Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide ARH 358
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacquelyn Stinson on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 358 at University of Oregon taught by Lord C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 182 views. For similar materials see History of Design >1 in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
Art History358FinalStudy Guide SUBJECT OF FINAL EXAM TOPICAL ESSAY: Discuss the impact of industrialization on modern design. Illustrate your points with 3 designers you think had greatest influence on the progress of industrial design. The following are examples of designers that can be discussed. They can be discussed in terms of how they were for or against the industrial revolution and how their ideas and designs impacted it. - Pugin o Pugin is the most important artist/critic of the early 19 century design o Medieval/gothic influence – honest design o Spiritual and ideological approach to architecture o He argues that Gothic best fit the modern age because this style is not an issue of fashion, but a principal based on morality & faith. There should be a reason for the design. - Paxton o Great Exhibition in 1851 o Crysthl palace and greenhouse architecture - Dresser – 19 century o Dresser was a key figure during the design reform and the aesthetic movement o Dresser’s influences: science, nature, Japanese culture, industry and his imagination o Dresser was able to critique popular trends, and channel them to make a positive impact o He focused more on original design, unlike Pugin who was focused on historical elements o Aesthetic movement – design comes from all art – unity with fine and applied art - Morris o Founder of the Arts and Craft movement o critique from Dresser’s use of the machine - Peter Behrens o in the 1900s o still looks to history with his design before transition to the Bauhaus - Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus o Behrens was his teacher o More innovative and less influence from history than Behrens o Bauhaus merges craft with industry o Bauhaus still looks to medieval for ideological inspiration - Richard Riemerschmid o Machine furniture - Itten and Moholy o Join the Bauhaus o Bauhaus ultimately led Gropius and other architects into the functional/modernism/international style of architecture Stylistic Movements with associated terms and figures Arts and Craft Movement: The Arts and Craft Movement started in Britain and took place during the last half of the 19 century. It later moved into America. This is not a spontaneous way to produce art. There is a great amount of focus on the designer/artist. The arts and crafts movement looks to the medieval/gothic for inspiration because it was based on morality and faith. - William Morris o Founder of the Arts and Craft Movement o Neo-gothic artist that was greatly influenced by Ruskin. o He critiques Dresser’s work of using machinery, based on the quality of production and the role of the designer throughout production. o He criticized the use of the machine because he said it dehumanized art o He also did not agree with the division of labor in factories o He saw the human and social benefit of the artist to be important in design o Advocated for a close relationship between the craftsman and the designer o He influenced the modern and industrialized world with his ideas that inspired workshops, and crafts organizations in England and America - John Ruskin o Looks to the medieval as a model in design o He creates a three dimensional idea about design. o Said design should reflect the craftsman’s skill, pride and efforts Ideas of the Arts and Crafts Movement Handcraft (based on Ruskin’s beliefs): o handcraft give a radiance to an object that cannot be developed in machine produced objects o smooth surface and symmetry decrease the human choice and value o Imperfections are essential to an object as an enhancement to the environment - Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood o critical of the materialism that accompanied modern industrialism and was committed to creating a closer relation between arts and craft in reaction against the established policies of the Royal Academy in England and the elevated status it accorded the fine arts (Raizman, p. 82). o This brotherhood led Morris to pursue an artist-craftsman career. o Pre-Raphaelites have a long production process because the work ethos, thought process and production is so built into their approach (relationship between art and social reform). o The arts and crafts and this group honor the individual, but this group is more focused on the group and social aspects on various levels o Labor intensive approach to art - ‘Stately Furniture’ by William Morris o Hand craft with modern interpretation o Furniture was built with mainly pre-industrial techniques and traditions. It was only minimally affected by commercial production or machine affects. o It was not always economical o Ornamentation was used, but as a way to express the skill and invention of the craftsman and the delight of the owner o Individuality, the love of nature, and the joy of craft were all part of his designs. o Morris had different production lines and price points o Stately Furniture is high-end goods that provide funding for Morris to continue his less lucrative