Final studyguide J 201
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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Journalism and Mass Communications
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sonia Brosnan on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to J 201 at University of Oregon taught by Workneh T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 309 views. For similar materials see Media and Society >2 in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
Dr. Tiffany Gallicano J201: Media & Society Fall 2015 J201: Exam Two Topics Week Six Monday, Nov. 2: Media Research, Research in the News, and Media Theories Chapter 16: “Social Scientific and Cultural Approaches to Media Research” 1. Why aren’t typical call-in and online polls by the media credible? Don’t use a random sample of the population They aren’t representative of the population as a whole 2. What is the hypodermic-needle model? Do most researchers seem to think it is credible? Media influences unsuspecting audiences (people who let their guard down) Researchers do not think the model is credible 3. What is the name of the model that argues that the mass media have limited effects on audiences? Limited effects model 4. What is selective exposure? Exposing yourself to sources you already agree with 5. What is selective retention? Not likely to remember information you don’t previously agree with 6. What does the uses and gratifications model argue? We use the media to satisfy our emotional and intellectual needs 7. Experiments generally work well to substantiate what? Cause and effect hypotheses 8. A weakness of even carefully controlled experiments is what? Conducted in the unnatural environment of a lab Ex: Asch study 1 9. True or false: With a well-designed and implemented survey, a researcher can generalize his or her findings within a small margin of error. True 10. What are the drawbacks of surveys? Only show correlations, not cause and effect behavior 11. What is the agenda setting theory? The media doesn’t influence our beliefs, but they do tell us what topics we should be thinking about (doesn’t tell us what to think, but what to think about) 12. What is the cultivation effect theory? Heavy TV watching leads people who don’t have a lot of experience with something to see reality in ways that are consistent with the portrayals they see on TV Ex: Don’t know much about Washington or the gov’t but believe it is like what you see in House of Cards 13. What does the spiral of silence theory propose? The media can create the impression that most people think a certain way; due to a fear of isolation, people are likely to keep their views to themselves when they believe that they think differently from others (remain silent) Class Topics from Nov. 2 Note: Some of the slides tie in with the book objectives. I’ve avoided repeating questions in this section that are already in the book section. I suggest referring to the slides that tie in with the book objectives though to make the content more meaningful. 14. Be prepared to critique the reporting of research in the media based on the critiques we discussed in class. 15. What are the strengths and weaknesses of interviews and focus groups? Strengths: Focus groups and interview participants respond to open ended questions, so they are not forced to choose from answer options that could be poorly defined Open ended questions can result in rich, insightful responses Weaknesses: Focus group and interview research is not generalizable. Quantitative research needs to be done before the results can be generalized 2 People could limit their discussion of sensitive topics due to the presence of the interviewer or other focus group members 16. Be prepared to identify what method a study should use based on how it’s reported in the media. Wednesday, Nov. 4: Media Economics Catch-Up and Propaganda The questions from the reading will not be on the exam. Class Topics from Nov. 4: Media Economics 17. Why is the media known as the fourth estate? Because it is a check on the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government 18. Who is known as the fifth estate and why are they known as this? Citizen journalists because they monitor journalists and raise standards (I’m watching you New York Times) 19. Be familiar with the Rathergate scandal. Dan Rather used falsified documents to discredit President George Bush military records Social media users pointed out that the font could not have been created on a typewriter Example of social media as a fifth estate 20. Be familiar with the Brian Williams story. Brian Williams, NBC anchor, made up stories about his reporting past Didn’t come to light until people on social media pointed out his exaggerations and exposed him Class Topics from Nov. 4: Native Advertising 21. What is native advertising? Be prepared to identify examples. Advertisements that blend with their surroundings rather than interrupting the flow (subtle) Ex: articles on news sites, funny videos, GIFs on humor sites, sponsored tweets, Facebook quizzes 22. Is there a legal requirement for clear labeling of native advertisements? Yes 3 23. According to recent research, disclosure of native advertising is most clearly communicated in which location of the article? Middle and bottom of the article Class Topics from Nov. 4: Propaganda 24. In the broadest sense, what is propaganda? Communication that persuades people to support a cause through one- sided information 25. What is the first step toward justifying violence against a group in war propaganda? Dehumanizing them Week Seven Monday, Nov. 2: Exam One – No Material Presented Today Wednesday, Nov. 11: Media Law and Freedom of Expression Chapter 14: “Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression.” 