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Comm 210 Final Study Guide

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by: Courtney Erickson

Comm 210 Final Study Guide COMM 210

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This study guide is for the second half of the semester for Comm 210. I have outlined all of the important concepts that you need to understand for the final exam. Remember that you should also...
Fundamentals of Public Communication
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Erickson on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 210 at Ball State University taught by Denker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 893 views.


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Date Created: 12/05/15
Fundamentals of Public Communication Final Exam Study Guide 1. Planning and Researching Presentation Citing Sources is important; to avoid plagiarism, you must credit the source. Verbal Citations sometimes verbal citations can feel or sound awkward, but there are many ways they can be worded differently to provide cited information: “In 2010, National Geographic published an article that showed…” Be careful to cover all required information for a verbal citation though. This includes title, date, and author. Bibliography Citations A bibliography is a list of available books or other sources that can be used to help find relevant material. Types of Sources: - newspapers: ​ distributed daily or weekly. contains news, opinion articles, and ads - scholarly journals: usually published quarterly. written by experts reporting findings from their research. very credible; are peer reviewed. - magazine articles: ​similar to newspapers, usually specialized in a specific area and publish less often. can be more or less credible than a newsaper. - professional/trade publications: ​good sources for info on a professional field/topic. credible, and provide relevant, up-to-date information - government publications: ​ information published by all three branches of the federal government. very credible. - web sources: ​information found on the Internet. credibility varies per type of website. - textbooks: usually a good place to start your research. credible sources, but may be slightly out-of-date. - interviews: give specific, current information for your speech. adds perspective, interest, and credibility to a presentation. can include one-on-one interviews or focus groups - surveys: gathering data from a population; questions can be qualitative or quantitative (Qualitative = data indicating feelings or perception. Quantitative = data showing statistics and numbers, usually can be averaged). 2. Support Supporting Material Functions of Support: support enhances credibility, strengthens presented information, holds audience’s attention, and just overall enhances presentation Using Support: it is important to find a balance between detail and simplicity. Make sure your listeners understand your concepts. choose details that stimulate your audience to help support your presentation and engage them more. Types of Support: *for this class, the most important types of support arSET - Statistics, Examples, Testimonies. ​See below for more explanation. 1.) Examples ​re used to develop ideas into more concrete, memorable, understandable, and persuasive. This includes: a.) Specific Examples b.) Stories/Narratives c.) Hypothetical Examples 2.) Quantification (Statisticis numerical data used to give precision and clarify a point, enhance credibility. This includes: a.) Measurements b.) Statistics 3.) Testimony is the sharing of observations, opinions, experiences, etc. Using testimony of experts can build your own credibility. 4.) Analogy involves looking at similar patterns in form and function. Types of analogy include: a.) Comparison and Contrast b.) Literal Analogies c.) Figurative Analogies 5.) Explanation​is providing more detailed information to support and clarify your meaning. Avoid overusing abstract explanations. 6.) Repetition and Restatement​helps an audience to understand and remember important ideas and concepts. Repetition helps with emphasis and persuasion, while restatement helps emphasize and clarify. 7.) Audio-visual Aids include many different media, both audio and visual. These audio-visual aids increase the audience’s interest, understanding, and retention. Types of Claims - Claim of Fact:asserts or denies something that exists, or defines what something is not. - Claim of Value: describes the worth/morality of something - Claim of Policy:explains what should​ be done Visual Aids As stated above, visual aids increase the audience’s ability to understand and engage with your presentation. A visual aid should enhance and reinforce concepts in your presentation. Make sure your audio-visual aid is large or loud enough for your audience to see/hear. Also make sure it is simple or clear enough for your audience to understand. Make sure to consider your needs with this audio-visual aid (ie. will you need an extension cord?) Types of Fallacies(avoid these) ● Hasty Generalization ​ draws a conclusion based on insufficient evidence. (ie. stating that one fish was green, so all fish must be green) ● False Division ​is when a speaker divides/categorizes an issue incorrectly. (ie. there are only two solutions to this problem) ● Appeal to Popular Opinion (Bandwagon or Peer Pressure Appeal) ​ uses the claim that “everyone is doing it, so you should too.” ● False Cause s ​tates that because event A occurred before event B, event A caused event B. ● Name-calling (Ad Hominem) ​ occurs when a speaker struggles to attack an opponent’s argument, so they begin to attack the opponent themselves. 