Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide amh 2097
Popular in American History race and ethnicity
Popular in History
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tyler Murphy on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to amh 2097 at Florida State University taught by R. Soash in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 218 views. For similar materials see American History race and ethnicity in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
Final Key Terms Jim Crow Era Part One Grandfather Clause - States that only people eligible to vote are those whose grandfathers/ elders were able to vote Poll Tax -State Legislature introduced to keep blacks from voting because of the fee Literacy Tests -State Legislatures would take very complicated aspects of the constitution or passages from the constitutions and ask the Blacks to interpret the passage (ability to say “no” you cant vote, you don’t understand the passage) White Primaries - Political parties could conduct things the way they want to “only whites can vote in this primary” Lynching - Unauthorized execution without trial of a person accused of a crime - 1890s-1924: 3500 lynching’s across nation (3100 in South) - Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Carolinas Ida B. Wells (writer, journalist, activist)- in Tennessee) - Publicize White Oppression (hope with more awareness, whites would be more ashamed of what they’re doing in south) International Tours: in Europe and educate on what is going on in U.S.- hope is to put pressure on European governments to put pressure on U.S. to fix the problems Pamphlets o “southern horrors; Lynch laws in all its phases” o “the red record The Memphis Free Speech (newspaper used to broadcast stories to nationwide audience)- started when a friend was lynched for being in middle class and prospering - Great Migration (1910s and 1920s) Midwest and Southeast Problems in the North: not a racial utopia, still problems of lynching, given the worst jobs and competing with immigrant groups for jobs and housing. Segregation exists- certain neighborhoods, schools (Chicago, NYC, Boston, St. Louis) W.E.B. Du Bois Fight for full political and social equality in the U.S. o One of the founders of the National Assoc. for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Pan- African Movement o Advocate of Blacks worldwide Opposition to colonialism, particularly in Africa and the Caribbean Booker T. Washington Economic Advancement o Tuskegee Institute: provides moral training to young African Americans (concentrate on economic advancement- will prosper in time) o Publicly accommodate with southern whites Atlanta Compromise Speech: tell whites what his goal was, not concentrating on social and political (content)- tells white audience that he is okay with idea of segregation, blacks and whites should advance economically together o Strengths to his approach Vocational training helps blacks economically Upper-class WASPs favorite black leader=$$, personal influence ( because he’s telling whites what they want to hear- get a lot of donations to institute) o Weaknesses of his approach Social and political progress hindered Jim Crow Era Part Two and WWII “New Negro”: those in the African community fighting back Great Migration (1910-1970) - Movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural South to the urban NE, Midwest, and the West Franklin Delano Roosevelt - Democrat - Elected President 4 times - 1933-1945 New Deal Gov programs to inc. jobs African Americans Alien Registration Act of 1940: recent immigrants (past 4-10 years) who are targeted/ imprisioned Internment West Coast situation: Stats Israel Mexican Immigration, Part One The Spanish- Spaniards - Came from Europe, conquistadors, never married, purely white, Catholic Mestizos -Half Spanish, half native Republic of Texas (1835) -Southern WASPs create their own political entity- not part of United States -Makes Mexican government mad, go to war over land that was taken from Mexicans Santa Anna: republic of Texas, leader of Mexico( military commander) known for commanding Mexicans during battle of Alamo, eventually overthrown and exiled out of Mexico James K. Polk: southern Democrat, in favor of expanding slavery to the West o Take annexed Texas and push slavery West o War broke out into two stages of campaigns Mexican American War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) 1. Land Cession- give up the land (CA, AZ, NM, TX, NV, CO, & UT) 2. US pays 15 Million dollars 3. 80,000 Mexicans in the area get U.S. citizenship (ones who moved North in the wave) Effects: 1. 80,000 Mexican American citizens who resided longer in the region of U.S. longer than the WASPs: get involved in the problems of the modern immigrants, assume of skin type and color that they are illegal immigrants “We didn’t cross the border, the border crossed us” 2. U.S. gets a lot more land: has to determine which states are slave states or not, to satisfy the status quo. Slavery expanding, republicans don’t want it to expand to new territories but continue in southeast. Problem: going to have free states with senators who support and disrupt 50/50 balance in the Senate. Leads to Civil War. First Wave: head North to the borderlands- present day southwestern U.S. - 1600s-1800s - Mestizos and Missionaries- mostly Catholic Mexican Revolution Porfirio Diaz Hated by lower class, favored upper class. Goal: modernize and industrialize Mexico with help from investors from America and Europe (factory owners & mining companies) Vast majority was not benefitting from these policies because money went to the rich and the investors Peons - Poor people of the country, work on large plantations doing back breaking labor for little/no pay; working on behalf of Europeans or people of Mexican descent higher on the hierarchy. Rebel against Diaz Second Wave (1911-1929) Immigrants: U.S. is okay with them as long as they do the unwanted jobs and prosper- creates wealth for the country (1.5 million) Their illiterate, lower class, worked for railroads, mines, and temporary farm jobs Mexican Immigration, Part Two Roaring Twenties (1920-1929) - Low unemployment nationwide - Mexican immigrants not included in the 1924 Quota Act o Economy was in good shape, didn’t want to cut off cheap labor - VISA’s necessary o Not as rigorous as today; entry tickets for border stations, check-in and allowed in Great Depression (1930s) - 25% unemployed - 50% under-employed o Part time job but need full time o Overqualified for your job Bracero Program Third Wave - Stats: 1/3 farmers, 1/3 skilled workers lost jobs, 2/3 became unskilled/ jobless - Created permanent underclass in Southwest Dwight Eisenhower Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 - Gets rid of discriminatory limitation of 1921/1924 Quota Acts - Totals are the same across board o Each group gets 20,000 annually o No exemption for Mexicans Third Wave - Those come in after 1965, after ’65 act, and quota acts passed to reduce immigration. 