26. What is the authoritarian model? Gov’t criticism and public dissent are not tolerated, censorship is frequent, and the gov’t controls publishers through whether it grants a legal license to publish 27. How does the state/communist model differ from the authoritarian model? Communist model – the state owns the press (some gov’t criticism is tolerated) 28. What is the social responsibility model? Freedom of press with few restrictions, goal of improving society through the exchange of ideas and coverage of social groups 29. Which model captures the ideals of mainstream journalism in the United States? Social responsibility model 30. What is the libertarian model? Supports the highest degree of individual and press freedoms (anything goes) 31. What does a copyright protect? 4 Published and unpublished: writing, music, lyrics, choreography, movies, TV programs, graphic designs 32. Does a work need to be published before it receives copyright protection? No 33. What is the difference between libel and slander? Slander – spoken Libel – printed/broadcasted 34. What do private citizens need to prove in a libel case? Public statement was false Damages or injury occurred The publisher/broadcaster was negligent in failing to determine the truthfulness of the statement 35. What additional criterion does a libel case need if the person ridiculed is a public figure? Also define the additional criterion. Actual malice – the reporter/editor knew the statement was false and printed/broadcasted it anyway 36. Can someone have a good libel case about an opinion that was expressed, rather than a factual misstatement? No Class Topics 37. Be familiar with the story about the Parents Music Resource Center. 38. What is third person effect? People tend to perceive the media as having a greater influence on others than it has on themselves Ex: “I’m not worried it’ll affect me but I’m worried it will affect my children” 39. Explain the minimal effects model. A small minority are vulnerable to strong media effects Ex: ISIS – some people may think joining is a good idea 40. Be familiar with the Danish cartoons controversy and its application to the media models. 5 US reporters were socially responsible in covering the story without reprinting the cartoons that were disrespectful to a certain religion Example of social responsibility model Week Eight Monday, Nov. 16: Media Law and Fair Use There were no book objectives for today because the media interview assignment was due. Class Topics 41. Be familiar with the Charlie Hebdo story. French publication that would frequently criticize public figures through cartoons (exhibiting the right of freedom of press) Gunman killed the editor and 10 others at the magazine 42. How has copyright law evolved? By extending the length of time that products are copyrighted 43. Are there situations where you can use other people’s creations without permission and without paying? Yes – fair use 44. List and explain the four tests of fair use. 1) Purpose (not trying to make money, teach, news coverage, parody, critique) and character (including whether the work is transformative or derivative) 2) The nature of the copyrighted work (such as whether the work is fiction or based on fact) 3) The amount and sustainability of the portion taken (how much of the song/photo is used?) 4) Market effect (did you undermine the owner’s potential to make money from his or her work or does the use actually add value to the owner’s original?) 45. Do you have more leeway to borrow from factual works or fictional works? Much more leeway with a factual event than a creative work 46. Distinguish between derivative and transformative use. Transformative use occurs when someone has substantially added new expression or meaning to a copyrighted work (bring something of your own to it – commentary) 6 Wednesday, Nov. 18: Books and Newspapers – Jenny Guest Lecture Chapter three: “Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism” 47. Which female reporter’s work from the New York World helped inspire investigative journalism? (Use the name that this person used for publishing.) Nellie Bly 48. What did this female reporter do that helped inspire investigative journalism? Went undercover as a person with a mental illness to uncover the abuse and terrible treatment that people received in asylums. 