J201ExamOneStudyGuide COMPLETED J201
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bayann Alkhatib on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to J201 at University of Oregon taught by Gallicano T in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
Dr. Tiffany Gallicano J201: Media & Society Fall 2015 J201: Exam Two Topics The exam will have 50-60 questions and will be entirely multiple choice. Study as if it is an open-ended test though, which will boost your performance. I suggest using flashcards to study for this exam. Make sure to bring a No. 2 pencil. The optional study session is on Saturday, Dec. 5, in PLC 180 from 12:30-3 p.m. This meeting will be a question and answer session. We will move week by week through the material based on your questions. This is a drop-in session; you can leave when you want. You can multi-task during the session; it is casual. Week Six Monday, Nov. 2: Media Research, Research in the News, and Media Theories Chapter 16: “Social Scientific and Cultural Approaches to Media Research” 1. Why aren’t typical call-in and online polls by the media credible? Not random sampling of population 2. What is the hypodermic-needle model? Do most researchers seem to think it is credible? The idea that suggests that the media “shoots” audiences powerfully, quickly and immediately with information in order to trigger a certain response. 3. What is the name of the model that argues that the mass media have limited effects on audiences? The minimal/limited effects model. 4. What is selective exposure? Individuals' tendency to favor information that reinforces their pre- existing views while avoiding contradictory information. 5. What is selective retention? Not remembering media information that disagrees with your point of view. For example, reading an article that does not support your point of view and forgetting about it afterwards. 6. What does the uses and gratifications model argue? 1 Individuals use certain media to satisfy specific needs 7. Experiments generally work well to substantiate what? Cause and Effect 8. A weakness of even carefully controlled experiments is what? Conducted in the unnatural environments of a lab environment. The Asch Experiment (only one participants who believed everyone else was a participant and he conformed to the wrong answer that he knew was wrong). 9. True or false: With a well-designed and implemented survey, a researcher can generalize his or her findings within a small margin of error. True: you can generalize in surveys 10. What are two drawbacks of surveys? A. You can’t show cause and effect relationships; can only show correlations between two variables. B. Only as good as the questions and answers presented; poor design can produce misleading results. 11. What is the agenda setting theory? Media doesn’t tell us what to think but rather what to think about. 12. What is the cultivation effect theory? States that the more time people spend 'living' in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on television 13. What does the spiral of silence theory propose? That if one’s opinion is unpopular, he/she will keep it to themselves. Class Topics from Nov. 2 Note: Some of the slides tie in with the book objectives. I’ve avoided repeating questions in this section that are already in the book section. I suggest referring to the slides that tie in with the book objectives though to make the content more meaningful. 14. Be prepared to critique the reporting of research in the media based on the critiques we discussed in class. The teacher will give a research. If it’s a survey, the reporter can generalize. It can use language such as “tied to.” If it’s focused group… you need to make sure that it is generalized within the 2 experiment and not the world population. 15. What are the strengths and weaknesses of interviews and focus groups? Weakness: Not generalizable, discussion can be limited by presence of interview. Strengths: You can obtain in depth high quality answers that can later be tested for generalization. 16. Be prepared to identify what method a study should use based on how it’s reported in the media. Can generalized to a survey, looking for words like “tied to, connected to, linked to,” any method that says one thing connects to another is only an experiment. If its focused groups or in depth interviews, you can’t generalize (headline needs to say that its most people tested in the experiment). IN TEST: IDENTIFY EXPERIMENT VS SURVEY. Wednesday, Nov. 4: Media Economics Catch-Up and Propaganda The questions from the reading will not be on the exam. Class Topics from Nov. 4: Media Economics 17. Why is the media known as the fourth estate? Because it is a heck on the executive, legislative and judicial branch of the government (the watchdog) 18. Who is known as the fifth estate and why are they known as this? Mainstream Media 19. Be familiar with the Rathergate scandal. Dan Rather used falsified documents to discredit George W bush’ military record however social media activists pointed out that it was typed in a fight that isn’t on a type writer and exposed the story. Social media plays role as a fifth estate and Media is the fourth estate. 20. Be familiar with the Brian Williams story. He was an NBC anchor who exaggerated claims and made up stories about his reporting past and what he has done. Thanks to social media, Williams got exposed and exposed his falsehoods. Class Topics from Nov. 4: Native Advertising 21. What is native advertising? Be prepared to identify examples. Advertising that’s meant to blend with their surroundings rather than interrupting the flow of the article 3 22. Is there a legal requirement for clear labeling of native advertisements? Yes there is. Recommendation at the top but it’s not required. 