work. - Jane Morris and her textiles for the Arts and Crafts movement o Jane was a muse for William Morris. She was the principal model for his work o Morris was involved in architecture and furniture design and his wife, Jane designed textiles - Dress Reform Movement o Women’s dresses of the 1860s were heavy and enormous o They could deform woman’s rib cages and were strenuous to wear o The strenuous quality of the dresses is what led to the Dress reform o The Dress reform allowed for more freedom and movement o There is a flowing and liberating approach to women’s clothing o “aesthetic fashion” is a term that links style back to design that can change a person’s life and thinking th Late 19 Century Printing and Art Nouveau: Art Nouveau started in France during the late 19 century, sometime after 1890. - color lithography o also known as chromolithography o patented in 1839 o Process of using a series of flat stones each inked with different and printed in succession. o Used for printing a wide range of materials, including book illustrations, journal covers, and advertisements o Elements of Art Nouveau were popularized using this technique o Cheret mastered this technique in England and used it in his Loi Fuller poster - Toulouse Lautrec o Associated with the Avant Garde movement as he expresses non tradition subject areas in his work o Innovative with the use of the lithograph o His graphics are treated like paintings o He explores dynamic techniques and is able to develop his own recognizable style, which is seen in his sketch like images o He has an expressive treatment with his line work, but a simplified composition - Jules Cheret o Cheret mastered chromolithography in England. o The composition of his posters integrated text and images on a monumental scale. He explored with the process of chromolithography by working directly on the stone. This allowed him to create spontaneous effects. o Cheret has a more decorative approach to his printing: He was interested in the physiological connection to line and color (scientific theory) Looks at the subliminal quality of line and color to affect the viewer Using lithographic medium he can create images of a suspended figure, like in his Loie Fuller Poster Also has a commercial appeal Invests some sub-text that has a joyful color - Siegfried Bing (see association with Japanese Art; support for Louis Comfort Tiffany) o Bing was born into a family that owned a porcelain factory. He takes over this factory in the 1860s o He opens a retail shop in Paris that is directed towards the upper middle class. At this time his style is neo-rococo o In 1870-71 his business collapses as a result of the war o In 1878 he is exposed to oriental goods at the international exhibition. He is tremendously impressed by the works in the Japanese Pavilion o His brother becomes a console in Tokyo, which lets Bing into the Japanese society and design circles o In the late 1870s and 1880s he is able to bring back Japanese antiques to his shop o In 1888 he begins the publication for the first journal in France that is dedicated to Japanese Art o Artists begin to read his publications and approach design with an influence from the Art Nouveau and the Japanese aesthetic (Van Gogh) o Louis Comfort Tiffany: designer in NY that was influenced by the arts and crafts movement and produces lamps, stained glass windows, and fine jewelry o Tiffany tries to showcase their work as something that can fulfill the buyers wishes o Bing uses Tiffany as in example of why decorative art should be of a greater prestige in his New Decorative Book o Bing’s vision in design is about total design o Bing uses the Japanese Design and Tiffany as a model to suggest the ideas of the revival of the French decorative style o Bing is influential in directing government resources at a conference in 1894- aesthetic direction that is later known as the Art Nouveau o This elevated the arts to a new hierarchy in France o Tiffany’s work and what Japan is doing is a dynamic design o French government sees this as a solution to the economic situation Design and Industry 1900: - Peter Behrens ; AEG; o Behrens is the principle designer behind the modernization of German design before WWI o He taught Mies, Gropius and Le Corbusier o He is the designer that is most strongly associated with the Werkbund o He started out as an Art Nouveau artists and drifted into the modern, industrial aesthetic o He was invited to participate in an artist colony in Darmstadt o AEG is a major electrical products manufacturer o AEG is established with cutting edge technology – its not just what they do, but how they do it o Behrens worked as a consultant starting in 1907 o He developed promotional materials, helped product engineers develop electrical appliances and the consistent typeface, trademark, and layout for the company’s products o Visual unity of AEG products has a coherent style from industrialized methods with teachings of the arts and crafts and the individuality of the aesthetic movement - German Werkbund o Organization of artists and manufacturers in 1907 to promote the interests of Germ applied arts o Functional approach in industrial design o Strong proponent of rational design o Idea behind Werkbund is that if Germany can develop a unified aesthetic (practical) it would have a rapid expansion in the national