49. True or false: In colonial America, John Peter Zenger was arrested for seditious libel when one of his writers defamed a public official’s character in print. Zenger won the case, which helped lay a foundation for the right of a democratic press and citizens to criticize public officials. True 50. Penny papers tended to favor what kind of stories? Human interest stories 51. Before newspapers made money by selling space for advertisements, what was their primary source of funding? What was the result of this source of funding? Primary source of funding – political parties Due to who owned newspapers, the content emphasized overt political views 52. Yellow journalism arose in the late _ _ 00s. 1800s 53. What was the forerunner of today’s tabloid papers, reality TV and newsmagazine shows? The era of yellow journalism 54. What are the two major characteristics of yellow journalism? 1) News reports exposing corruption, particularly in business and government, which provided a foundation for investigative journalism 2) Overly dramatic – or sensational – stories about crimes, celebrities, disasters, scandals, and intrigue 7 55. What were the names of the two media barrens who dominated the newspaper industry in New York during the era of yellow journalism? William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer 56. What is the inverted pyramid style of journalism? (Use the glossary definition.) News reports begin with the most dramatic or newsworthy information at the start of the story and then trail off with less significant details 57. Concerns about what helped trigger the rise of interpretive journalism? Concerns about how the American people were amazed hen WW1 broke out because the drab reporting gave them no insight/predictions about the scene (Objectivity to an extreme) 58. What is interpretive journalism? (Use the glossary definition.) A type of journalism that involves analyzing and explaining key issues or events and placing them in a broader historical or social context Class Topics 59. The commercial press during the colonial period is similar to which section of contemporary newspapers? Business section 60. The focus of the Penny Press is similar to what section of contemporary newspapers? Lifestyle section 61. Who championed interpretive journalism and what were this person’s beliefs? Walter Lippman – “Democracy is much too important to be left to public opinion” Citizens are irrational; they make up their minds too quickly Journalists need to not only present facts but also analyze them and tell people what to do 62. What was the name of the largest, most significant library of the ancient world? What happened to it? The Alexandria Library – burnt down 8 63. How does Google benefit from its book scanning project? It can improve its search and advertising services based on the book excerpts that people read. Week Nine Monday, Nov. 23: Magazines and Advertising Chapter 11: “Advertising and Commercial Culture” 64. What does FTC stand for? Federal Trade Commission 65. Why did the government establish the FTC? To help monitor advertising abuses 66. What is a boutique agency? (Use the glossary definition. By the way, public relations has boutique agencies as well – this is not limited to advertising.) A small agency that offers personalized services 67. What is a storyboard? (Use the glossary definition. By the way, the public relations and film industries use storyboards, as well.) In advertising, a blueprint or roughly drawn comic-strip version of a proposed advertisement 68. True or false: The FTC usually permits a certain amount of puffery (ads featuring hyperbole). True 69. The FTC defines ads as deceptive when they are likely to mislead reasonable consumers through ________________________________________________________________. Statements made, images shown, or omission of certain information. Class Topics 70. True or false: Libel cases in the United States are easy to win when a public statement was made that was false. False 71. Which tend to be larger – damage awards from winning a libel lawsuit or lawyers’ fees for a libel lawsuit? 9 Lawyers’ fees often cost more 72. Be familiar with the Jerry Falwell parody advertisement lawsuit. Hustler magazine printed a fake interview, criticizing Jerry Falwell Falwell sued but Hustler magazine won because no one would really truly believe that the ad was real (not a lot of credibility) 73. How are private citizens treated if they have invited attention and reactions through what they do? Become a limited-purpose public figure 74. What are examples of limited-purpose public figures? An activist who drew attention for a cause A physician who sought media attention for her technique A star witness who sought media attention An engineer who promoted government construction projects 75. What is a limited-purpose public figure and how is this type of person treated for libel cases? People who are well known in the context of a particular issue and invite attention (talk to the media) 76. Why was George Zimmerman’s libel case against NBC dismissed? Zimmerman was treated as a limited-purpose public figure (actual malice applies) “This person looks like he’s up to no good. This person’s black.” He couldn’t prove NBC was out to get him 77. Why were muckraking magazines significant and which magazine did we focus on in our case study? Cosmopolitan – played a major role in reform for child labor laws anti- trust acts and food and drug labeling 78. Why do media channels glorify difficult beauty standards? Attract advertising dollars 79. What is hegemony and how does the concept