23. According to recent research, disclosure of native advertising is most clearly communicated in which location of the article? It is more effective in the middle and towards the end of an article. Class Topics from Nov. 4: Propaganda 24. In the broadest sense, what is propaganda? It is communication that persuades people to support a cause through one-sided information. 25. What is the first step toward justifying violence against a group in war propaganda? Dehumanizing them. Week Seven Monday, Nov. 2: Exam One – No Material Presented Today Wednesday, Nov. 11: Media Law and Freedom of Expression Chapter 14: “Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression.” 26. What is the authoritarian model? Government criticism with frequent censorship: government’s ability to revoke journalists’ license. 27. How does the state/communist model differ from the authoritarian model? State owns the press with SOME government criticism. 28. What is the social responsibility model? Freedom of press with few restrictions with the goal of improving society through exchange of ideas and coverage of social groups. 29. Which model captures the ideals of mainstream journalism in the United States? Social Responsibility Media Model 30. What is the libertarian model? 4 1 It supports highest degree of individual and press freedoms 31. What does a copyright protect? Choreography, Music, Lyrics, Writing, Graphic Designs, 32. Does a work need to be published before it receives copyright protection? No it doesn’t as long as it’s in a fixed tangible form. 33. What is the difference between libel and slander? Slander: spoken Libel: prints or broadcasted 34. What do private citizens need to prove in a libel case? Public statement was false, damages or injury occurred, publisher was negligent to back themselves up (citizens ONLY), actual malice meaning that the editor or reporter knew it was false information but broadcasted it anyways (public figures ONLY) 35. What additional criterion does a libel case need if the person ridiculed is a public figure? Also define the additional criterion. Actual Malice (additional criterion) 36. Can someone have a good libel case about an opinion that was expressed, rather than a factual misstatement? No, so you can write an editorial about your opinions of a person and that person can’t sue you for libel because it’s an opinion. Libel is not about opinions it’s about facts. Class Topics 37. Be familiar with the story about the Parents Music Resource Center. A group that organized congressional hearings to establish better labeling of music and eventually came up with the Explicit Content: Parental Advisory Advised label after the Filthy Fifteen Case. 38. What is the third person effect? A theory that explains that people tend to perceive the media as having a greater influence on others than it has on themselves 39. Explain the minimal effects model. 5 Media alone can’t cause people to change their beliefs and attitudes 40. Be familiar with the Danish cartoons controversy and its application to the media models. Publish of Muslim cartoons making fun of the Prophet Muhammad. Danish embassies were set on fire, a lot of deaths resulted in these cartoons. Exercised the libertarian model: highest degree of individual and press freedoms. Week Eight Monday, Nov. 16: Media Law and Fair Use There were no book objectives for today because the media interview assignment was due. Class Topics 41. Be familiar with the Charlie Hebdo story. A French publication with a history in criticizing religion. Exercised its freedom of speech and in January he was killed along with 10 other editors. It printed a whole biography of negative images of the prophet and took it to an extreme. 42. How has copyright law evolved? The length of the time that material is protected changes over time. There is never a set time. 43. Are there situations where you can use other people’s creations without permission and without paying? Fair Use: use of copyrighted work without permission to a certain extent based on four tests. 44. List and explain the four tests of fair use. 1. Purpose (is it to make money or to teach) and character (is it transformative or derivative?) 2. The nature of the work: fictional or factual 3. Substantiality and amount: how much of the work are you using? 4. Market Effect: are you undermining the work or adding value? 45. Do you have more leeway to borrow from factual works or fictional works? More leeway to borrow factual works and copyrighted work based on real life that copyrighted work based on fiction. 46. Distinguish between derivative and transformative use. 6 Derivative: use work and not change the meaning in a substantial way. Transformative: parodies, etc. Wednesday, Nov. 18: Books and Newspapers – Jenny Guest Lecture Chapter three: “Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism” 47. Which female reporter’s work from the New York World helped inspire investigative journalism? (Use the name that this person used for publishing.) Nelly Bly 48. What did this female reporter do that helped inspire investigative journalism? She went undercover as a person with a mental illness to expose asylums’ horrible treatment, which lead to reform 49. True or false: In colonial America, John Peter Zenger was arrested for seditious libel when one of his writers defamed a public official’s character in print. Zenger won the case, which helped lay a foundation