Final Exam PSYC 2588
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2588 at George Washington University taught by Woodruff, P in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Attitudes Toward Death and Dying in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
Final Exam : Articles #914 Kastenbaum Chs. 2 ( pp. 3546), 6, 7, 8, 9 four essays ( one of the essays will be taken from the readings in the course packet) 10 Identifications ( taken from lecture or textbook) one bonus question **** Also adding questions from finals from past years at the bottom***** Does anyone remember what collective murder is? i can’t find the notes for it anywhere SOS multiple people murdering multiple people in a given time SUICIDE ARTICLES [summary] # 9: Attitudes toward Suicidal Behavior: A Review of the Literature The authors examined the attitudes toward suicide in different cultures and in different time spans. The attitude to suicide reflects the value of life in a culture. Some cultures encouraged suicide among certain members, usually for religious purposes, believing in some form of afterlife. The ancient Chinese and Japanese regarded suicide in certain conditions as not only acceptable but honorable. Middle Age Western society placed negative sanctions on suicide act. In modern society, attitude to suicide is confused and very contradictory. Many organizations and people argue suicide is a rational act and they fight to advocate “the right to die with dignity”. Opponents equate suicide with psychological disturbances. The bereaved survivors face more complicated problems: their personal grief and negative community reaction. RELATED CLASS OUTLINE Suicide “cide” means to kill 1. Shneidmandefinition: human act of selfinflicted and selfintentioned cessation, pointed out the categories of behavior that relate to suicide Categories 1. committed: dead 2. attempted: act failed 3. threatened: “if you leave me, i’m going to kill myself” 4. ideation: thoughts of suicide Sociological model, Durkheim, “Le Suicide ( 1897)” connectedness to society sociology’s equivalent of Freud; relationship between the individual and society (either over integrated or under integrated) or (too much cohesion or no cohesion at all) 1. Topology a. egotistic i. person is under integrated; don’t have enough involvement with society; personal energies concentrated on self; little concern for community (i.e. kurt cobain) b. altruistic i. over integrated; excessive concern for the community; suicide by convention; The Great Death; Group values predominate (i.e. seppuku or suttee) c. anomic i. usually result of tragedy and broken social ties social breakdown; relationship between the person and the society is lost. person experiences anxiety, isolation, loneliness: unemployment; alienation; life is purposeless d. fatalistic i. the person is overcontrolled by the society, they feel stifled and oppressed: all opportunities blocked: slavery is an extreme form; ii. they die in despair of never being able to actualize themselves in a culture that affords little opportunity for selfesteem and satisfaction iii. people see suicide as the only way of escaping oppression and hopeless life Psychological model 1. Freudpsychoanalytic: a. introject the love object: i. people symbolically put person inside their heart. When they hate the person, they commit suicide 1. hate becomes so strong that we want to kill the person and you kill them by killing yourself b. eros and thatnatos: i. death instinct usually express itself by bullying or aggression but it could turn inward ii. when thanatos turned inward and Eros is not strong enough, people end their lives Kastenbaumcultural meanings of suicide 1. sinful a. religious look down b. morally wrong c. Christian and Islam religion view 2. criminal a. early times families couldn’t inherit if the person committed suicide b. laws against suicide, people attempting suicide could get criminal record 3. weakness or madness a. think of it as cowardly, b. must be mentally ill, psychotic, severely disturbed 4. Great Death= daishi a. Ritualistic,culturally approved, altruistic suicide b. how a person might pass admirably from this life c. suicide has been honored as a form of daishi in Japanese culture 5. rational alternative a. quality of life worse than death Lethality: how effective a suicide method is committed 4:1 M to F Attempted 3:1 F to M way the method is applied affects lethality (bullet to the head is more effective than a bullet to the abdomen) Order of Lethality/how effective the method is 1. gunshot ( most effective) 2. carbon monoxide poisoning 3. hanging 4. drowning 5. suffocation 6. impact (jumping) 7. fire 8. poison 9. prescription drugs 10. cutting ( least effective) Childhood and adolescent suicide adolescents are more likely commit suicide than young children children: considered between ages 915 children have to be at least 9 years old to be