economy o Invention of time motion study in the 19 century that started the rational of the sequence of works – this helped to get efficiency in the production line - German Expressionism o Unified and functional approach to industrial design and production o Practicality over luxury and expression o standardized approach in Germany benefitted corporations and businesses economically and created a vocabulary and trademark in the marketplace Early 20 Century Avant Garde: - World War I o First mechanized war which resulted in incredible bodily damage o Chemical war-fare caused people to suffer from lung damage even after surviving the war o People’s mental health was destroyed. There was psychological pain from the horrific scenes. People kept their experiences inside. o Trench War-fare was a tough physical situation where people could be trapped. It was difficult to maintain sanity in the trenches so some people planted gardens. Intention was to protect people but actually resulted in fatality because this technique was used on both sides o This is the first instance of total war-fare where men, woman and children were involved o People commanding the troops were out of touch with what was actually happening at the front line of the war o Results: As a result of the war there is an economic shift and people think different socially There is also a loss of trust and confidence in authority Woman do not have men to marry Rise of Hitler - Germany is seen as responsible for WWI, which results in their economy dwindling Emergence of modernism develops with a design reform to go back to hand craft because there is an uneasy transition to industrialized products after the war Societal and practical pressures occur - Dada o Started in Zurich (Switzerland) in 1916 and moved to Paris and Berlin o People fled to Zurich because they were neutral o Word chose to mean “rocking horse” as a non-sense word o Functions as an anti-war movement o Through their activities they suggest absurdity and humor o Critiques the war and gets people to ask questions o Artistic movement relied on absurdity, unconventional materials and unexpected juxtapositions in performance, art, music and poetry to critique the traditional canon of western culture and make their powerful anti- World War I statement. - Constructivism, Russia; Tatlin o Avant Garde movement in Russia o Tatlin = founder o Occurs as a response to the Russian revolution in 1918 o Used to reshape the Russian state following the revolutions o Artists associated with the communist party o Emphasized a “truth to materials” and rational art o They keep going back to what is happening on the streets, which is alienation and prostitution o The works are a direct result of the social and political issues going on. Illiterate people were unable to understand the political aspects of the works. - Suprematism, Russia; Malevitch o Avant Garde movement in Russia o Occurs before the Russian Revolution in 1913 o Malevitch used the term Suprematism to refer to his non-objective style of painting o Kasimir Malevich’s Suprematist Paintings and Vladimir Tatlin’s Corner Relieg at 0.10 exhibition in St. Petersburg December 1915 – stressful circumstance shown in images o Defined as the expression of feeling in art, and noted the formal similarity between the simple geometric squares and rectangles of his canvases and the forms of modern technology and industry in their transcendence of organic naturalism. o One man movement in 1915 o Debut of Suprematism o Ability to communication emotions through abstract geometric shapes o Pulls away from what is happening on the streets and creates a spiritual view – fantastic movement of anything is possible - De Stijl, Holland; Piet Mondrian, Gerrit Reitveld o Artist group in Holland o Nonobjective and abstract design style applied to art, architecture, painting, furniture and graphic design in search of an integrated design aesthetic o Developed during the period of WWI o Theo Doesberg was the painter-designer who founded the journal “De Stijl” in 1917. He was difficult to work with which resulted in artists cutting ties in their relationship with the journal o Mondrian, a painter, and Rietveld, a furniture maker and architect, were two contributors to the journal o Cannot fully be defined as an art movement because no group exhibitions were ever held, and maintaining shared ideals among the participants was challenging o Relationship between unity/standardization and diverse/individual expression is discussed in the manifesto. This recalls the ideas of the German Werkbund who also debated the relationship between standards and individual expression. o Positive and negative space in architecture and art is used as an aesthetic principal o Primary colors are used; you never see mixed colors o Sought to integrate aesthetic and universal considerations into design , but was difficult to achieve as there were individual preferences Bauhaus: The Bauhaus was a School of Architecture that was considered a model for modern architecture and art, founded in 1919 in Dessau, Germany. It had an open ended, investigative approach to education. It allowed for the students to explore art in their own way, rather than being taught to master a previous artist’s techniques. The Bauhaus designs had influence from the medieval period in an ideological sense