: -Zen scroll can be replaced by tea flowers partway through the ceremony where each patron can create their own simple arrangement to display from a variety of flowers -The camellia is one of the most common and revered flowers used, displayed in a tight or partially opened bud; represents humility -Thorny flowers or flowers with a very strong scent are some examples of flowers that are never used due to being too rustic or acting as a distraction from the ceremony Tea Garden: -Basic elements: pathway into the garden made with long stones on the right side and several short stones on the left side, stone basin and ladle to wash hands and purify oneself, stone path to lead the rest of the way to the tea house, mossy ground, intermediate gates, waiting area where the patron can get in the right state of mind for the ceremony -Every tea garden is unique but they all include the basic elements -Example of a stone basin shown is inscribed with “all I need to know is sufficiency,” meaning you have all you need, given to you by nature and your teachers; water is replaced every 2-3 days and basin is cleaned of algae Tea Huts: -Usually the tea room is the size of 4 ½ tatami mats -Entryway is a tiny cubby hole, forcing patrons to crawl through and physically lower themselves to equal social status; also designed for samurai to be forced to leave weapon outside the tea room -Typically made of earthen walls and thatched roofs Wabi + Sabi: -“Wabi” = rustic, plain, subdued, humble, simple; emphasis on spirit -“Sabi” = solitude; emphasis on interacting with very few people General Tea Ceremony Information: -There are 3 or 4 prominent tea schools which practice the tea ceremony in different ways, however there are many more schools as well -The ceremony performed in class is the simplest form of tea ceremony (bonryaku temae), but the most complex can last 4-5 hours -Every step and motion in the tea ceremony is scripted with ritual precision Bonryaku Temae Tea Ceremony Procedure: -Hands are cleansed, sandals are taken off, and participants crawl into the space, periodically bowing -There is a Zen Buddhist scroll hanging on the wall which the patrons bow to before proceeding with the ceremony (calligraphy on scroll reads “harmony (wa), reverence (key), purity (sey), tranquility (jayku),” which are the four elements of Rikyu tea ceremony) -Patrons continue to bow with nearly every action during the tea ceremony -Host uses a silk cloth which is carefully folded and used to “purify” the body, mind, and spirit, as well as the utensils -Water is poured into the bowl to both clean and warm the bowl; bamboo whisk is also cleaned and spines are softened in the water -Host adds tea to the bowl and whips it into a froth using the whisk before serving it -Patrons bow to the host in thanks, then bow to the bowl and turn it halfway around (there is a front and back to the bowl) before drinking the tea -It is customary to slurp the tea to indicate how delicious it is -When the tea is finished, the bowl is turned back around and placed in front of the patron for the host to retrieve -The host rinses the bowl and a second serving is then prepared in the same manner to be served to the next patron -Once all the patrons have drank their tea, they bow to the host and ask them to conclude the ceremony -Host concludes ceremony by again cleansing the utensils, placing everything on the tray, and leaving -Patrons leave by again bowing to the scroll, then backing out of the tea room on their hands and knees; patrons bow one more time before standing up outside the tea hut Visualizing Power 2 – Ideas of “Good Taste”: Imperial Villa Medieval 5 Cultural/Political Context: -Courtiers were no longer in power, but still existed as political figures -The warrior class was the ruling class at this time Sukiya Style Architechure: -“Sukiya” = sophisticated -Used by courtiers -Combination of shoin and grass hut characteristics YouTube Video: Katsura Imperial Villa (NHK Special, 2010) Katsura Detached Palace (Imperial Villa): -Built along the Katsura River over 3 generations, right next to the location of the imperial palace which was burned down and never rebuilt -Massive garden with a large pond and forest-like foliage -One main building and 5 tea houses on site -Architectural elements: Raised floor, shingled roof, paper screen walls allowed light to shine through, zig-zag room configuration -Patrons would stay for weeks or months at a time -Main Gate: located in the southern portion of the property; meant for imperial visitors, including the emperor; stone paved pathways flanked by trees and shrubs -Garden: Stepping stone paths throughout garden, with hand-picked stones from specific parts of Japan; pond has small man-made waterfalls, meant to be heard but not necessarily seen -Moon-Viewing: Katsura was named after a legend of the moon which is