considered suicide 1. factors low selfesteem; poor relationship with peers, teased; overly high self expectations; overly high expectations of parents, teachers, coaches, etc.; declare independence; possibly reunited with loved one; belief of invincibility; heartbreak 2. cluster suicide high number of young people ending their life in the same area; some sort of triggering effect; one suicide some sort of give permission to others; more likely to have suicide pacts 3. warning signs ○ withdrawal from family and friends ○ difficulties with sexual orientation ○ depression ○ decline in school work ○ increased use of substances ○ giving away prized possessions ○ random signs of affection Suicide by cop threaten officer with what may look like a gun, often leave note in pocket (often the notes say to the police officer to not be upset because the person wanted to be dead) intentionally provoking a cop to use deadly force through your actions Bereaved survivorssurvivor victims anger at being rejected, deserted, abandoned; feeling responsible;guilt, shame, relief; search for meaning; denial (accident or murder) many different emotional issues long term and incomplete grief 1. Shneidmanpostvention belief that a mental illness exists and survivors deserve counseling and support; need to be acknowledged and listened to; you can sustain them in shortterm but maybe not in the long term.. take them seriously; hospitalization; generate alternatives; external support important but cannot alone sustain will to live i. tell the survivors “if they do commit suicide, it is not your responsibility” EUTHANASIA ● can mean good, happy, mercy, or painless death ● to foreshorten the life of someone who is terminally ill ● two qualifying words: voluntary/ involuntary or active/passive ○ voluntary: a lucid, rational adult asks to have their life ended vs involuntary: the decision is made by someone else (for people in vegetative states or minors or mentally challenged, incompetent) ○ active: direct action taken to end life of the person (ie injecting the person with a large dose of morphine or taking lethal dose of drugs) vs passive: a treatment is not started or stopped, DNRs are in place, let nature run its course. ARTICLES [summary]: #10 Death and the Law The author shares a story of a breast cancer women died with physician's assistance in Oregon. In 1997, Oregon passed the Death with Dignity Act, making it the only state to permit physician assisted suicide with thorough restrictions. Attorney General John Ashcroft declared that assisted suicide is not a legitimate medical purpose and the physician did this could face 20 year sentence. The author argues that Ashcroft didn’t think too much and expanded the CSA beyond its original intent. The author continues arguing that total ban on physicianassisted suicide could also be violating personal autonomy. Nobody should force the dying patients to live out their finals days and die without dignity. However, there are also concerns about that if we let doctors end the suffering of dying patients, the practice would soon become a norm. And this would add pressures to dying patients with implicit guilt of financial and emotional burden. Yet, suicide under terminal illness is a very intimate decisions and should not only be regulated by politicians. Supreme Court ruled that it is up the states to decide whether or not physician aided death is allowed. #11: Doctor, I Want to Die, Will You Help Me? This article shares the stories of a few terminally ill patients who had wishes to die out of different circumstances and rationales. This article explores what dying patients might be experiencing when they request to die and offers potential physician's response. rationale of Wishes to die: tired of acute medical treatment; unrecognized or undertreated physical symptoms( too much pain); emergent psychological problems( clinical depression); spiritual crisis ( why would God do this to me); clinical depression; unrelenting, intolerable suffering; what do dying person want from their physicians( how physicians respond to requestedsuicide ) listen and learn from the patient before responding be compassionate, caring, and creative promise to be there until the end if asked, be honest about your openness to the possibility of assisted suicide try to approach intolerable endoflife suffering with an open heart and an open mind do not forget physicians themselves also need support: share those experiences of working with dying patients could help the physicians RELATED CLASS OUTLINE: The right to die: is there one ∙ Kaustenbaum – the right to die ∙ Donald C. o Grew up in middle class family in Texas, his parents were Christians o When he went to college he rejected the religious he was raised in and went to be a pilot and then he joined his father in a real estate firm o Father died in a gas leak explosion in the car o 2/3 of Donald’s body had second and 