3. Developing and Using Presentational Aids Why use a presentational aid? - increase audience comprehension - make speech more memorable - creates interest and adds variety to presentation Types of Presentational Aids: ● Objects ​ includes all physical objects, inanimate or animate ● Handouts ​ allow the audience to keep a record of the information from your presentation. Handouts can be used to continue your message beyond your presentation. Be careful because handouts can be distracting from your presentation - it may be best to distribute these at the end of your speech. ● Graphics ​ are 2-D representations of reality, probability, possibility, or imagination. Includes graphs, photos, diagrams, charts, maps, and more. ● Boards ​ such as chalkboards can be useful for quickly writing or drawing. ● Video Aids a ​llow you to show examples in action ● Audio Aids ​ can serve as an effective aid in a presentation ● Slideware ​ includes PowerPoint, Prezi, and more. It is important to carefully design the appearance of these visual aids to be pleasing to your audience. Consider NICE: Neat Interesting Clear Effective Selecting a Presentational Aid - Be careful if selecting a risky/shocking presentational aid; you don’t want to offend your audience - Certain types of presentational aids should be avoided - like animals; can be unpredictable and therefore are risky - Presentational aid should be sensitive toward audience members - Audience Analysis can help you to decide which type of aid to use/avoid. - You should not spend more time on your visual aid than on speech preparation - Avoid spending lots on your aid; less expensive can be equally effective Common Problems with Presentational Aids - Make sure that everyone in the audience should be able to see/hear your presentational aid. - Many people use too many aids, this can make your presentation unclear, and fails to emphasize important parts of your speech. - Using too few visual aids is also an issue; it can make it difficult for your audience to understand/remember your content - Make sure your aid is simple enough for your audience to immediately understand content - Avoid sloppy presentational aids; they should look as professional as possible 4. Wording Your Speech Characteristics of Language: - Language is symbolic - Denotation​ = definition of a word - Connotation​ = feelings & attitudes towards a word (can be positive, negative, or neutral) - Words take up different meanings with different individuals - Triangle of Meaning: - Bypassing​ = occurs when a receiver perceives a different meaning to a word than the sender intended. This includes: Denotative-denotative bypassing = ​he sender intends a denotation for a word, while the receiver attaches a different denotation Denotative-connotative bypassing = ​ the sender intends a denotation for a word, while the receiver attaches a connotation to the word. Connotative-denotative bypassing = ​ the sender intends to convey a connotation for a word, while the receiver attaches a literal meaning to the world Connotative-connotative bypassing = ​ the sender intends a connotative meaning, but the receiver infers a different connotation - Language has different levels of abstraction (the more abstract a word is, the more likely people will attach different meanings to it) - Language affects perception Effectiveness of Language - Appropriateness avoid biased language use appropriate grammar and avoid slang - Clarity oral presentations often use simpler sentences and more repetition simplicity helps audience understand accuracy helps convey your meaning better to your audience - Vividness language is vivid if it forms an image in the audience’s minds; it paints a clear picture of what you intended. make sure to avoid cliches. figurative language can help improve vividness Imagery can help improve vividness. Imagery includes: Auditory Imagery​ - helps to experience through sound Gustatory Imagery ​ - helps to experience through taste Olfactory Imagery​ - helps to experience through smell Tactile Imagery​- helps to experience through touch Visual Imagery​ - helps to experience through sight Stylistic devices can also improve vividness. Stylistic devices include the use of a word in an unusual order/manner to catch the audience's’ attention and cause deeper feelings, thought, and appreciation. These include figurative language such asSimile, Metaphor, Synecdoche, Metonymy, Personification, Hyperbole, Understatement, and Oxymoron​ . 