for the right of a democratic press and citizens to criticize public officials. (Similar to the other true/false questions on this guide, the question will not necessarily be asked in this way on the exam.) TRUE 50. Penny papers tended to favor what kind of stories? Human-interest stories 51. Before newspapers made money by selling space for advertisements, what was their primary source of funding? What was the result of this source of funding? Political parties and their content emphasized over political views 52. Yellow journalism arose in the late _ _ 00s. 1 8 00s 53. What was the forerunner of today’s tabloid papers, reality TV and newsmagazine shows? Era of Yellow Journalism 54. What are the two major characteristics of yellow journalism? A. Overly Dramatic or sensational stories about crimes, celebrities, disasters, scandals, and intrigue 7 B. News reports exposing corruption, particularly in business and government-the foundation for investigative journalism. 55. What were the names of the two media barrens that dominated the newspaper industry in New York during the era of yellow journalism? William Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer 56. What is the inverted pyramid style of journalism? (Use the glossary definition.) Style of journalism where news reports start with the most valuable information first: “who, what, when, where” at the top of the report. 57. Concerns about what helped trigger the rise of interpretive journalism? The concerns about how the American people were amazed when WW 1 broke out. Because the reporting gave them no information about it and people were so subjectively reported. Objective to an extreme. 58. What is interpretive journalism? (Use the glossary definition.) Founded by Walter Lippmann it is the type of journalism that involves analyzing and explaining key issues and placing them in a broader historical and social context. Class Topics 59. The commercial press during the colonial period is similar to which section of contemporary newspapers? Similar to the business oriented section. Colonial had the partisan press (controlled by political parties) and the commercial press. 60. The focus of the Penny Press is similar to what section of contemporary newspapers? Life-style section: human interest stories 61. Who championed interpretive journalism and what were this person’s beliefs? William Lippmann initiated interpretive journalism and he believed that citizens are irrational and can’t make up their minds and also that a journalists’ job is to state the facts and analyze them and tell people what to do… 62. What was the name of the largest, most significant library of the ancient world? What happened to it? 8 Alexandria library, which got burned down (no exact reason why): lost so many volumes of ancient knowledge that was stored in that library. 63. How does Google benefit from its book scanning project? It can improve its search and advertising searches based on the books excerpts that people read. Week Nine Monday, Nov. 23: Magazines and Advertising Chapter 11: “Advertising and Commercial Culture” 64. What does FTC stand for? 65. Why did the government establish the FTC? 66. What is a boutique agency? (Use the glossary definition. By the way, public relations has boutique agencies as well – this is not limited to advertising.) 67. What is a storyboard? (Use the glossary definition. By the way, the public relations and film industries use storyboards, as well.) 68. True or false: The FTC usually permits a certain amount of puffery (ads featuring hyperbole). 69. The FTC defines ads as deceptive when they are likely to mislead reasonable consumers through ________________________________________________________________. Class Topics 70. True or false: Libel cases in the United States are easy to win when a public statement was made that was false. False; it is really difficult to win because you can’t prove that someone is out to get you. 71. Which tend to be larger – damage awards from winning a libel lawsuit or lawyers’ fees for a libel lawsuit? Damage awards from winning a libel lawsuit 72. Be familiar with the Jerry Falwell parody advertisement lawsuit. Hustler Magazine won against Jerry Falwell, a conservative political leader: parody ad that made fun of Jerry’s sex life. 9 73. How are private citizens treated if they have invited attention and reactions through what they do? Treated as limited-purpose public figures; people who are well known in the context of an issue and invite attention. Treated as public figures for any libelous statements. 74. What are examples of limited-purpose public figures? a. An activist who drew attention for a cause b. A physician who sought media attention for his technique c. A star witness who sought media attention d. An engineer who promoted government construction projects 75. What is a limited-purpose public figure and how is this type of person treated for libel cases? They are treated as public figures (with the actual malice criterion) for any libelous statements that are relevant to how they are somewhat famous 76. Why was George Zimmerman’s libel case against NBC dismissed? He was treated as a limited purpose public figure. Actual Malice —he sued NBC because they edited the call and made it sound like he said “this guy looks like he’s up to no good. He’s black” when really he said “this guy looks like he’s up to no good” and after 911 asked for the race, he replied “he’s black.” He lost the case because he couldn’t prove actual malice because its hard to prove that someone is out to get you. 77. Why were muckraking magazines significant and which magazine did we focus on in our case study? Focused on Cosmopolitan magazine: played a role in child labor laws reform, food and drug labeling and the formation of the amendments (protection of the consumers) 78. Why do media channels glorify difficult beauty standards? To attract advertising dollars; the media sells audiences to advertisers. 