but not stylistically. It was the first design movement to think independently and does not take stylistic qualities from historical styles. The school also used the concept of total design. It was shut down by the Nazis in 1933 because they saw it as a threat to them. The methods used in the Bauhaus have greatly influenced the way art and architecture are taught today. - Walter Gropius: o Founder of the Bauhaus o Before WWI he was a follower of rationalist and industrial architecture, from America. He was influenced by American Industrial architecture, such as the Larkin Warehouse in Buffalo NY Opening up load bearing walls Use of material – concrete as cheap, strong, could be poured and malleable o After the war his perspectives changed and he joined a group class the “Glass Chain” led by Taut, an architect that was part of the Werkbund Group. This group was a new community in architecture that expressed the aspirations of a society o Gropius sees architecture as the most noble art. All art should be a collective work that is in service to a building. - Johannes Itten o Arguable one of the most influential teachers of the Bauhaus o Influenced by the German expressionists o Intention was to work with children, but then became interested in letting children have their own learning path and using their curiosity to guide their learning. o He also used meditation and movement to cultivate thinking of psychological and physical states o He works in a fine are area, but also brings in a dimensional view and the subconscious o He encouraged experimentation with materials over copying o He thinks outside of his origin (with children) and goes onto a spiritual journey o He controlled the introduction course of the Bauhaus o This was a controversial approach because he brought the spiritual dimension into it - Lazlo Moholy-Nagy o Comes from an Avant guard, Russian, cutting edge approach to composition o Constructivism and supremetics o Some of his photographs express the balance of positive and negative space in a sense that the figure is not recognizable - Avant Guard object o Think about the time period – his works and photography were very unusual o He did sculptures in plastics too that came out of the beginning in Russia o His contribution to the Bauhaus suggests that there is a universe beyond the hand crafts o There are no boundaries between thinking and sculpture and mobile animated art o He later became the director of the Bauhaus in Chicago, IL USA o His ideas become expansive and overtake the craft and personality based teaching - Ludwig Mies van der Rohe o Last director of the Bauhaus & designed the Seagram building o Important German Architect who brings German architecture and innovation to America o Critical in the development of the international style Key Images William Morris, Sideboard (example of his “Stately Furniture”) 1887 - Arts and Crafts Movement - Morris critiques the use of machinery - He wanted to design for the greatest number of people - Stately furniture was produced for well-off collectors. There was a focus on the rich quality and beauty of the material - Stately furniture was the higher-end version of Morris' furniture. It was a large source of financial income for him that helped with his other interests in creating items for the working class. Workman’s Small House designed by William Morris, drawing 1884 - Morris created comfortable and well-designed places - He saw comfortable and hygienic art to be important because the slums were so prevalent. He wanted a place where people could prosper. - This was a household for the working class - It brings innovative design to be cost effective for the consumer - There is a healthy atmosphere and a focus on the family living around the hearth – directly gathering around the hearth American Arts and Crafts tiles 1910 - The arts and craft society take route all over the unites states - Morris has a great influence on this - America appreciates Morris’ ideas even though America was an industrial power house - Morris has an influence until at least the first world war - Crafts seen in architecture too in the craftsman style homes – deep colored wood, closeness with the hearth and social family life, - Strong influence on ceramics, but also metal works - Small elements used in furniture and architecture - These tiles are from California and Massachusetts Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Moulin Rouge: La Goulue, 1891 - It exemplifies innovative printing at the end of the 19 century through its representation of the explosion of a printing method (chromolithograph). It is a combination of the fine arts and jobbing (advertisements). - Toulouse-Lautrec is innovative with the lithograph –he explores the freedom of this medium. The poster has a dynamic, sketch like quality – commercial but recognizably styled by Lautrec. He has an expressive treatment of lines with simplified compositional elements. - Grinding of wheat and flower was transformed into a place for Moulin rouge (performance) – this is a new type of social space - The modern city begins to have new forms of entertainment - This is a new kind of grand theater where complete strangers from all different social classes share the same place and sit close (very different from the opera house) - The poster advertisement has a feeling of the space