5. Persuasive Presentations Persuasion Persuasive communication uses arguments to create a change in the opinions of the audience. Persuasion is one of the most complicated types of communication. Credibility​ is a big part of persuasion. The credibility of the source Influences how much of what the speaker says that the audience might believe. Dimensions of credibility include: - Competence (shown through knowledge/expertise of the subject) - Trustworthiness ​ (audience must believe that you are telling the truth) - Attractiveness​ (attractiveness includes physical aspects & personality traits) Audience Types Friendly Audience​ - has a positive attitude toward your topic Hostile Audience​ - has a negative attitude toward your topic Neutral Audience​ - has neither positive or negative attitudes; undecided Apathetic Audience​ - has no knowledge or is unaware of your topic Mixed Audience​ - has members of two or more of the above categories Audience Analysis can help to understand your audience dynamics & types To enhance audience dynamics, adapt to selective exposure, Persuasive Claims ​ (aka. Persuasive Questions or Persuasive Propositions) Claim of Fact = a controversial statement that denies or asserts that has/will happened. The persuader provides proof that this statement is true. Claim of Value​ = a statement that explains the worth (value) of of something Claim of Policy​= a statement that explains what “should be” - like what should be done. Organizational Patterns Appeals Pathos: Emotional Appeals tend to influence the audience in the short term links the message directly to the motives of the audience Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is an important aspect of audience motivation Self Actualization= the need to fulfill one’s full potential Esteem​ = the need for recognition, respect, and admiration from others Social= the need to be accepted by others and receive love Safety =the need to preserve one’s health, property, and security Survival =the most basic needs of life: food, water, shelter, and sex Logos:​Reasoning and Support these messages tend to have a longer lasting impact. see the above section “Support” for how to effectively use this Ethos: Credibility & Organization certain organizational techniques better certain persuasive messages (see page 6 for further descriptions of credibility) Organizational strategies include: Problem-Solution​Pattern speaker identifies a problem, then offers the audience a solution Monroe’s Motivated Sequence 1.) Attention (gaining the attention of the audience) 2.) Need (showing that a need/problem exists) 3.) Satisfaction(the solution to the problem) 4.) Visualization (what will happen with/without solution) 5.) Action (what should the audience do) Causal​Pattern a speaker identifies the effects of a problem, then the causes of a problem, followed by an effective solution Inductive Approach this method targets hostile audiences; you start by presenting information that the audience already agrees with. This puts the audience in a favorable attitude towards you before presenting your main goal. Topical​attern organizes a speech by topics and subtopics If using Claim of Value, the best organizational patterns for you would be: - Two-Part If using Claim of Fact, the best organizational patterns for you would be: - Topical If using Claim of Policy, the best organizational patterns for you would be: - Monroe’s Motivated Sequence, Problem-Solution, 6. Speaking on Special Occasions Types of Special Occasion Speaking: ● Speeches of Introduction - ​ creates audience desire to hear the next speaker ● Presentation Speech - ​peech accompanying the giving of an award/gift ● Acceptance Speech - ​ speech that comes after receiving an award/gift ● Commemorative Speech - ​ recognizes events or individuals with positivity ● The Devotional Speech - ries to inspire or reinforce faith ● The Nominational Speech - ​laces an individual in the running for election ● The Entertainment Speech - ​ pleases the audience, often with humor ● The After-Dinner Speech - ​ organizations’ scheduled presentations after a meal ● The Roast - ​ pokes fun at an individual/group; is entertaining & usually funny Principles of Special Occasion Speaking: - Meet audience expectations - Stress common values - Be accurate - Highlight the significance of the event - Remember your role this includes: ● demonstrating good taste ● being sincere ● avoiding arrogance ● working for a smooth delivery ● exploiting your effective use of language - Be brief -​ost audiences appreciate short presentations Special Speaking Situations ● Rebuttal ​ - the chance to respond to arguments that you disagree with ● Interruption​- the response to disruption; shows your ability to maintain control ● Oral Reading​ - reading material out loud