BIO20C - Final Study Guide
BIO20C - Final Study Guide BIOE 20C - 01
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by echen30 on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOE 20C - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Marinovic,B.B. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic Ecology (definition of, central goals of) - Ecology: study how organisms interact w/ environment - Central goals of ecology - Understand distribution and abundance of organisms - Recognize/explain patterns in nature Abiotic vs. Biotic Environment, Abiotic vs. Biotic Interactions - Abiotic: non-living - Biotic: living - Abiotic interactions: between organism and non-living environment - Biotic interactions: between organism Levels of Ecological Study: organismal, population, community, ecosystem - Organismal Ecology - Focus = interaction between individual and environment - Considers morphology, physiology, behavior - Population Ecology - Focus on the population - Goals: understand mechanisms regulating population growth - Also look at interactions between members at a population - Community Ecology - Community = all the organisms that interact within an area - Area of focus - Interspecific interactions - Community structure - Community response to disturbance - Ecosystem Ecology - Expand to include both the biotic/abiotic interactions - Ecosystem = all organisms in an area + abiotic environment - Area of focus - Nutrient cycles - Energy flow Climate vs. Weather: definition of, relationship between, effects (direct vs. indirect) on organisms - Climate: prevailing long term weather conditions - Weather: short term atmospheric/aquatic conditions - Temperature, precipitation, winds - Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get - Can directly and indirectly affect organisms - Examples: - Temperature – metabolism - Wind – moisture loss - Sunlight – photosynthesis - Terrestrial plants especially responsive to temperature and moisture BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic Causes for Global Variation in Climate: temperature vs precipitation, Hadley cell, Ferrel & Polar cells - Temperature: driven largely by solar radiation o - At equator hit at 90 = warm temperature - Angle becomes increasingly shallower towards poles = cooler temperatures - Precipitation - Influenced by temperature and air circulation - Hadley Cell - Formed by warming and cooling of air - Creates a cyclical cell of circulation N and S of equator - 1) Air heats at equator - 2) Warm air holds more moisture - 3) Rising air cools, causes rain - 4) Cool air flows north and south - 5) Cool air sinks - 6) Warms as it descends, picks up moisture from the land - Ferrel and polar cells Seasonality: definition of, causes of - Caused by: - 23 tilt of earth’s axis - Revolution of the earth around sun - Results - Boreal (north) and austral (south) summers - Transitional spring/fall - More pronounced with latitude Causes of regional variation in climate (topographic influence) - By topographic features - Mountains - Causes air to rise cool and release moisture - Slopes facing water (ocean, large lakes) = wet side - Opposite slopes drier = rain shadow - Oceans - Modify temperature due to high specific heat of water Factors regulating terrestrial & aquatic ecosystems - Terrestrial ecosystems - Temperature - Precipitation - Aquatic ecosystems - Sunlight - Nutrients Biomes - Large regions characterized by distinct vegetation types - Each biome has distinctive temperature and precipitation regime - Annual average temperature + precipitation - Annual variation in temperature + precipitation - There are as many as 14 (or more) distinct terrestrial biomes that have been described BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic Major terrestrial biomes (tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, temperate grassland, subtropical desert, tropical wet forest) Temp/precipitation annual mean and annual variability Biomes Avg Annual Temp. Avg Variation Avg Annual Avg Variation Temp. Precip. Precip. Tundra Very Low High Low Low Boreal Forest (Taiga) Low High Low Low Temperate Deciduous Moderate High Moderate Moderate Forest Temperate Grassland Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Subtropical Desert High Moderate Very Low Low Tropical Wet Forest High Low Very High High Lentic vs Lotic Systems - Lentic systems - Still or slowly flowing water - Examples: - Lakes and ponds - Swamps, marshes, and bogs - Lotic systems - Rapid, unidirectional flowing of water - Stream: rivers and creeks - River: big stream - Creek: little stream - Linear progression - Early = low temperature, low nutrients, high oxygen - Mid = warmer temperature, higher nutrients, lower oxygen - Late = warmest temperature, highest nutrients, lowest oxygen Lakes and Ponds - Horizontal structure - Littoral zone: shallow enough for rooted vegetation - Limnetic zone: too deep for rooted vegetation - Vertical structure - Photic zone: enough light for photosynthesis - Aphotic zone: not enough light for photosynthesis - Benthic zone: bottom of lake or pond Marshes vs. Swamps vs. Bogs - Marshes lack woody plants - Swamps have trees - Both have slow flowing water - Both typically connected to lakes or streams - Bogs: stagnant and highly acidic due to decomposition Major Marine Biomes (intertidal, neritic, oceanic) - Horizontal - Intertidal: covered and uncovered by tides - Coastal (Neritic): portion of ocean over continental shelf - Pelagic (Oceanic): portion off continental shelf BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic - Vertical - Photic: enough light for photosynthesis - Aphotic: not enough light for photosynthesis Behavior Ecology - Behavior: response to a stimulus Variation in behavior (innate vs learned; stereotypical vs flexible) - Innate vs. Learned - Is it present at birth or acquired via life experience? - Stereotyped vs. Flexible - Is it done the same way each time or is it variable depending on conditions FAPS (Fixed Action Patterns) - Definition: highly stereotyped, innate behavior - 3 distinct characteristics - Performed without learning - Inflexible/stereotyped (almost no variation) - cannot be modified by learning - Set off by releaser stimuli - FAPs respond to threatening situation Genetic Basis of Learning, genetic cascades (hygienic bees, fly mating behavior, mouse mating behavior) - All behaviors ultimate linked to genotype - Highly innate behaviors “programmed” - Two methods to test how innate vs. learned a behavior is: - Deprivation experiment: animals reared in isolation without opportunity to learn - Genetic experiment: identify specific genes whose product triggers behavior - Gene that control behavior typically embedded in genetic cascades - Simple changes to just one gene can cause dramatic changes to complex behaviors Learning: (conditioning, imprinting, spatial learning, life history modified learning, mistake based learning, cognition) - Simple learning (conditioning) - Classical (e.g. Pavlov’s dog) - Unconditioned response: food/salivation - Conditioned response: metronome/salivation - Imprinting (e.g. geese, penguin) - Fast and irreversible - Occurs in a critical window of time - More complex learning – behavior modified by life experience - Demonstrate a spectrum of complexity along both behavior axes - Mistake based learning - Example: bird: ingestion of toxic, but non-lethal prey - Cognition - Recognition and manipulation of facts about the world - Ability to form concepts and gain insight - Example: chimps stacking blocks to get higher - Example: New Caledonia crows make/use tools in the wild BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic Communication (definition of, signal, methods of communication, deception) - Definition: signal from one individual modifies behavior of another - Signal: information containing behavior - Visual, tactile, olfactory, auditory - Example: - Moose: mating call/pheromones (auditory/olfactory) - Red-winged blackbird: territorial fighting (visual/auditory) - Bee: honeybee dance (tactile/auditory/olfactory) - Deception: to persist it must be rare - Examples: - Angler fish use a “lure” to attract prey - Photuris fireflies flash the courtship signal of another species and eats them - Butterfly looks like a bad-tasting species, but actually taste good Meaning of Orientation & Taxis - Orientation: movement that results in a change of position - Taxis: simple orientation - Photo (light) = plant orient to light - Phono (sound) = hear a sound at night – e.g. bats - Geo (gravitational pull) - Chemo = follow a chemical trail Piloting vs Compass Navigation vs Bi-coordinate navigation - Migration: long distance movement associated with change in seasons - 3 basic types - Piloting: use of visual references - Compass navigation: use of stars, sun, magnetic field - True navigation (bi-coordinate): compass navigation plus knowledge of where you are Altruism: definition of, Kin selection, Hamilton’s rule, eusociality, haplodiploidy, - Altruism (self-sacrificing behavior): behavior that imparts a cost to self and benefit another - Kin Selection - Definition: altruism occurs if cost is less than benefit due to relatedness - Hamilton’s rule: Br > C - B = benefit - r = coefficient of relatedness - C = cost - Eusociality - Definition: altruism in social groups that have sterile individuals - Common in some insect lines -Haplodiploidy - Ant/bees have haplo/diploidy - Males – haploid; Female – diploid - Female in colony all share same father, more closely related to each other than their own offspring - Often results in an extreme division of labor - Queen, workers, soldiers - Reciprocal Altruism - Definition: self-sacrificing behavior w/ unrelated individuals - More common between individuals w/ past history of altruism - More likely to help others if you have been helped by them in the past - More controversial than kin selection BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic Populations: definition of, density vs dispersal, reproductive strategies (semelparity vs iteroparity, seasonal vs continuous) - Population: - Definition: group of individuals of the same species that: - Live in a localized area - Utilize a common pool of resources - Density: - Definition: # of unit area or volume - Dispersion: - Definition: distribution within that area or volume - 3 types of dispersion - Clumped: aggregated around resources - Regular (uniformed): evenly distributed in space – usually a result of competition - Random: lacking any discernible pattern - Reproductive Strategy: - Definition: how and when you reproduce - Semelparity: breed once and die - Iteroparity: multiple breeding in lifetime – can be seasonal or continuous Demography: study of factors that influence population size & structure over time - 3 main components that influence size - Birth: increase - Death: decrease - Immigration: increase - Emigration: decrease - Factors needed to predict population growth - How many individuals alive now? - How many likely to survive (survivorship) - How many offspring will be produced? (fecundity) - Immigration/emigration rates - Time from birth to first reproduction (generation time) Type I, II, III Survivorship Curves - Survivorship: proportion surviving to a particular age class - Cohort: individuals born in same period - Survivorship curves: log(survivorship) vs. time - 3 basic types - Type I: young survivorship high, old low - Type II: survivorship constant throughout life - Type III: young survivorship low, old high Survivorship & Fecundity: definition of, relationship between. - Fecundity: # of offspring produced - Relationship Between - Individual have finite amount of energy - Tradeoff between growth and reproduction - Low survivorship – high age specific fecundity - High survivorship – low age specific fecundity BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic Life Tables, Survivorship, Age Specific Fecundity, Product of Two, Net Reproductive Rate (R ) 0 - Life tables: use for demographic analysis - Require information - Initial # born in a cohort (N) - # of survive to each age class (L x - Average fecundity for each age class (m ) x - Age specific fecundity: average # of females produced by a female of a certain age class - Net Reproductive Rate - ∑(lxm x = R 0 net reproductive rate (growth rate for generation) - If R0> 1, the population is growing - If R0< 1, the population shrinking Discrete growth rate (l), instantaneous growth rate (r), relationship between two - Intrinsic Rate of Increase - r can be +, -, or 0 - max – intrinsic rate of increase - Different species have different r max - Discrete Growth Rate - N0= population size at time 0 - N = population size at time 1 1 - Discrete growth rate: λ = N / 1 0 - N1=N λ0or N =N1λ 0 Exponential Growth vs Logistic Growth, Carrying Capacity (K), Logistic Growth Equation - Exponential Growth: r constant over time - r doesn’t change with density - Density independent - Logistic Growth: r changes as a function of density - r decreases with increasing density - Density dependent - Carrying Capacity (K) - Max # of individuals that can be sustained in a given habitat - Function of abiotic + biotic factors - K varies with habitat - Logistic Growth Equation - dN/dt = rN [(K-N)/K] - If N is small, r close to max - As N increases, r decreases - As N approaches K, r becomes 0 Density Independent vs Density Independent Factors Regulating Populations - Density independent - Not affected by population size - Density dependent - Becomes more pronounced with increased density r vs K selected species - r selected species - r refers to intrinsic growth rate - Rapid growth, good dispersal, and short lifespan - K selected species - K refers to carrying capacity BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic - Slow growth, long lifespan, and large size Community Ecology - Community: interacting species within a given area - Population < Community < Biomes Species interactions: direct interactions (5 basic types) - Interaction between two species - Affect fitness of both species - Fitness effects: +, -, 0 - Five basic types of interactions - Competition - Commensalism - Mutualism - Parasitism - Predation Competition (-/-): definition of, concept of niche, competitive exclusion principle, fundamental vs realized niche, symmetric vs asymmetric competition - Definition: both species experience fitness decrease - Niche: sum total resources used by a species - Range of conditions it can tolerate - Species with overlapping niches compete with each other - Competitive Exclusion Principle - Hypothesized that 2 species with same niche cannot co-exist - Fundamental vs. Realized Niche - Fundamental niche: total possible use of the environment by a species - Realized niche: actual observed used of the environment by a species - Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Competition - Symmetric competition: each species experiences the same decrease in fitness - Asymmetric competition: one species has greater fitness decrease than other Consumption: herbivory vs parasitism vs predation, constitutive vs inducible defenses, mimicry (Batesian vs Mullerian) - Definition: one species consume all or part of another - 3 types of consumption - Herbivory - Parasitism - Predation - Herbivory: grazing organisms (herbivores) consume plant tissue - Example: oxen, zebras, etc. - Parasitism (+/-): parasite consumes relatively small amount of tissue from a plant or animal (host) - Example: leeches, mosquitos, etc. - Predation (+/-): predator kills and consumes all or most of another organisms (prey) - Example: lions, sharks, etc. - Defense From Consumption - Prey evolve defenses to counter predators - Two basic types of defenses - Constitutive: always presented - Inducible: produced by response to predators - Example: camouflage (constitutive), schooling: safety in numbers, weaponry (constitutive) - Aposematism: warning coloration that advertise defense BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic - Mimicry: constitutive defenses have led to 2 types of mimicry - Mullerian mimicry: species with similar defenses resemble each other - Batesian mimicry: species without defense resemble those with defense - Inducible Defense - Variable responses - Triggered by presence of predator - Defense represents a fitness cost - Inducible defense minimize fitness cost Top Down vs Bottom Up Control of Predator/Prey Interactions - Predator/prey populations undergo cycles - What controls these cycles? - Bottom up: amount of prey regulates predatory abundance - Top down: predator control prey abundance - Example: hare vs. lynx population Mutualistic Interactions (+/+) - Definition: both organisms benefit - Not cooperative or altruistic - May change to consumptive/competition relationship - Example: Ant-Tree Interaction - Acacia tree: provide home to ants, sometimes food - Ant: defend tree from grazers - Plant with ant have better survival rate Commensalisms (0/+): definition of, examples of - Definition: one species gains in fitness; other species unaffected - Example: remoras and large fish/whale (remoras get protection, food scraps, free ride) Indirect interactions: definition of, trophic cascade, keystone spp. (examples) Yellowstone wolves, fish/ponds, seastarts/mussels, otters/kelp forests - Definition: two species that do not interact exert influence on each other - Influence is indirect - Trophic cascade: consequence of interaction with another species - Keystone species: species with effects on communities that are disproportionate to their biomass - tend to be top level predators - Yellowstone Wolves - Wolves remove in 1925, restore in 1995 - Elk culled until 1968 – afterward population grows rapidly - Aspens grazed by elk increase in absence of wolves, no new recruits until wolves return - Effects habitats and other species population Cause of spp diversity: global patterns of spp diversity, productivity hypothesis, area hypothesis, intermediate disturbance hypothesis - Species diversity: key feature of community; measured in two ways - Species richness = total # of species - Species diversity = weighted measure that include both species number and abundance - Global Pattern of Spp Diversity - Many terrestrial ecosystems show pattern of decreasing diversity with latitude - No such distinct global patterns in marine ecosystems - Productivity Hypothesis - High productivity supports more species BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic - Supported by natural patterns - Contradicted by experimental studies - Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis - Frequent disturbance = few species - r selected species dominate - Rare disturbance = few species - K selected species dominate - Intermediate disturbance = highest species number - Mix of K and r selected species - Area Hypothesis - Large areas support more species - Tropic only area with adjacent N/S hemisphere regions - More area = more species - Supported by experimental/observational studies Island Biogeography - Study of spatially isolated communities - True island - Chunk of terrestrial habitat surrounded by water - Have distinct species/area relationships w/ steeper slopes than comparable mainland Equilibrium theory: extinction & colonization rates, effects of island size and isolation -Equilibrium theory: dynamic equilibrium between… - Rate of colonization - Rate of extinction - S = species number; as S increases: - Rate of new species colonization decrease - Rate of extinction increase - Result: smaller islands had few species View of community dynamics: Clements vs Gleason - Frederick Clements - Saw communities as superorganisms - Species worked cooperatively - Henry Gleason - Community = collection of individual species with unique physiological tolerance - Individualistic view of community dynamics Succession: definition of, primary vs secondary succession - Succession: recovery of a community after disturbance - Primary succession: all species and soil/propagulas removed - Examples: glacier, lava flow - Secondary succession: some or all species removed, but soil/propagulas left intact - Examples: fire, strong storms Early vs late vs climax successional communities - Early successional community - Pioneer species (high dispersal, fast growing, short lived) - Late successional community - Long lived, slow growing, superior competitors - Climax community: stable persistent community BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic Species interactions during succession: facilitation, inhibition, tolerance - Facilitation: one species make conditions more tolerable for another - Inhibition: one species prevent the establishment of another - Tolerance: existing species do not influence the arrival of a new species Modern synthesis of successional dynamics: - Outcome of succession depends on 3 components: - 1) Species traits: who can live there? - 2) Successional interactions: who does what to whom? - 3) Environmental history/context: What happened before or next door? Ecosystems, definition of, four basic components of, flow of energy vs matter in. - Ecosystems: all species within an area - Abiotic components - = groups of community + chemical and physical environment - Characterized by flow of energy and matter - 4 Basic Components - Abiotic environment - Producers - Consumers - Decomposers - Energy vs. Matter - Matter cycles in ecosystems - Energy flows through ecosystems Tropic levels: autotrophs vs heterotrophs, consumers vs decomposers, primary producers, primary vs secondary vs tertiary etc consumers, apex predators - Tropic level: strata of a food chain - Autotrophs (“self-feeders”) - Able to produce their own food - Fix carbon (inorganic to organic) - Most (not all) photosynthesize - Most energy goes to respiration - Less becomes biomass - Heterotrophs (consumers) - Eat other organisms - Include herbivores, predators and parasites - Decomposers - Consume non-living organic material - Play key role in recycling matter - Primary Producers - Photosynthetic/chemosynthetic organism that produces glucose by synthesizing complex or organic molecules - Example: plants - Apex Predators - Is a predator that has virtually no predators of its own, residing at the top of its food chain/web - Example: polar bears, lions, etc. Food chains vs food webs, grazing vs decomposing food webs, energy transfer (production efficiency vs trophic transfer efficiency) - Food chain: 1 possible path of energy flow in an ecosystem - Food web: all possible path of energy flow in an ecosystem BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic - Grazing Food Web - Energy flow: primary producer > herbivore > carnivore - Herbivore: primary consumer - Carnivore: secondary, tertiary, quaternary consumer - Decomposing Food Web - Energy flow: dead organism/waste > primary consumer (=detritivore) > secondary consumers - Production Efficiency - Measure of how much energy ingested becomes biomass - % of assimilated material that becomes new material - (NPP / biomass assimilated) x 100 - Varies greatly between taxa - Tropic Transfer (Ecological) Efficiency - Measure of how efficient energy transfer is between tropic levels - Typically around 10% Eltonian Pyramids (abundance, vs biomass, vs production), concept of ecologically sustainable pyramid - Definition: depict flow of matter/energy through food chain - Graphic representation of tropic transfer efficiency - Pyramid can be constructed by: - Abundance - Biomass - Energy production per unit area/volume Regulation of Productivity in Ecosystems - Net Primary Productivity (NPP) = amount of biomass available for grazers/decomposers - NPP varies between ecosystems - NPP due to photosynthesis in most ecosystems - 4 things needed for photosynthesis - Sunlight - Temperature - Water - Nutrients Important Factors in Terrestrial vs Aquatic Ecosystems: relative role of temp, water, light, and nutrients - Terrestrial Ecosystems - Main regulatory factors - Temperature - Water - Soil acts to retain nutrients - Aquatic Ecosystems - Main regulatory factors - Light - Nutrients - Nutrients are going to sink out of the system Biogeochemical Cycles, definition of, factors affecting - Definition: the pathways by which matter circulates through ecosystems that involve both living/non-living components - Energy flows 1-way in ecosystems - Matter cycles in ecosystems - Includes C, H, N, O, P, S - Biogeochemical - bio = biotic BIO20C – Final Study Guide Baldo Marinovic - geo = geologic - chemical = free matter (air, water, soil) Cycle can be local (e.g. nutrients) and global (e.g. H O) 2 - Factors Affecting Biogeochemical Cycles - Type & size of reserves - Rate of movement between reserves - Interaction between different cycles - 4 Major Types - Water Cycle - Nutrient Cycle - Carbon Cycle - Phosphorous Cycle Nutrient Cycle - Nutrients = N, P and vitamins/trace metals - Cycle between living tissue and inorganic forms - Often regenerated by decomposers - Cycle different in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems Global Cycles - Broad in scale - Involve exchange between atmosphere and rest of ecosystem - Exception phosphorous - Unite ecosystems into giant, interconnected biosphere
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