o Fantastic balance of the text and the positive and negative space o Evocation of a modern environment o Famous dancer and singer shown in this daring pose o Flipping up of her skirt while doing the can-can, which is a very athletic dance o There is a fellow observer looking at the dancer o Message is communicated well along with the sense of atmosphere of the performance hall o You can see the mix of classes within the image (silhouette of observers) o Newspaper of the Moulin rouge – you see a place for seating, but a lot of the performance takes place on the floor with the public almost part of the act - Victor Horta, Tassel House, Stairhall, Brussels, 1892-93 - Art Nouveau Movement - Art Nouveau was an aesthetic design and unity of the arts as they took root on French soil - Urban life was changing at this time with new infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and public gardens - Horta is an art nouveau architect - There is a stylistic language that connects to science - The tassel house has a narrow façade, which is typical to the row houses in Brussels - Architectural element are unified and flow into one. For example, the columns on the façade flow into the forms above and below them. The bay window flows in an organic way to connect to the supporting walls. There is a wave like shape that extends across the façade. - The interior also has flowing qualities. Every surface is used to enhance the design - There is a high standard in the quality. Design like this is normally expensive, tending to wealthy clients - Interior is like walking through a sculpture. Fluid and dynamic design with an interesting play to relate to the classical column but transformed into a living form - This is similar to the Bauhaus in the idea of designing environments for society. They both have a social purpose. Design is made by the people for the people with a total design approach. Richard Riemerschmid, “Machine Furniture”, Third International Applied Art Exhibition in Dresden, Germany, 1906 - Machine furniture has very simplistic forms that can be created with the assistance of machines, but the assembly possibly not from machines - Line of furniture that could be produced using various types of wood – fine, oak, walnut, depending on cost. It also had different metal fittings. Machine furniture tends to a variety of economic levels because of this. - It follows some earlier trends such as function of standardization and utilitarian, but it is well designed and functional - Comfortable environment created while keeping with the reality of the social and economic situation - This was a dynamic period in Germany with built up international tension - This was an important process for the internal process in Germany as it tries to address the social and design problems Peter Behrens, Turbine Hall, AEG complex in Berlin 1909 - Temple of Hera, Paestum 470 BC: look to history to move forward; there is reference to ancient models (columns and temple like) - Behrens stopped using expressive rhythms and started developing more sober forms, as seen here - He was a consultant for the company - Standardization in designs to reduce the labor cost - Behrens introduced some variety to the standardized methods with choices in material and finish of products and modeled exterior hammered surfaces to mimic the hand craft - Consistent typeface and trademark of the company presented itself as trusted products, rather than the confusion of varied styles – Behrens branding helped to legitimize the company - AEG hexagon trademark idea from a honeycomb beehive- individual elements to produce a unified image - German architecture is being modernized - Entire interior is illuminated with natural light (differs from Roman this way, as Roman was heavy load bearing walls) - Skin of the building is opened up through the new engineering techniques of slender iron supporting elements – reduction of load bearing which is key in the development of architecture - Better working conditions in this factory because of natural light Raoul Haussman, Tatlin at Home, collage, 1920 - Part of the Dada Movement - Tatlin was a designer during the Russian Avant Gard movement - Haussmann was a Dada construcivisist - His work uses adaptions from photography, magazines and publications in a haphazard way - Collage of objects in part out of necessities during the war time because you couldn’t get paint - Relevant images to talk about the culture – they trigger new ways of thinking while being humorous Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International, Model, 1919-20 - Part of Russian Constructivism - Complex sculptural design that was to house all different types of government activities - Core was going to be three cylinders that would revolve at different paces. The paces were to connect to the pace of the year and the natural cycle of the earth and sun - The spiral was a symbol of the aspirational attitude of the avant-garde artists towards the new age of communism. - There was also the idea that it would project news onto the clouds overhead - There was a sense of unlimited possibilities and fantastic ideas - This was never built because it was too difficult to construct - It was intended to be the propaganda center for Communist Third International Kasimir Malevich, Suprematist Painting, 1915 - Part of Russian