3 degree burns § he went through painful procedures, but after 9 months there was little progress; Without tanking he would die within a week He wanted his mother to take him home and left to die. His mother refused him because he abandoned his religion and he would be damned to hell. His mother wanted to get guardianship. o In Dr. White’s report he said that there was no way he was incompetent o Donald contacted a lawyer to be allowed to leave. Later he changed his mind and he continued to live and he became a lawyer. He changed his name to Dax because he couldn’t hear others calling Donald clearly. euthanasia good/happy/easy death; mercy killing;shortening life due to terminal illness; the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma. The practice is illegal in most countries; different combinations of below 1. voluntary ○ adult, rational 2. involuntary ○ someone else deciding; mentally challenged; incoherent 3. active ○ direct action, drugs ( quick) 4. passive ○ either not starting or withdrawing treatment; letting nature run its course; stop intervention; stop offering food or water history of suicide/euthanasia 1. Greeks: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle ○ supported it; defective children should be allowed to die; invalids should be kept alive;individuals could present case to citystate’s senate if they wished to die=granted a prescription to poison 2. Romans: Seneca ( philosopher) ○ should be able to choose an easy, painless death to shorten suffering 3. JudeoChristian: no condemnation ○ not condemned at first, but not considered virtuous; King Saul throwing himself on his sword; christian scriptures ( new testament): Judas commits suicide; orthodox; can’t be buried with family; worse than murder/can’t be recanted 4. St. Augustine ○ tradition towards suicide changes: City of God by Augustine: suicide is a violation of commandment not to kill: deprives opportunity to repent: should endure suffering (cowardly not to): pain viewed as redemptive. 5. St. Thomas Aquinas ○ a complete sin; damned to hell; only God can decide who dies; worst sin; can’t be repented of 6. Sir Thomas More ○ Trained in law; advisor/friend to King Henry VIII; devout catholic; sent on diplomatic missions; King has him beheaded over church/state issues with a treason charge; loses life for his religious beliefs. His book Utopia: if a person was sick and you could no longer help them, then it’s okay to shorten their life ( compassionate): can’t force this on someone, but it’s OK to help them die peacefully 7. David Hume ○ Essay on suicide; it’s okay if you are a burden/resignation to/from society. “ If I’m a burden to the society, I should be praised for quitting from it.” France enacted law that legalized suicide in the 1600s; self-murder→ self-slaughter→ suicide 1872 word euthanasia first used: good, easy, painless, peaceful death; “happy death” arguments by opponents to legalization ( HIppocratic oath ) cases of incorrect prognosis; future cures yet to be found; compulsory euthanasia of unwanted people ( homeless, mentally ill, etc.); pressure to sacrifice so as to not be a burden to family;no one can take on the power of God; potential abuse of medical and legal system ● Hippocratic Oath ○ prohibits doctor from granting euthanasia; “give no deadly medicine if asked”, some newer versions have no mention of euthanasia. ○ the old version said no euthanasia or abortion; the new one is about what’s best for the patient e.g. old one said explicitly will not give deadly medicine or abortion, new one says no criminal activity ○ used to assess the permissibility of euthanasia; goes back to the middle ages; applied to situations where doctor can’t possibly avoid harm; good effect is eliminating suffering, evil effect is killing; intention should be to relieve suffering not to end life; must be a great reason to risk the second evil effect. ■ this set of criteria states that an action having foreseen harmful effects practically inseparable from the good effect is justifiable if the following are true: ● nature of the act is itself good, or at least morally neutral; ● agent intends the good effect and not the bad either as a means to the good or as an end itself ● good effect outweighs the bad effect in circumstances sufficiently grave to justify causing the bad effect and the agent exercises due diligence to minimize the harm Kastenbaum viability level 1. not viable ○ even with most intense life support, you are not viable ( dead) 2. conditional viability ○ you are a vegetable with constant life support; PVS 3. physiological viability ○ need only warmth and food ( shelter and artificial feeding) in vegetated state 4. recovery with significant impairment ○ mental and motor losses but you can still function; never completely oneself again’ physical limitations 5. Recovery with minimal impairment ○ physically fine but psychologically different; boring or