TCH210 Final Study Guide
TCH210 Final Study Guide TCH 210
Popular in Child Growth and Development
Popular in Child Development
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lane Paulson on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to TCH 210 at Illinois State University taught by Holt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see Child Growth and Development in Child Development at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
TCH210 Final Study Guide Chapters 9-13 Chapter 9 Theory of Mind: the ability to infer mental states in others, such as beliefs, desires, knowledge, and intentions. It is sometimes called people reading. Has been studied in young children with false-belief tests. o Age trends in ToM (Theory of Mind): Early Childhood: rarely pass false-belief tests before age 4. Prefer to look at faces. Distinguish mother’s voice. Imitate emotional expressions. Engage in joint attention. Middle Childhood: have mastered false-belief tests. ToM continues to improve. Distinguish intentional from unintentional acts (foundation for moral judgement). Realize that they know more about their inner thought and feelings than others. Adolescence: continued improvements in ToM. Spotlight effect. Illusion of transparency. o What predicts ToM ability: information processing ability, verbal ability, attachment, parent’s mind-mindedness, parent’s talking about others’ mental states, and exposure to siblings and peers. Chapter 10 Prosocial Behavior: Voluntary behavior that benefits other or promotes harmonious relations with others. o Altruism: Behavior that benefits someone else at the expense of the self. o Age trends in Prosocial Behavior: By 8 months a universal tendency to be helpful and share is apparent. By 12 months, sharing & cooperating with parents is so common that their absence indicates developmental disorders. By 18 months, children try to help their parents with chores without being asked. By 2 years self-interest begins to inhibit the impulse to share. Toddlers express sympathy and comfort others. Middle childhood: display a wide variety of prosocial behaviors. Become so skilled at prosocial behavior that they are assigned to take care of younger children. Adolescence: prosocial behavior may extend to causes around the world. Become more skilled at prosocial behavior, however, frequency does not increase. o What predicts prosocial behavior: emotional competence & empathy, parental responsiveness & attachment, parents’ valuing of prosocial behavior, use of victim-centered induction, reinforcement, and practice. Antisocial behavior is behavior that disrupts the functioning of society. o Aggression is a type of antisocial behavior defined as behavior intended to harm or dominate another person. o Bullying is a type of proactive aggression. Goal is intimidation or dominance over another. Involved someone of greater power victimizing someone of lower status. Occurs repeatedly over time. Cyberbullying: bullying that occurs through interactive technologies. o Types of aggression: Physical aggression: harming others through physical means. Verbal aggression: harming others through verbal means. Social aggression: harming others through manipulating their relationships or peer status (ex: spreading rumors). Is sometimes called relational aggression. Reactive aggression: retaliation for a provocation; usually involves anger or frustration. Proactive aggression: not clearly provoked; goal is to achieve personal objectives. Instrumental aggression: proactive aggression with the goal to obtain an object, territory, or privilege, but not to hurt the victim. Hostile aggression: can be reactive or proactive aggression; goal is to harm another person. Chapter 11 Peer Status: Sociometric method: ask children which classmates they like, or prefer to play or work with, and which they dislike. o Popular (about 15%): liked by many peers & disliked by few. High status bully-leaders are sometimes called ‘popular’ by teachers or students. They are actually controversial (esp girls) or rejected (esp boys). o Rejected (about 15%): disliked by many & liked by few. Peer rejection predicts psychological distress (loneliness, low self-esteem, depression), aggression, and low academic achievement. Types of rejected children: Rejected-aggressive: think they are more popular than they are. Rejected-withdrawn: see themselves as socially incompetent. o Neglected (about 10%): few liked or disliked votes; not noticed by most children. o Controversial (about6%): many liked and disliked votes. o Average (40-60%): moderately liked & disliked. o What predicts peer status: prosocial behavior, aggression, social withdrawal, social skills, parenting risk factors, parent choices of child’s peer world, and parent coaching social skills. Peer Play/Friendship: o Peer play predicts cognitive abilities, academic achievement, and social & emotional competence (self-control, ToM, prosocial behavior, happiness). o Types of solitary play: active & passive. Solitary Active Play: play involving functional or pretense play while alone. Cause for concern; may indicate poor social skills if a child plays alone when others are available. Solitary Passive Play: play involving construction or exploring objects while alone. These are activities typically done alone and not necessarily a cause for concern. o Reciprocated friendship: both children nominate each other as a friend. o Unilateral friendship: one child nominates another as a friend, but the other does not. o Clique: a tightly knit group of about 2-10 friends, usually of the same sex & age. o Homophily: the tendency to prefer and bond with similar others. o Gender segregation: when given a choice, boys affiliate with other boys and girls with other girls. o Peer pressure: friends exert pressure on each other to conform to group norms. It is typically positive, but can be negative. o Age trends in friendship: Early childhood: Most preschoolers have friends. At 3-4, children use the word friend but may not really understand. Beginning about 2.5 years, children prefer same-sex peers. About 30% of 3-7 year olds may have imaginary friends. Middle childhood: Even more have friends (85%). Homophily becomes stronger. Peer networks are gender segregated. o Actively avoid opposite sex. o Flirting with opposite sex at a young age is not a sign of maturity. Time with peers increases compares to time with adults. Adolescence: Most have reciprocal friends. Homophily increases. Gangs become more common. Romance & sexual attraction increase. Chapter 12 Language: o Nonverbal language: important messages can be conveyed with thin slices of behavior that last just seconds. o Verbal language is receptive and expressive & consists of 5 components: Phonemes: sound Morphemes: smallest language unit that contains meaning Semantics: meaning Syntax: structure or word organization Pragmatics: using language according to sociocultural rules. o