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GSU / Political Science / POLS 1101 / What are the forces behind political participation?

What are the forces behind political participation?

What are the forces behind political participation?

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School: Georgia State University
Department: Political Science
Course: American Government
Professor: Glas
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Final Study Guide
Description: The final study guide is up!
Uploaded: 12/06/2015
12 Pages 74 Views 9 Unlocks
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Theron Wuckert (Rating: )

Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this...



FINAL STUDY GUIDE


What are the forces behind political participation?



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Understand these Political words, expressions, and concepts

CHAPTER 7: VOTING AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION 

Political Participation and Party Identification 

❖ Party Identification: Is loyalty to a political party. Party identification is typically determined by the  political party that an individual most commonly supports (by voting or other means). Don't forget about the age old question of What did karl marx contribute in the society?

❖ Political participation: Simple refers to any kind of action that is aimed at changing or supporting  government policy or officials. Political participation is essential in a democracy.  

Examples: Vote in an election, sign a petition, participate in an interest-group activity, sending an email to a  government official.  


What is conventional participation?



Political participation can be  

⮚ Direct—They are involved in policymaking.

⮚ Indirect—By electing representatives who act on their behalf.  

Forces behind Political Participation  

⮚ Resources  

⮚ Interest

⮚ Motivation Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 6 particularly important intermediates & their functions?

 Demographics behind Political Participation  

⮚ Education- People with more education participate more than those with less education ⮚ Age-Young people are more likely than older people to engage in unconventional forms of  participation, but they are less likely to engage in conventional forms of participation, including  voting.  We also discuss several other topics like What is the geography of food production?

Conventional Participation and Unconventional Participation 


What does voter fatigue mean?



Political participation in the modern world comes in many forms, and some actions are more conventional than  other. We also discuss several other topics like What is glycolipids?

❖ Conventional Participation: Culturally acceptable political activity that communicate preferences  through established institutions.  

Ex. Contacting elected officials, working on election campaigns, associating with political parties or interest  groups, and signing petitions, Voting, for instance, represents a form of conventional participation in that is  established by the Constitution and accepted by the mainstream culture.  

*Socioeconomic status is a good predictor of the likelihood that an individual will engage in conventional  political participation. People with more education, higher incomes, and white-collar jobs are more likely to  participate politically than people of a lower socioeconomic status. We also discuss several other topics like Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

❖ Unconventional Participation: Political activity that takes place outside of established institutions and  challenges cultural norms. This can threaten stability in a democratic system.  

Ex. Participation in demonstrations, protests, strikes, boycotts, or sit-ins (non-violent forms of protest in which  an individual or group occupies a public or private area).

*Unconventional activities are typically used by marginalized groups that have been denied access to  institionalized modes of participation, but they are also used by groups seeking to attract awareness to their  cause.  Don't forget about the age old question of Who divided the roman empire in half into the western and eastern empires?

Voting, The Franchise, Retrospective Voting and Prospective Voting 

❖ Franchise is the right to vote.

o The 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution gave women the Franchise. o The ratification of the 26th amendment expanded the franchise to citizens aged 18, 19, and 20,  who are members of the group least likely to participate in elections: 18-to 24- years-old.

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❖ Voting is the most basic and, usually, the least costly form of political participation in democratic  countries.

Voting is influenced by

⮚ Partisan loyalty

Partisan identification frequently manifests itself through strong loyalty towards candidates, and  it can serve as a useful shortcut when it comes to voting. Even though party loyalty can have a  profound impact on voters’ decisions, partisanship has declined over the last 60 years.  ⮚ Policy issues

If campaigns are ambiguous on issues, then voters have difficulty making these evaluations. This  difficulty can be compounded when candidates agree on general policy goals.  

When candidates provide detailed information about their policy objectives, they help voters to  realize the ideological differences between election rivals., but such detailed information can also  unveil the complexities of policy issues and leave voters confused.  

⮚ Candidate characteristics  

The predominant attributes that voters consider are the candidate’s race, ethnicity, religion,  gender, and background.  

*Voters are largely drawn to candidates who share their own demographic profile.  