to an audience ○ it helps to read the passage beforehand ○ be careful not to read too fast, or talk to quietly ● Speaking in front of a Camera​ - your speaking event is recorded ○ try to look at the audience in the direction of the camera while shooting ○ be more conscious of your facial expression ○ make sure to stay appropriate 7. Communication in Other Settings Job Interviews: Interviews have many characteristics of public speaking and and interpersonal communication, and have a variety of forms. Usually, only 2 people are involved in an interview. Sometimes, however, one interviewer interviews many individuals, and sometimes, several interviewers question one individual. Before the interview, it is beneficial to learn as much as possible about the organization. It is also beneficial to prepare a resume. Presentation of yourself is also important to an interview; make sure you look nice, and try to present appropriate nonverbal behaviors. You can also practice for the interview by answering questions (both normal interview questions and odd ones) Group Presentations: Often in professional settings, teams must work together to provide a presentation. This could include in a panel discussion, a symposium, a forum, or a group presentation/report. There are many aspects to consider during this type of speech. Communicating with a Group The ability to cooperate with your peers is a very important skill. Advantages of working with a group include the fact that other people provide more ideas and new perspectives, which can lead to better quality decisions and solutions. The main disadvantage is that it is less efficient than individual problem solving. Group Roles​are important to the function of the group. These include: ● Task Leader - helps to set the goals & create the agendas of the group ● Socio-emotional Leader - promotes a productive climate between members ● Information Provider - contributes ideas ● Central Negative - aka the Devil’s Advocate - evaluates ideas & causes conflict ● Tension Releaser - makes members comfortable with one another *there are also sometimes non-productive roles in a group (these should be discouraged) Cohesiveness​ is another important aspect of group communication. Cohesiveness is the commitment of the group members to the goals of the group, as well as to the group itself. A group can increase cohesiveness by developing identity and focusing on successes. The Physical settingcan also contribute to group interactions; sitting in a circle, or around a table facing each other will increase interactions (as opposed to sitting in a row). Members are also not likely to be productive in an uncomfortable environment. Decision Making​ is another important aspect of group communication. Creating a Problem-solving agenda ​will help the group to identify and solve a problem. To create a problem-solving agenda… 1.) Define the problem 2.) Determine the criteria that must be met 3.) Identify alternative solutions 4.) Apply the criteria 5.) Select the best solution 6.) Plan a step-by-step method to implement the solution 7.) Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution & determine if changes are necessary. Brainstorming ​can also help the group to generate ideas effectively. The goal of Brainstorming is to generate ideas; there should be no response/evaluation to ideas, and ideas can be clarified later. The Nominal Group Technique​ is another technique used by groups to promote improvement. This is a formal brainstorming process that helps reduce the influence of other group members. In this method, group members silently brainstorm their own ideas on a piece of paper, then the leader will prepare a “master list” of all the ideas. All the ideas will then be explained (if necessary), and the ideas will be ranked by the entire group. Consensus​ is yet another technique; this occurs when all members agree on a decision. This typically works best with small groups. 8. Reasoning with the Toulmin Model The Toulmin Model 6 parts of the Toulmin Model: Claim (the point to prove) Data (the evidence) Warrant (the justification to reach the claim) Backing (provides additional support for warrant) Rebuttal (aka. Reservation; identifies the weaknesses of an argument) Qualifier (reflects the estimate to the degree of confidence of the claim) Ways to back the Warrant could include: - Inductive Reasoning this shows that examples are typical and relevant. - Deductive Reasoning this shows that a rule/conclusion applies. - Reasoning from a Parallel Case this shows that what happened in one situation will be true in another - Reasoning from Authority uses an authority to back; builds credibility - Sign Reasoning shows that X is a sign of Y - Causal Reasoning shows that the causal relationship accounts for the issue Example: Data: I lost weight by jogging once a dayClaim:​You can lose weight by jogging every day! Warrant: W​hat worked in one case will work in another.


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