uninteresting. The Harvard AD Hoc Committee to Examine the Definition of Brain Death (1968) to declare someone brain dead they have to be unresponsive and unreceptive to painful stimulus; no movement; no breathing without machine; no reflexes; no pupillary reactions, no brain activity; no blood circulation in brain; flat EEG; have to rule out low body temperature ( 80 degrees) and central nervous system issues ( i.e. on barbiturates) Definitions ( first two are legal) 1. cardiopulmonary ○ no heartbeat; no respiration 2. decerebrate ○ Harvard Criteria above: full brain dead 3. neocortical ○ cerebral cortex isn’t functioning; no consciousness; no thought processes; lost personhood; just stem working PVS persistent vegetative state: wakeful unconscious state for more than a few wakes; only brain stem is working sleepwake cycles, eye movements, limb movements, two feeding methods (/), can’t think, smell, hear, speak, etc.; arms and legs contracting up and bent; minimally conscious state shows a little more responsiveness than PVS ( slight change of recovery); occasional responsiveness; only using brain stem; may do small reflective acts. care can run up to $200,000 a year depending on how much life support is needed NG (Nasogastric) tube, PEG = Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy – Medical procedure in which a tube is passed into a patients stomach through the abdominal wall to provide a means of feeding advanced directives legal documents that allow you to spell out your decisions about endoflife care ahead of time. They give you a way to tell your wishes to family, friends, and healthcare professionals and to avoid confusion later on 1. living willl ( natural death directive) ○ available free online or at hospitals/community centers; Natural Death Directive: clarify your views about your death in case you couldn’t speak for yourself ( i.e. “ do not resuscitate”); what to do; physicians must decide if they are terminal; must have two witnesses to your signature, doctor can’t be sued if they can’t carry out your wishes 2. durable power of attorney for health care ○ turning your health care decisions over to someone else; ethical/religious directives exists as well Does a person have to be dying to have the right to die? 1. Karen Ann Quinlan ○ after going into a druginduced coma with severe oxygen deprivation, she was in PVS (persistent vegetative state); kept alive on a ventilator ( got nutrition, hydration, and medication like adoptive parents wanted): Popeunnecessary to go to extraordinary measures; parents wanted to pull her off the ventilator b/c they considered it to be an extraordinary measure, but doctors didn’t want be held responsible; widespread news coverage after father tried to get guardianship; went to Supreme Court and won; nursery homes in the area refused to take her in ( fear of bad publicity) until state threatened to take away funding if they didn’t; they took her off the machine, and she lived for 10 years on her own; cost Medicaid $30,000/year; “sleeping beauty syndrome”; highly debated 2. Nancy Cruzan ○ Married 26 years old in car accident; no heartbeat/respiration for 15 minutes; trauma and lack of oxygen to the brain; declared in PVS; received nourishment from a feeding tube; husband left her after 4 years and her parents got guardianship and wanted to take her off the feeding tube so she could die; court ruled that they could, but it was repealed; went to SC and lost: 3 friends testified that she said she wanted it this way (living will) and won in a lower court; taken off the tube and died within 12 days from dehydration; father later killed himself 3. Terri Schiavo ○ married woman whose weight significantly fluctuated from 240 lbs to 120 lbs while trying to get pregnant and lost her period; both anorexic and bulimic; collapsed from prescribed ovulation medicine; extensive brain damage; declared in PVS; eventually put on PEG ( feeding tube); husband wanted to take her off of it, but parents wanted her to stay connected ( with hydration and nourishment); Jeb Bush intervened; family exhausted legal proceedings; she was taken off and died 12 days later from dehydration; she had lived for 15 years in PVS; Epitaph: “ I kept my promise” 4. Dax Cowart ○ Donald C stopped religious observance after going to college; after a car accident in which his father died he asked to be left to die instead of saved; badly disfigured and burned; didn’t want to go on with any treatment; asked to be taken home by mother to die; mom didn’t want to because it would be painful to witness and he’d go to hell because he lost his religion; if he lost his mental capacity then his mother could decide for him; still coherent so she couldn’t become his guardian; he changed his mind and continued and changed his name, but believes he should have been given the right to die Physician assisted suicide 1. It’s over Debbie, Dr. Anonymous ○ a 20 year old