21 and 24 Acts don’t apply. 20,000 person per year per nation (those with visa, border crossers, and undocumented) Border Crossers - Seasonal work, short term visa’s Commuters - Government permission to go back and forth everyday for work Official Visa Undocumented Immigrants (illegals) Reform and Control Act (1986) - Democratic Congress, Republican President o Raegan- goal to bring these “illegals” out from shadows, crack down on these employers too o 3 million/ 9 million undocumented aliens register for citizenship Overgeneralizations, “illegal” immigrants - All Mexicans are “illegal immigrants o Reality: large segment of Mexican- American population has ancestors who have been in America longer than those whose ancestors of Europeans - All “illegal immigrants” are Mexican o Reality: wide array from different countries o 38.1 million here legally o Many from SE Asia, large segment here legally Racial Inferiority Stereotype - Mexicans are unintelligent o Second Wave, Peons o Reality: uneducated - “Hispanics” o lumped together many peoples because of Spanish speaking - Artificial Color Scheme o Legally: “white” citizens (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo) o Culturally: on edges of whiteness, seen as brown (dirty) Cuban Immigration Spanish American War Fulgencio Bautista Fidel Castro -In power after Bautista, transforms Cuba into authoritarian single party state, strongly opposed to United States because of our support to Bautista during the Revolution, against the upper classs -Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Soviet Union -Wanted to spread Communism in Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, China, and near China John F. Kennedy First, Second, Third, Fourth Wave: The Golden Exiles, Freedom Fliers, Marielitos, Balseros The Golden Exiles (1959-1962) st -1 wave- wealthy, upper class, fled by jet or yacht to Union City, NJ or Miami, Florida Cuban American Adjustment Act -Allowed Cubans to be here permanently and later become citizens -Granted the immigrants 1.2 billion dollars in loans Cuban Refugee Program -Different situation because of socio-political status Freedom Fliers -2ndwave (members of middle class) affected by communism, anyone who opposes government can be jailed, people want to leave, they think they receive the same treatment as golden exiles, U.S. sends over flights to one port in Cuba 2x a day, 5 days a week, 400-500,000 come over Little Havana Marielitos: 3 wave- working class involved in Peruvian embassy crisis, opposed to castro, allows this group to leave but only out of one port Peruvian Embassy Crisis Balseros (1980-present) -Those coming to U.S., lower class/ working, try to escape Cuba by raft, 2 days on motor boat, 1 week floating-only attempted by desperate and poor, 16,000 die Wet feet, Dry feet policy -Those who are still in water are not intercepted, “if you make it to land, you can become legal permanent resident” Civil Rights Jim Crow Jim Crow (n): contentuous nickname for a black male Jim Crow (adj): discriminatory toward Blacks Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow era Harry Truman: (Democrat)- Missouri FDR’s VP, took over after death Wants African American votes in NE and Midwest states i. Desegregate military ii. Proposes anti-lynching bill to Congress iii. Opposes segregated transportation States Right Democratic Party (“Dixiecrats”) Presidential Election of 1948 - Truman - Dewey (Republican) - Thurmond (Dixiecrat) “Dixiecrats” - States Right Democratic Party Dwight Eisenhower (Republican) - War hero in WW2 - Racial Attitudes Gradualist: hope situation improves, take minimal action More worried about effects of getting rid of Jim Crow than the actual suffering Brown v. Board of Education - Schools were getting sued for not being equal - Separate but equal- not actually equal - Massive Resistance (10 years): belief that desegregation leads to miscengation (rape epidemic) Little Rock Crisis - Local school board trying to comply with Supreme Court - Little Rock 9: 9 African American granted the ability to enter a local high school Segregation Academies Lyndon B. Johnson (Democrat) Civil Rights Act of 1964 - Segregated public facilities - Prohibited large businesses Voting Rights Act of 1965 - Prohibits racial discrimination in voting- literacy test NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - Focused on battles of suing and trying to change laws of affecting African American communities SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference - Nonviolent - MLK- prominent leader SNCC - Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee Nonviolent Resistance - Montgomery Bus Boycott (Christmas ’55-Christmas ’56) - Sit in movement (’61) o People would sit down in white areas with violent expectations - Freedom rides (1961) o Violence would erupt on transportation- buses would be burned - March on Washington o “I have a dream” speech - Selma March (March ’65) o SNCC and SCLC- give attention from media and Congress in favor of voting rights for African Americans Black Power Stokely Carmichael - Member of SNCC - “Black Power” - Greeenwood, Mississippi June 1966 Marcus Garvey - earliest proponent of Black Power - Should publicly express that you’re proud of your race - Helps fight against European colonialism in Africa Malcolm X - Puts a religious spin on poverty especially in U.S. - Emphasized that African Americans should be able to engage in self defense - Against racism& discrimination, not in favor of integration - Posed to ideas of racism but does not want to end segregation - Focused on helping poor and working class COINTELPRO - Counter Intelligence Program- put together in late 60’s when black power groups organized themselves to fight against them
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