⮚ Other Factors

Citizens consider whether they are better off financially than they were a few years ago.  Voters will make decisions based on the candidate’s past record on a particular policy or on the  candidate’s promise to deliver results on that policy issue in the future.  

▪ Prospective Voting: Basing voting decisions on forecasts of candidate’s future political  behavior.  

▪ Retrospective Voting: Basing voting decisions on the candidate’s experience or past  performance.  

❖ Balancing the ticket: Presidential campaigns strategically select running mates who can attract voters  from different geographic regions or racial groups. (This phenomenon is readily apparent during the  vetting process of any potential vice-presidential running mate of either party.  

❖ One off the best predictors of presidential election outcomes is the Consumer Confidence Index  (CCI).

o A score over 100 represents confidence in the economy.  

o A score under 100 represents low confidence in the economy.  

Voter Turnout and Voter Fatigue 

❖ Voter Turnout: A statistical representing the number of voters who cast a ballot in a given election.  1) Voter turnout has generally declined since 1960s.

2) Voter turnout in the U.S. remains lower than in other industrialized countries.  

Factors for the declining turnout:

1) The growing mobility of the American electorate.

2) The loss of social capital (the degree of civic connectedness within a political community). 3) The way the new media are being used by campaigns to reach voters.  

4) Democratic differences in political participation.  

5) Generational effects.  

❖ Voter Fatigue: A phenomenon that occurs when voters lose interest in politics as a result of being asked  to vote too frequently and on too many different issues.  

CHAPTER 5: PUBLIC OPINION

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Public Opinion Polls 

❖ Public opinion poll: interviews of surveys with the sample of citizens that are used to estimate the  feelings and beliefs of the entire population. Individuals can reach decisions and form opinions based on  their existing political values (the basic principles that people hold about the government.  

❖ Political values are formed through the process of political socialization/Party Identification (the  process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values), which beings early in life  and continues through young adulthood.

o Primacy Principle: What is learned first tends to leave a strong and lasting impression that  remains with a person throughout life.  

o Structuring Principle: Early learning tends to provide the basic structure for later learning.  ❖ A coherent set of beliefs about the role of government is political ideology.

❖ Liberals tend to favor more government intervention in the economy and society.

❖ Conservatives tend to favor smaller role for government.  

*It is possible that an individual might hold liberal positions on social issues, but conservative positions  on economic issues (or vice-versa).  

❖ Gender Gap: The difference in party identification between men and women, with men being more  likely to identify with the Republican Party and women being more likely to identify with the  Democratic Party.

Scientific Poll and Margin of Error 

❖ Random Sampling: A method of selecting survey participants in which each member of the population  has an equal chance of being selected. (The first principle of scientific public opinion polling). ❖ Margin of Error: A statistic related to the sample size of a survey that suggests the numerical degree to  which the survey results may or may not reflect the opinions of the broader public. An exit poll that  reports a margin of error of +/- 3 suggests that the actual vote percentage for the projected winner could  be 3 percentage points higher or 3 percentage points lower than the poll’s prediction.  

*The bigger the sample size, the smaller the margin of error.  

*The only way to achieve a margin of error of zero is to get a response from every member of the  population.  

❖ Exit polls: polls conducted as voters leave selected polling places on election day

❖ Straw Poll: An informal poll that does not employ scientific methods like random samplings.  Eg. Literary Digest (1936)

❖ Honeymoon Period: The first several months of a new presidential administration, during which the  newly elected president faces little public criticism.  

CHAPTER 8: ELECTIONS AND CAMPAIGNS 

❖ American elections encourage citizens to feel that the government has political legitimacy (The view of  citizens that their government has the lawful authority to govern.)

❖ General Elections: A national election held every two years as required by the constitution, and by law  it is held in November of every even-numbered year.  

❖ Presidential Elections: General elections in which the president and vice-president are selected take  place every four years.  

❖ Congressional Elections/Midterm Elections/Off-Year Elections: General elections held every two  years between presidential elections, they involve diverse constituencies in districts and states across the  country.  

o The first step for congressional candidate pursuing a seat in the House or the Senate is to qualify  for the state ballot, which can be accomplished by either winning the nomination of party or  gathering enough signatures on a petition to run independent of a party.