significant in building arrangements for moon-viewing; courtiers hosted parties where patrons would move from room to room depending on the location of the moon; autumn full moon was thought to be the “perfect moon” *Entrance to Old Shoin (Medieval 5 Exam Slides, pg 4): -Irregular, non-symmetric pathway -Use of moss and stone references Zen gardens *Inside Old Shoin (Medieval 5 Exam Slides, pg 5): -Alcove, minimally treated wood, porous ceiling dividers, removable screens can create a very large space for large parties -Gold/silver stamp decorated wall panels are more subdued than shoin-style rooms, but fancier than grass hut-style rooms -Moon-viewing platform extends from Old Shoin out into the garden area; no railing suggests it is a part of the garden; panels leading out to the platform can be completely removed if desired New Palace: -Emperor’s quarters for when he would stay at the palace -Noteworthy of its staggered shelves; made with 18 different types of expensive, untreated wood including sandalwood and rosewood; some compartments are decorated with ink paintings; shelves give a sense of playfulness *Shokin-tei (Pavilion of Pine Zither) (Medieval 5 Exam Slides, pg 6): -Access to the tea room is by boat -Used for tea ceremonies, meals, moon-viewing, reciting poetry, etc. -One main room, the tea room, a few kitchen areas, and an outdoor veranda -Multiple different entrances depending on which room the patrons want to go to -Has a hip and gable roof with calligraphy to identify the tea room, yellow-gold plaster, a crawl door with window-type detail, exposed wattle, staggered impractical windows, asymmetric ornamental elements; very similar to grass hut-style architecture -Most known for the playful blue and white checkerboard patterns on the walls, atypical to grass hut tea rooms; thought to be made with expensive indigo; most important element that identifies the building as sukiya-style instead of grass hut-style The Aesthetics of Chic (Rinpa) Edo Period 1 Cultural Changes: -Edo Period (1615-1868) begins -Political power still belongs to the warrior class, but commoners (townspeople) are gaining power; constant warfare, instability, and turmoil led into the changes in political power -Tokugawa Ieyasu is appointed as shogun (1603): establishment of Bakufu (tent government) in Edo (present day Tokyo) -Tokugawa Hidetada inherits the position of shogun (1605) -Tokugawa defeats the last of the Toyotomi clan (1615) -Tokugawa Policies: -Rebuilding infrastructure (making warrior lords responsible) -“Alternate Attendance” meaning retired lord can go back to his homeland, but his family is forced to stay in the capital; financially weakens lords allowing for the Tokugawa family to have the most power -Convincing regional warrior lords to live in the city to form concentrated power -Warriors as bureaucrats (salary paid in rice) -Gaining control over Buddhist monasteries by forcing people to be loyal to one temple; “closed country” (sakoku) policy to ban international trade, except the Chinese and Dutch, and isolate Japan from foreign religions -Social Hierarchy: becomes strict again, so people could no longer gain social status if they were lower on the hierarchy -Ideally: Samurai → Peasants → Artisans → Merchants (“SPAM”) -Economically: Merchants → Samurai → Artisans → Peasants (merchants controlled prices, so they were able to gain control over the samurai class; artisans were valued by merchants and got special treatment over the peasants) Rinpa: -“Rinpa” = Rin school; comes from the name Ogata Korin (1658-1716) -Started by Hon’ami Koetsu (1558-1637) and Tawaraya Sotatsu (act: c. 1600 – c. 1640), but after they died Ogata Korin revived rinpa -Hon’ami Koetsu’s family belonged to the Ami school, known for sword polishing, but Koetsu was also a painter, calligrapher, and potter and owned his own shop -Korin loved Sotatsu’s style, so be began to imitate it, including tarashikomu (“in dripping”) and mokkotsu (“boneless”) techniques; he also loved literature and Koetsu’s use of poems within paintings -“In-dripping” is the use of two-toned inks to create texture and a 3-dimensional effect -“Boneless” means the artist does not use outlines -“Rinpa Design” thought to be the first branding effort in Japan done by Korin *Crane Scroll with Poems from the Thirty-Six Poetic Immortals (Edo 1 Exam Slides, pg 2): -Underdrawing done by Sotatsu and calligraphy done by Koetsu -Poems don’t necessarily match the imagery, but this piece is revered for its composition -Starts off with a sand bar and stylized/flat painted cranes flying away, evolves into the cranes changing directions two times on their journey, then the cranes perch at the end -Calligraphy is written in a similar style to how the cranes are painted; mimics the sound the cranes look to be making *Wind
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