Suprematism - Malevich used abstract geometric elements to suggest states of mind, as seen in the titles of his works - He forged a symbolic link between the new art and the application of technology to socialist values - Malevich termed “collective creative art” to emphasize the universal aspect of suprematism - He suggested artists to exhibit their work anonymously, as posters for propaganda and as a non- objective art Piet Mondrian, Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue, 1920 - This is a De Stijl Painting - Mondrian continued to paint during the war - Attainment of harmony and balance, based upon the rejection of representation and naturalism and an equilibrium among rectangular shapes of primary color created by the intersection of black strips of uniform width. - Mondrian writes similar essay to Corbusier’s concept of Purism – concepts of individual/universal are discussed as an equilibrium of opposites as seen between positive and negative space - Principal of balance between individual and universal. - Said works of art should not be separate from living Gerrit Rietveld, Interiors of Schrӧder House, Utrecht, 1924 - De Stijl Architecture and furniture design - Architecture as a walk in painting = ideal of Doesburg - This house is like a painting in 3D form and has the values of a painting - Modernism principal of furniture design being based on standardization and mass production were not overriding laws/principals for the De Stijl style – function did not come into play until the construction and spatial exercises in De Stijl had been completed (according to Rietveld) - Designed for a widow, Mrs. Schroder, who contributed her ideas to the design - Folding and sliding partitions are used to create privacy (as requested by Schroder) - Relates to the principals of De Stijl with its painting floors, painted furniture, rectangular glass, flat roof and projecting balconies with tubular steel railings. It even creates the “living” work of non-objective art in the built environment Walter Gropius, Fagus Factory, 1911-13 - This anticipated the Bauhaus ideas. It was a good starting point of understanding his perspective of architecture - This is a factory for shoe laces, which was a very important commercial product - Significant as an industrial building, where there are laborers because there is an emphasis on natural light that comes into the space - Gropius pulls inspiration from America’s Larkin Warehouse in Buffalo NY for this design - He was interested in the Larkin Warehouse’s use of material, and method of opening up the bearing walls - He uses brick and metal sash windows in this design - Exterior wall is broken up by glass window spaces, which was an important architecture trend in the 19 century (as seen in Paxton’s Greenhouse architecture) - Use of iron supports between the windows – new structural technology - High elevations can sustain a lot of glass - This building is almost completely unembellished - It echoes some of the sever classicalism of Behrens, but Gropius is more innovative than Behrens. He is less likely to mention previous architectural styles in his work, which later becomes significant to the Bauhaus movement. - The floor plan and reflected ceiling plan have a strategic layout Diagram of Bauhaus Educational Program, by Walter Gropius 1921 - The teaching methods of the Bauhaus were important because it let students explore their own creativity, which is the teaching method used today. - Before the Bauhaus, the teaching method was the academy, which consisted of copying the masters - Program of the Bauhaus begin with the basics: the exploration of artistic form and material. The idea behind this is that a student needs to understand the basics before they are able to create their own architecture - The faculty were appointed to workshops and encouraged to work together to teach in materials and content - The artists of the Bauhaus become their own community. It was a boarding school where teachers and students lived. - There is influence from the medievalists ideological approach, but not stylistically or visually - The Manifesto was woodcut. The image symbolizes the communal working space and interest in all the arts working together in service to architecture (painting, sculpture, textile etc. were all for the building) o There is a reference to the cosmic atmosphere and the gothic o Stars are shown in the image around the roof which suggests a shining above the architecture as a visualization to create a new guild of craftsman and artists that has unity o Points to medieval building as a model to overcome the opposition between fine and applied art to create a living art that is integrated in life o Romantic concept of architecture o Manifesto states that art and architecture should return to the crafts Walter Gropius’ Director’s Office at the Bauhaus, 1923 - Every item designed at the Bauhaus - Total environment - Bauhaus was for industrial design with influence from the arts and crafts in respect to the idea of the artists and designers significance - Bauhaus is open to the production of machinery - The materials come together with a common goal – for the building - All parts work together the create the space, just like all parts came together to create a cathedral in the medieval period
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