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o The second step for a congressional candidate is to win the general election.  

❖ Plurality voting: The house or senate candidate who receives the most votes wins the election.  ❖ Primary Elections: An election conducted within a political party to select its candidates for the general  election.  

*Iowa still uses a Caucus System (A local meeting of party members in which the party’s nominee is  selected).

Incumbents 

❖ Incumbents: Members od Congress running for reelections.  

❖ Incumbency Advantage: The electoral edge enjoyed by members of Congress running for reelection,  which derives from their legislative experience, communication with constituents, and resources from  previous campaigns and campaign networks.  

o Franking Privilege: The ability of members of congress to send official mail free of postal  charges. Franking privileges are restricted to mail sent only within the member’s district and  cannot be used for mass mailings in the 90 days prior to an election (This is gives the members  of the congress an opportunity to advertise their bill sponsorships, committee work, voting  record, and policy positions back home in the district).

o Casework: Services provided by members of Congress and their staff to assist constituents in  dealing with bureaucratic agencies.  

*Retirements create open-seat elections-The most competitive of all congressional races.  

Presidential Caucus and Presidential Primary 

❖ In order to be the president you need to first win the most delegates from around the country who  support your nomination as the party’s candidate. Then win a majority of electoral votes (the  presidential vote choices of electors who have been selected through the state popular vote to participate  in the electoral college) among the states.  

❖ Presidential primaries elections in which voters in a state vote for a candidate (or delegates pledged to  him or her). Most delegates to the national party conventions are chosen this way.

❖ Presidential Caucus: They are meetings in which party members publicly determine their preferred  nominee. They involve speeches, discussions, and even negotiations.  

National Conventions, Nominations, Delegates, Open Primary and Closed Primary ❖ National convention: A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state  conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice  president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.

❖ The nomination phase of presidential elections involves the selection of delegates from the Republican  and Democratic parties in each state to attend the national nominating conventions of each party.  ❖ The timing of these elections, the number of state delegates selected, and the influence of delegates at  conventions are determined by both the states and the national parties.

❖ Delegates can be selected in primary elections, by caucuses (sometimes referred to as conventions), or  through a combination of both.  

• Super-delegates: Party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national  convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses

❖ The majority of states use primary elections to nominate the candidates for each party, while about ten  states use caucuses and approximately five use a combination of both primaries and caucuses.  ❖ Primaries: They are elections in which voters indicate their choice for the party’s nominee by private  ballot.

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• Open Primary: One in which voters registered with a political party may choose the ballot of  wither party. In this system, a registered Republican may vote in the Democratic primary, and a  registered Democrat may vote in the Republican primary.  

• Closed Primary: voters can only vote on the ballot of the party with which they are registered;  for instance, a registered Democrat can only vote on the Democratic Party’s nominees.  ❖ Caucuses: They are meetings in which party members publicly determine their preferred nominee. They  involve speeches, discussions, and even negotiations.  

❖ Frontloading: The trend of states moving their primaries and caucuses earlier and earlier in the primary  season in order to have more influence over the outcome of the nomination process.  

*Super Tuesday: In the 2008 presidential election,21 states held their nominating elections on February  5th. Given the large number of primaries and caucuses taking place on the same day. This event is  known as “Super Tuesday.”

Electoral College 

The American Founders established the Electoral College to ensure that the president would be elected  indirectly (by the states) rather than directly (by the people).

⮚ Each state receives a number of electoral votes equivalent to its number of senators and representatives,  for a total of 538 electoral votes.  

⮚ The votes are apportioned the same way congressional districts are—every ten years by the Census. A  candidate needs 270 electoral votes to become president.

⮚ 23rd amendment—District of Columbia is allocated 3 electors and treated like a state for purposes of the  electoral college.  

⮚ 538 is the sum of the nation’s 435 Representatives, 100 senators, and 3 electors given to the District of  Columbia.