near death with ovarian cancer was in a lot of pain; procedures weren’t working; Dr. Anonymous called in the middle of the night to come in; very tired asks nurse to fill a large syringe with morphine assuming she wished to die; “let’s get this over with” she said; Doctor didn’t ask a question of what she meant; didn’t check if she was rational;/competent; made nurse complicit; never consulted anyone else; made the decision quickly and unilaterally; considered one of the worst cases of PAS 2. Diane and Dr. Timothy Quill ○ longtime patient who developed a form of leukemia with 2% survival rate that involved a terrible treatment; she wanted to let the leukemia run its course until her quality of life was so poor that she’d want PAS without any treatment; she learned about her options from the Hemlock Society and then Quil prescribed her with PAS pills; when she felt the end was near, she took the pills; Quill lied and said she’d been in hospice care to opt out of an autopsy after saying she was under his care; came clean about it in an article in a medical journal; went to trial but was acquitted good example of PAs; knew patient and her situation 3. Dr. Jack Kevorkian ○ thought of by many as a loose cannon; advertised in newspaper offering to accelerate death for anyone who was dying; threedrug cocktail used for lethal injection; did this for a few years “ his suicide machine”; most were not terminally ill; never charged his patients; charged with 2nd degree murder; acquitted repeatedly by his lawyer, but Michigan got his medical license taken away; he just found other drugs to use; video of patient with ALS where Kevorkian turned the machine on himself because the patient couldn’t do it himself; convicted of 2nd degree murder (25 years in prison); released at age 79; ran for House of Rep to push for PAS legalization but lost ○ Generally didn’t follow his own “standards”: claimed he required a second doctor’s opinion, an evaluation of the patient’s physical AND mental health, required 24 hours between request and action, etc. However, he would pretty much just kill anyone who asked. Criticized because many of his patients were not terminal, depressed females thought to be enabling female suicidality. State initiatives for death with dignity ● First Oregon, now Vermont, CA, Washington, Montana, and soon New Mexico; either passed as a referendum on a ballot, by state supreme court, or a state legislature signed by the governor physician assisted suicide in Oregon ● passed in 1994, but didn’t go into effect until 1997 with many safeguards: 1) 2 doctors must agree that patient has less than 6 months to live. 2) patient is competent, informed, not depressed, aware of hospice care, and has access to pain mgmt, 3) must be a resident, 4) multiple requests ( twice in writing, 1 verbally): doctors writes the prescription however patient must get it filled and take it themselves; US att General John Ashcroft opposed it because of his religious beliefs, but it was shot down because federal government had no right to interfere with state law. ABORTION history of abortion different cultural attitudes ( ranging from approval to prohibition) ● Greeks: approved; considered it population control, over age of 40 is ok VS. Hippocratic oath saying no instrument that would help w abortion ● Women would thrust sharp objects into uterus, hot coals from fireplace on abdomen, jumping from high place to land, potions to induce vomit or diarrhea ● Roman Hippocratic Oath: man has such control over wife that he could demand abortion; a roman father could kill and not be condemned ● China: forced liquid mercury into uterus ● Assyria: women would be tried, convicted, and executed if miscarriage..could be killed for it; illegal ● Hebrews: disapproved ● Early Christians: called it infanticide, baby killer ● mid 19thc. Catholics: allowed it for a limited amount of time → okay up until child gets a soul( x days after conception depending on gender...40 days for male, 80 days for female) …… BUT Pope said at instance of conception, soul is present so abortion is not ok ● English common law: ok with abortion until “quickening” = female feels movement at 5 months...brought to US via colonials ● US common law: concerns about dangers of abortion for women’s health; CT said new research showed that it was preventable ( i.e. birth control) ● during civil war, male population was wiped out, so women needed to replace the workforce by having more babies; sex for pleasure was considered wrong so a fear of pregnancy would reinforce those morals; backalley abortions were unsafe, unsanitary, and with unqualified physicians ○ methods used: sharpened stick, hot coals on abdomen, jumping to land on abdomen, drinking concoctions to induce violent vomiting, putting mercury into the uterus, knitting needle, umbrella, wire coat hanger; forcing soap solutions through douching. 