Phonological Awareness: ability to identify phonemes or the sounds of language. o Age trends in language: Early Childhood: Infants first use nonverbal communication through emotional expression, tone of voice, gesture. o Then gestures with words and finally, words alone. Preschoolers are almost fluent in speech. Vocabulary spurt occurs at about 1.5 years; about 9 words per day Adults use child-directed speech. Middle childhood: most words are figured out, not taught. Vocabulary explosion; about 20 words per day. Adolescence: vocabulary continues to grow. Syntax continues to develop. Sentences become longer and more complex. Improved pragmatics as students adapt language to the audience. More complex humor. Literacy: o Reading skill has 5 components: Phonological awareness: sounds Vocabulary Decoding: identify new words Fluency: speed of decoding Comprehension: understand text o Piaget’s theory & literacy: Students construct their own knowledge. Provide a print-rich environment. Encourage authentic writing. Hands-on activities with young learners. o Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory & literacy: Social interaction in culturally organized activities. Apprenticeship with an expert or teacher. Scaffolding by expert in the zone of proximal development. Cooperative learning or reciprocal teaching. o Information processing & literacy: Teach strategies for memorizing & problem solving. Provide extensive background knowledge. Make literacy automatic in order to reduce working memory load. o Age trends in literacy: Early Childhood: Emergent literacy skills (ex: naming letters & repeating a story). Print concepts (ex: books are read from left to right). Write with scribbles at first. First written word is usually their own name. In kindergarten learn to form letters. Engage in story book reading. Middle Childhood: Children begin to read independently. Learn to write. Around 4 grade, use reading and writing. Write longer pieces. Revise more. Writing becomes more reader friendly. Adolescence: Improved reading fluency, automatic. Improved vocabulary & comprehension. Writing has more connectors (ex: however, therefore). Increased organization & complexity of thought, including conflicting views. o Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): a learning disability in which a child with normal intelligence and exposure to print has a difficulty learning to read. Characterized by difficulty decoding and recognizing words accurately and/or fluently. Intervention is high-quality reading instruction. Chapter 13 The Self-System: o Self-esteem: one’s feelings of worth. o Self-concept: the differentiated conception of self that includes categories like academic self-concept, social self-concept, and athletic self-concept. Global self-concept is sometimes used synonymously with self-esteem. o Self-efficacy: confidence that one can accomplish a behavior within a specific domain. o Age trends in the self: Early Childhood: Develop patterns of attachment and internal working models that support self-concepts. Develop sense of self. Overly optimistic about abilities. Poor at social comparison. Middle Childhood: More realistic assessment of abilities. Improve in social comparison. Perceptions of competence tend to decrease across school years. Adolescence: Proliferation of selves, such as self in relation to parents, friends, and romantic partners. Components of Identity: o Social Identity: the part of self-concept that derives from membership in a group (ex: gender, ethnic, religious, national, etc.) o Gender Identity: the ability to accurately label your sex, and your feelings about your gender. Age trends in gender identity: Early Childhood: o Infants distinguish male and female. o By 2, children label boys and girls, but don’t understand gender constancy. o Begin to gender stereotype. Middle Childhood: o Understand gender constancy. o Become more sexist as gender stereotypes are consolidated. o Gender segregation peaks. o Boys who do girl things are criticized more than girls who do boy things. Adolescence: o Gender intensification may occur. o Feeling content with one’s gender is linked to better adjustment. o Ethnic Identity: the part of self-concept that derives from membership in an ethnic group and your feelings about that membership. Age trends in ethnic identity: By 6 months, infants prefer same-race faces. Most preschoolers can label their racial group, but may not understand the label. Around age 6 children prefer their own racial or ethnic group and begin to understand racism. Around age 10 children recognize racial stereotypes and stigma. Perceptions of stigma and discrimination tend to increase through high school. o Stereotype threat: concern that one’s performance will confirm negative stereotypes about one’s group; results in lowered test scores. Motivation: o Intrinsic Motivation: the desire to pursue an activity for its own sake, not for external reasons. o Extrinsic Motivation: the desire to pursue an activity for reasons external to the activity (ex: getting a reward, avoiding punishment, or earning a grade). o Motivation and interest tend to decline over the school years. o Self-efficacy: an individual’s belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments. Students with high self-efficacy are more likely to: Feel interest Work hard Perform well Persist in the face of difficulty Develop strategies for improvement Sources of self-efficacy: previous experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological reactions. o Views of ability: Entity view: ability, talent, and intelligence are fixed. Incremental view: ability, talent, and intelligence are changeable. Sometimes termed a “growth mindset” Leads to higher achievement, greater persistence, and intrinsic motivation o Attributions: causes that you perceive for your own and your students’ behaviors, successes, and failures. Attributions to effort are usually better than attributions to ability because effort is changeable and under your control. o Self-Determination: the need to feel autonomous or self- determined, that you have some control over what you do. o Goals: How to use goal setting: Specific Challenging, but within ability Accompanied by feedback Committed to the goal Divided into subgoals Mastery goals: desire to develop ability. Mastery goals are linked to: o Effective learning strategies o Deep processing of learning material o Increased intrinsic motivation & self-efficacy o Less fear of mistakes o Seeking help Performance-approach goals: desire to demonstrate ability and do better than others. Performance-avoid goals: desire to avoid doing worse than others and to avoid looking dumb. o Interest: Situational interest: interest that is generated by the conditions in a specific situation that applies to many people. Personal interest: an individual’s enduring interest in an activity or domain of knowledge.
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