Senators + Representatives = Electors

*Article II, section 1 of the Constitution mentions electors that are to be responsible for selection the president  and vice president.  

Advantages:

1) It preserves the principle of federalism built into the Constitution by the Founders.  2) The use of the Electoral College also makes the election process easier from a technical perspective.  3) This system allows small states to exert influence over the presidential selection process.  Disadvantages:

1) A candidate can win the popular vote nationally and still lose the election.

2) It involves its inherent bias toward the two major parties (Republican and Democrat).  3) It concentrates campaign activity in battleground or swing states, which are those in which support for  the major candidates is evenly divided.  

*In a swing state, either candidate has a chance at winning the states’ electoral votes on election Day.  *In a safe state, on candidate has a wide margin of support over the other candidates.

Campaign Strategy 

❖ A campaign strategy is the overall approach used to convince citizens to vote for the candidate, while  campaign tactics are the specific procedures used to execute the strategy.  

There are three basic strategies that campaigns tend to use in some combination.  

1) A party-oriented strategy, in which a candidate relies on the party’s platform and record, as well as the  organization’s resources, to appeal to voters’ partisan identification.  

2) Issue-oriented strategy, which is directed at groups of Americans with strong preferences toward policy  on specific issues.

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3) Candidate-orientated strategy; a candidate using this strategy organizes the campaign efforts around his  or her personal characteristics, such as experience, leadership capacity, and integrity.  

*A party-centered strategy appears to be most useful when voters have less political knowledge and are more  likely to rely on party identification as a shortcut for making voting decisions (general elections).  *During the nomination process it is better to use Issue-oriented and Candidate-oriented strategies.  ❖ There are four parts to any campaign:

o The candidate

o The issues of the candidate

o The campaign organization

o The money to run the campaign with  

Hard Money and Soft Money 

❖ Hard Money: Donations given directly to a candidate for congressional office or the presidency. ❖ Soft Money: Unregulated donations to party organizations to cover their operational expenses.  Contributions to a state or local party for party-building purposes.

*Political Action Committees (PAC): Organizations established by individuals or private groups with  the aim of raising money to contribute to candidates for elective office. PAC’s are regulated by the  Federal Election Commission.  

CHAPTER 9: POLITICAL PARTIES 

Political Parties 

❖ Political party: An organized coalition of interests that seeks to influence government and policy by  getting members elected to public office and by coordinating the actions of elected officials. A political party consist of three separate components:

1) The party Organization

This refers to a set of structures at the national, state, and local levels. In this system power is  centralized under a national committee; the two largest are: Democratic National Committee  (DNC) and the Republican National Committee (RNC).  

• Party platform: the document or statement developed by a political party to include its official  positions on policy issues and the actions the party proposes to take (these policy goals can be  referred to as party programs).

Limitations:  

• The decentralized nature of the Democratic and Republican party organizations limits the power  of the national committee over the state and local committees.  

• Limited in it’s ability to force state and local committees to adopt its policy positions regarding  regional issues, which gives state and local committees quite a bit of power to establish their own  agendas.

• Limited in it’s power over candidates who run under its banner.  

• Limited today in the amount of influence that it has over citizens.  

2) The party in Government

This refers to the members of a party who have been elected to national, state, or local office.  The power of the party in government (congress in particular) appears to be increasing.  *Democrats call their working group Caucus, and the Republicans call theirs a Conference.  3) The party in the Electorate

This refers to all the citizens who feel an attachment to a political party and support the party.  • Party activists: Those who support a political party through campaign-related activities beyond  voting.

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Critical election and Electoral Realignment 

❖ A Critical Election is one in which groups of voters change their loyalty from on party to another. If  this dramatic change in party loyalty persists for several elections, it is known as Electoral  Realignment.

• The first Critical Election to shift power between the Democrats and Republicans was the  election of 1860, which divided the partisan loyalty of Northern and Southern states (the better  part of this period, is known as reconstruction).  

• The second critical election was marked by the Republican party, in 1896. Republican William  Mckinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan to the presidency. The progressive  reformers targeted two tools of political parties that they saw as facilitating corruption.  ▪ The first partisan tool: Patronage.  