79. What is hegemony and how does the concept of beauty standards apply to it? Hegemony is when society’s least powerful members are persuaded to accept the values defined by its most powerful members. 10 80. Are beauty standards with regard to skin color and weight socially constructed? How do we know this? Yes they are constructed. We know this because they have changed dramatically through time with the only constant being what is difficult to achieve; whatever is difficult to achieve or expensive to achieve is glamorous. Wednesday, Nov. 25: Canceled for Thanksgiving Week 10 Monday, Nov. 30: Radio and Television Chapter eight: “Television, Cable, and Specialization in Visual Culture” 81. By the mid-_ _ _ _s, TV had become a mass medium. 1 9 5 0 s 82. How did television networks gain control over programming content from corporate sponsors? 1. Doubled the length from the radio days to make it more cost prohibitive—a single company couldn’t sponsor the entire show due to the cost. 2. Daily magazine format 3. One-time or annual television spectaculars like Peter Pan that they shoot live, or Greece and the Whiz. 83. Leasing TV stations the exclusive right to air older TV series is a critical source of revenue for broadcast networks and cable companies. This practice is known as s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n. Syndication. 84. What is first-run syndication? Idea that television re-runs, for example: Sex and the City was showed on HBO and was then played on another channel. It’s up for grabs for the highest price of who wants it on their channel. It’s not “Dancing with the Stars is ALWAYS on ABC” Class Topics 85. Why was radio an attractive medium to U.S. presidents during the golden age of radio? 11 Radio enabled presidents to reach a large number of people simultaneously, which was better than in person speeches. Radio enabled presidents to talk directly for a substantial amount of time without being edited by journalists. 86. What were fireside chats and who delivered them? Informal radio addresses that president Franklin Roosevelt used to talk about his policies with the public. He was able to get people on his side while discussing his visions and views and agenda. It was tremendously effective. 87. What was the golden age of radio? A period of radio programming in the US between the times it became widely adopted by the public (early 1920's) until television became the preferred medium for scripted programming (1950's) 88. Following the golden age of radio, what did radio stations focus on? Focused on playing popular music and let the television do the scripted media because it is too competitive to compete with visuals so they stuck with music. 89. Radio in the United States today tends to be… A set of functionalities and politically polarized space for liberal and conservative talk. 90. In transitional countries, which medium is the fastest and cheapest means of getting information to people? Radio 91. What is a recent parallel between old radio and television sponsorship and online TV show sponsorship? They both have one sole sponsor: one single sponsor. Single corporations running and sponsoring. 92. How did the original Star Trek series reflect society? It explored contemporary issues such as racial divisions and challenges with international relationships through allegories. 93. What are some of the ways in which the original Star Trek series influenced society? It modeled racial and ethnic equality through its ethically and racially diverse cast members. They modeled equality at a time when there were very few foreign roles in movies. It also featured the first interracial kiss on TV. The first spaceship was named “Enterprise” and inspired a bunch of people to become astronauts. 12 94. Martin Luther King encouraged Nichelle Nichols to remain on what American television show? Star Trek Wednesday, Dec. 2: Movies Chapter seven: “Movies and the Impact of Images” 95. When did the first theatres begin to flourish in the United States? Early 1900s 96. What did studios do to earn revenue from first-run theatres beginning in 1914? (Note: Include in your answer the demographic they attracted and how they did so.) They drew in members of the middle and upper-middle classes to the movies with movie palaces and mid-city movie theaters. 97. What are talkies? A movie with a soundtrack, as distinct from a silent film. 98. When televisions became a household item, how did the content of movies change in attempt to compete with television? They shifted their content towards serious themes like alcoholism and racism and sexuality. 99. Which source accounts for more revenue: (1) box-office receipts or (2) movie rentals, streaming and movie sales? When people are renting and streaming movies more than the box office. Class Topics 100. Who is the scholar who documented the power of myth and traced the hero myth throughout storytelling? Joseph Campbell 101. Be prepared to identify elements of the hero’s journey. I’ll ask this question on the test by asking you to identify which element in a list is not part of the hero’s journey. Question on test: Which one of these stages isn’t a real stage from the Hero’s journey? 13
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