of beauty standards apply to it? Hegemony occurs when society’s least powerful members adopt the values of the most powerful members Striving for unrealistic beauty standards and believing those standards to be natural and legitimate is an example of hegemony 10 80. Are beauty standards with regard to skin color and weight socially constructed? How do we know this? Yes, but standards are changing - the only constant is whatever is most expensive/difficult to achieve is popular Ex: Popular to be tan (US) – pay for tanning, popular to be whiter (India) – pay for skin bleaching Wednesday, Nov. 25: Canceled for Thanksgiving Week 10 Monday, Nov. 30: Radio and Television Chapter eight: “Television, Cable, and Specialization in Visual Culture” 81. By the mid-_ _ _ _s, TV had become a mass medium. 1950s 82. How did television networks gain control over programming content from corporate sponsors? Lengthening program showing times (15 mins – 30 mins) single company couldn’t afford to sponsor the whole show Magazine format Television spectacular 83. Leasing TV stations the exclusive right to air older TV series is a critical source of revenue for broadcast networks and cable companies. This practice is known as s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n. Syndication 84. What is first-run syndication? First run (not reruns), up to whoever wants to pay the highest price Class Topics 85. Why was radio an attractive medium to U.S. presidents during the golden age of radio? Radio enabled presidents to: Reach an unprecedented number of people simultaneously Talk directly with a large number of people for a substantial length of time without being edited by journalists 86. What were fireside chats and who delivered them? FDR – told the public what he was doing and why 11 Tried to connect with people with understandable words Addressed listeners as “friends” Discussed the economy and war Dispelled rumors Asked the public for support 87. What was the golden age of radio? A period of radio programming in the US between the time it became widely adopted by the public (early 20s) until television became the preferred medium for scripted programming (1950s) 88. Following the golden age of radio, what did radio stations focus on? Radio focused on playing popular music and let television take over scripted programming. 89. Radio in the United States today tends to be… A set of functionalities (weather, traffic news, sports) Politically polarized space for liberal and conservative talk 90. In transitional countries, which medium is the fastest and cheapest means of getting information to people? Radio 91. What is a recent parallel between old radio and television sponsorship and online TV show sponsorship? Seeing single sponsorship again 92. How did the original Star Trek series reflect society? Explored contemporary problems, such as racial divisions and challenges with international relations through allegories Klingons represented ruthlessness and brutality Stood in for allegories about Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union 93. What are some of the ways in which the original Star Trek series influenced society? Modeled racial and ethnic equality through its racially and ethnically diverse crew at a time when there were few non-white or foreign roles in American TV dramas Featured first interracial kiss First space shuttle called the Enterprise after Star Trek fans wrote in Inspired people to pursue careers as astronauts 94. Martin Luther King encouraged Nichelle Nichols to remain on what American television show? Star Trek 12 Wednesday, Dec. 2: Movies Chapter seven: “Movies and the Impact of Images” 95. When did the first theatres begin to flourish in the United States? Early 1900s 96. What did studios do to earn revenue from first-run theatres beginning in 1914? To attract the middle and upper class, major studios built movie palaces: full-time single-screen theatres that provided a more enjoyable and comfortable movie-viewing environment 97. What are talkies? Movies with sound 98. When televisions became a household item, how did the content of movies change in attempt to compete with television? They shifted movie content toward more serious themes (e.g., alcoholism, racism, sexuality) 99. Which source accounts for more revenue: (1) box-office receipts or (2) movie rentals, streaming and movie sales? Movie rentals, streaming and movie sales Class Topics 100. Who is the scholar who documented the power of myth and traced the hero myth throughout storytelling? Joseph Campbell 101. Be prepared to identify elements of the hero’s journey. I’ll ask this question on the test by asking you to identify which element in a list is not part of the hero’s journey. 1. Introduction to the hero's ordinary world 2. Call to adventure 3. Refusal of the call to adventure 4. Meeting with the mentor 5. Hero leaves ordinary world to enter a new world with unfamiliar rules or values 6. The hero encounters tests, allies, and enemies 7. Innermost cave 13 8. The hero endures the supreme or ordeal 9. The hero seizes the sword or reward 10. The road back and a final wrinkle in the plans 11. The resurrection 12. Return with the elixir 14
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