▪ The second partisan tool: Political Machine

• The third critical election was marked by Democratic candidate Franklin Delano Roosevelt in  1932.  

Referendum, Initiative and Recall 

Progressives introduced avenues for increased popular participation in government (state and local levels)  through the initiative, referendum and recall.  

❖ Initiative: A means by which voters consider measures to change local ordinances, state statutes, or  constitutions.

❖ Referendum: A means for citizens to participate in policymaking by voting directly on a variety of  measures, including initiatives or recalls.

❖ Recall: A means for voters to remove an elected official before the expiration of the officeholder’s term. CHAPTER 13: INTEREST GROUPS 

Interest Groups 

❖ Interest groups in the U.S. are relatively small and typically organized around a discrete set of issues.  Differences between interest groups and political parties:

o While parties structure the institutions of government, such as the committee system in  Congress, interest groups petition government as outsiders.  

o While parties structure the electoral system through candidate recruitment, control over the  nomination process, and influence over the rules of the electoral game, interest groups work at  the grassroots level to educate voters, raise money, and increase awareness.

*Interest groups are political parties’ biggest fans.  

Types of Interest Groups:

o Private Interests: Those interests that benefit individuals or select groups without benefiting the  whole.

Eg. American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) o Public Interests: Those interests that benefit the whole as opposed to benefiting a select group of  private interests.

Eg. The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) and National Association for the  Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

o Another category of interest groups involves those representing governmental interests and  subnational interests.  

o 527 organizations: Interest groups organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code  may advertise for or against candidates. If their source of funding is corporations or unions, they

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have some restrictions on broadcast advertising. 527 organizations were important in recent  elections.

❖ Interest group entrepreneur: An individual who attempts to organize people with shared interests to  take collective action.

Lobbyists 

❖ Lobbying: Political activity that aims to influence government policymaking. Those who engage in  lobbying are known as lobbyists.

o Lobbying is one of the main tactics that interest groups use to pressure the government  concerning policy development.  

o The primary job of lobbyists is to provide current and meaningful information to government officials (they serve to educate lawmakers and staff on their issues).

o The common theme among these aspects of effective lobbying is that they try to forge  relationships with executive agencies and bureaucratic staff.  

CHAPTER 6: THE MEDIA 

New Media 

❖ New media: Sources of political information that are not a part of traditional print or broadcast media.  Primarily found in digital sources like the Internet, new media are characterized by their interactivity, or  the consumer’s role in defining and shaping the information.

Eg. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate in history to announce his vice presidential running man via text message.  

Free Media and Paid Media 

❖ Free media: Campaign coverage provided by the media outside of paid advertising. Though this  coverage is free for a campaign, the candidate loses control over the content, message, and image  conveyed to voters.

❖ Paid media: Campaign coverage purchased by a party, candidate, or interest group. Though paid  advertising is costly, the campaign maintains control over the content, message, and image conveyed to  voters.

Priming, Framing, Agenda Setting, and Persuasion (media) 

The four factors that media uses to influence people’s views on politics:  

❖ Priming: The process by which the media influence the way people think about an issue or event.  Through its presentation of information, the media shape how people consider issues and events and  interpret related information. This can also affect voting decisions.  

❖ Framing: The process by which media encourages viewers to interpret journalistic stories in a particular  way. Media can frame stories for the public using selective presentation of facts or specific descriptive  language.

❖ Agenda setting: The process of getting issues on the political agenda, or those issues to which the  public and decision-makers are paying attention and on which there is active political debate. ❖ Persuasion: The three factors that determine the likelihood of persuasion are  

o Source Characteristics (credibility)

o Message Characteristics: If the message conforms to the individuals’ existing political  predispositions, they are more likely to be persuaded by it.  

o Audience Characteristics: The audience should be able to accept it as their own.

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Watchdogs, Investigative Journalism, and Watergate 

❖ Investigative journalism: in-depth reporting to nearth scandals; making media enemies of politicians ❖ Watchdogs: Groups that monitor government activity and educate the public on various aspects of the  political process, including candidate compliance with campaign finance laws, policy proposals and  legislative voting behavior, and bureaucratic implementation of public policy (1973-1991). ❖ Watergate: The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee  headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual  resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.

Actual Malice Standard 

❖ The standard established by the Supreme Court in New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) for libel cases.  The standard requires public figures who sue press outlets for defamation of character to prove that the  news source intended “actual malice.” In this context, the Court suggested that malice refers to  knowledge of falsity and reckless disregard for the truth.

Incorporation Doctrine 

❖ The legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of  its provisions applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment.

Balancing the Ticket 

❖ When a presidential nominee chooses a vice presidential running mate who has different qualities in  order to attract more votes for the ticket

The Patronage System 

Spoils System/Patronage System (1828)

The expansion of the federal government during the election of president Andrew Jackson was due to the spoils system.  This describes an informal practice in which a political party would awards government positions to its supporters in  exchange for their continued support. They were to act as political machines.  

* Political machine – a party organization at the state or local level that sought

political influence by offering rewards, in the form of government jobs and services, to sympathetic voters and party  workers.

The Iron Triangle 

Iron Triangle:

Sometimes the issue network can develop into a powerful alliance between the three; Iron Triangle—a term  describing the coordination among congressional committees, bureaucratic agencies, and interest groups.

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Bill of Rights 

The first 10 amendments the the U.S. Constitution, which define such basic liberties as freedom of religion,  speech, and press and guarantee defendants' rights.

❖ First Amendment: Freedom of religion, speech, assembly, petition

❖ Second Amendment: Right to bear arms

❖ Third Amendment: No quartering of soldiers without consent of the house owner ❖ Fourth Amendment: Search and seizure

❖ Fifth Amendment: Grand juries, double jeopardy, self-incrimination, due process, eminent domain ❖ Sixth Amendment: Criminal court procedures (right to a speedy trial by an impartial jury of the State) ❖ Seventh Amendment: Trial by jury in common-law cases

❖ Eighth Amendment: No excessive bails/fines; no cruel and unusual punishment ❖ Ninth Amendment: Rights in the Constitution/BOR must be retained equally to all people ❖ Tenth Amendment: Rights not delegated in the Constitution or prohibited to the States are reserved to  the States

The 11th Amendment 

❖ Immunity of states from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state  borders. Lays the foundation for sovereign immunity. Passed: 7 February, 1795

The 12th Amendment 

❖ This establishes that elector will cast one vote for president and one vote for vice president. The Twelfth  Amendment to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice  President. It replaced Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, which provided the original procedure by which the  Electoral College functioned.

The 13th Amendment 

❖ Abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. Passed: 6 December,  1865

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The 14th Amendment 

Fourteenth Amendment Defines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process  Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post-Civil War issues. Passed: 9 June, 1868

❖ Fifteenth Amendment: Prohibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of  servitude. Passed: 3 February, 1870

❖ Sixteenth Amendment: Allows the federal government to collect income tax. Passed: 3 February,  1913

❖ Seventeenth Amendment: Establishes the direct election of United States Senators by popular vote. 8  April, 1913

❖ Eighteenth Amendment: Establishes prohibition of alcohol. Passed: 16 January 16, 1919 ❖ Nineteenth Amendment: Establishes women's suffrage. Passed: 18 August, 1920

❖ Twentieth Amendment: Fixes the dates of term commencements for Congress (January 3) and the  President (January 20); the "lame duck amendment." Passed: 23 January, 1933

❖ Twenty-First Amendment: Repeals the Eighteenth Amendment and prohibits violations of state laws  regarding alcohol. Passed: 5 December, 1933

❖ Twenty-Second Amendment: Limits the number of times that a person can be elected president. A  person cannot be elected president more than twice. Additionally, a person who has served more than  two years of a term to which someone else was elected cannot be elected more than once. Passed: 27  February, 1951

❖ Twenty-Third Amendment: Provides for representation of Washington, D.C., in the Electoral College.  Passed: 29 March, 1961

❖ Twenty-Fourth Amendment: Prohibits the revocation of voting rights due to the non-payment of poll  taxes. Passed: 23 January, 1964

❖ Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Defines the process of presidential succession. Passed: 10 February, 1967 ❖ Twenty-Sixth Amendment: Establishes the right to vote for those age 18 years or older. Passed: 1 July,  1971

❖ Twenty-Seventh Amendment: Prevents laws affecting Congressional salary from taking effect until  the beginning of the next session of Congress. Passed: 7 May, 1992

Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause 

❖ Due Process

Is a term given to the principal that all citizens are protected under the rule of law, and that the government has to  ensure the fair application of the law.

❖ Establishment Clause

The portion of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from establishing a state religion or favoring  one religion over another.

Great Society, the New Deal, and the Progressive Era 

The Progressive Era (1880-1920)

⮚ The period in the late 19th and early 20th centuries marked by a social movement calling for sweeping reforms  through increased/expanding government regulation.

⮚ The Progressive movement drew attention to the wealth disparity between the mostly immigrant labor class and  the capitalists exploiting them by requiring long working hours with little pay.

o Expansion of federal regulation of commerce and labor: The Meat Inspection Act, the Pure Food and  Drug Act

o Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883: Progressives sought to rid the bureaucratic system of  political kickbacks and rewards. (In place of the spoils system)

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▪ Required federal employees to be hired based on merit.

⮚ Some of the other Progressives’ priorities included prohibition of alcohol, extension of voting rights to women,  and limitations on government corruption.

⮚ It legitimized the role of the federal bureaucracy as chief regulator of behavior in the areas of commerce and  labor. This new role was made possible by increasing public demand for a stronger centralized government that  would address the conflicts and social crises of an expanding American population and the inadequacies of state  and local regulation.

The New Deal (1932-1940’s)

⮚ Collapse of the global market economy leads to rocketing unemployment and poverty rates. o This collapse exposed the inability of state, local, and private firms to coordinate their actions quickly in  response to widespread economic hardship. (1929)

⮚ Americans turned to Democratic presidential candidate Franklin Delano Roosevelt for help, electing him  president in 1932 in support of his New Deal platform.

o National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933: To stimulate economy, Roosevelt worked with Congress to  establish numerous employment and economic growth programs, which sponsored the implementation of  modern infrastructure.  

o The New Deal included several initiatives meant to regulate industry and workplace practices. Supporters  of the New Deal formed labor unions to represent the interests of specific sectors of the American  workforce.

o Securities Exchange Act of 1934: This created an independent agency to monitor and regulate the  vulnerable stock market.  

o Social Security Act of 1935: The first federally funded pension program targeting all working Americans.  ⮚ New Deal reforms helped to expand the range of policies that the federal government was responsible for  administering and overseeing. The reforms of the New Deal did more than just regulate specific industries; they  also provided social services and benefits directly to American citizens, and all of these services needed to be  administered by a growing federal bureaucracy

⮚ The size of the federal workforce increased considerably during the 1940s in order to implement the New Deal  reforms and to prepare the nation for mobilization in World War II.

The Great Society (1960s)

⮚ A series of federal government programs, promoted by President Lyndon Johnson in the 1960s, that aimed to end  poverty and racial injustice.  

⮚ The Johnson administration proposed new programs that constructed colleges and universities, provided loans and  grants to college students, and instituted job- training programs for individuals to build skills for the workplace. ⮚ Civil Rights Act of 1964—The government finally provided comprehensive federal protection against  discrimination in voting, employment, education, and access to public facilities and accommodations.  ⮚ The Great Society, while expanding the budget and scope of the federal government even further, sought to  improve the well-being of communities across the United States.

⮚ Voting Rights Act (1965)

⮚ Medicare is a federal program that provides health coverage if you are 65 or older or have a severe disability, no  matter your income.  

⮚ Medicaid is a state and federal program that provides health coverage if you have a very low income.

U.S. Speaker of the House 

Current speaker of the house:

Paul Ryan (Republican)—Ways and Means Chairman

Previous:

John Boehner—Representive of Ohio.  

⮚ Left Capitol Hill on October 30

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