1873: congress passed law not to cause any device with no contraception or abortion countries like sweden allowed abortion if not resident Roe vs. Wade 1/22/1973 ( allowed abortion) vote 7:2; Justice Blackmun ● pregnant woman in TX wanted abortion claiming rape (though not raped); Decision: not in time to get an abortion so she gave up baby for adoption ● Justice Blackmun was against abortion ● Blackmun wrote decision based on the 14th amendment ( concept of personal liberty>right to life/right to privacy) ○ abortion is a decision between doctor and mom during 1st trimester; during 2nd trimester, state could regulate who could do it; during 3rd trimester, state could regulate where it was done and only when health/life of the mother is threatened (includes mental health) Methods First trimester 1. Dilation and curettage ( D & C) ○ cut in woman’s cervix and scrape out curved surface of uterus, check for uterine cancer, twilight sleep after tranquilizer, dilated with speculum, physician sticks cuvette scrapes inside (embryo, mucus, etc)...check temperature after few days for infection ○ caused heavy bleeding, not used much anymore 2. Suctionvacuum aspiration ○ antianxiety, twilight sleep/sleeplike state; series of tubes put up vagina and cervix, vacuum pump sucks out the contents of the uterus; more common; could bleed heavily ○ check temp for infection Second Trimester 3. saline ○ needle pushed into uterus from abdomen; done in hospital w/ sterile saline; pushing salt in to absorb all the fluid; mother goes into labor; burnt, shriveled fetus (via osmosis) 4. hysterotomy (cesarean section) ○ cut through lower abdomen and pull out the fetus ○ small incision made above pubic hair, cut made into uterus, forceps put in, tiny skull is crushed → pulled out by squeezing head after 20 weeks/Third Trimester 5. dilation and extraction (D&X) ○ partial birth abortion; controversial; breech ( feet first ) ○ physician pulls baby down, hole drilled in skull → brain is extracted, skull collapses à pulled out → Congress got involved with this, passed 3 bills to illegal it but Clinton vetoed it, Bush said he’d sign it and did (no woman was present) → still used though, safe to get baby out ○ 6. dilation and evacuation ( D & E) ○ cervix is dilated and instruments go through uterus and dismember fetus ○ cut into pieces, pulled out piece by piece, used only in dire need (deformity, serious medical condition, impending death), fetus killed first, wait several hours, cervix dilated, medicine to induce labor...only 8 doctors nationwide do this 7. drugs ○ RU486Mifeprex: difficulty getting approval for these drugs i. French refused to sell to US ii. very painful cramping and can be used up to seven weeks iii. relatively safe/ there haven’t been many deaths by it ○ PlanB: 2448 hours after itnercourse; available over the counter no age restriction anymore ○ Mifeprex: combo of two drugs cause contraction ○ ELLA: one medication, can be used up to 120 hours after intercourse ○ Methotrexate: used in cases of rape; stops the growth of embryonic cells; medical abortion, poison that is used for rheumatoid arthritis and can be injected into vein MURDER ARTICLES [summary] #12: 38 Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call Police Martin Gansberg For more than half an hour 38 citizens in Queens watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in three separate attacks in Kew Garden. Many neighbors turned on lights and looked out window but did not immediately call police. Only two neighbors came forward at last. 28 year old Kitty Genovese returned home from her bar job and parked her car in adjacent lot. She was then stabbed by a man to death. When later these witnesses were interviewed, some of them said they didn’t think it was so serious, others said that they didn't have good visual, others said they just simply didn’t want to get involved. RELATED CLASS OUTLINE homicide killing of one by another ( criminal or noncriminal) homicide is the broadest term, “cide”= to kill, “homi”= a human 1. murder types ○ First degree: deliberate, premeditated ( intentional and planned); aka capital punishment; eligible for capital punishment ( i.e. death penalty); life imprisonment ○ Second Degree: deliberate but not premeditated ○ Manslaughter: form of negligence contributing to death without intending to i. voluntary: crime of passion, heat of the moment ii. involuntary: reckless driving, DUI, etc. Kitty Genovese: bystander effect ● remaining neutral or actively encouraging murder; seldom do others interfere when violence takes place; in 1964, a 28 year old bar manager walking home in Queens at 3:20 am; attacked and chased by lurking schizophrenic with a knife; neighbors hearing her screams waited for 30 minutes to call the cops until she was already dead; people in groups are less likely to provide help if one person was there; think that someone else was bound to help; didn’t want to get involved/too tired/ thought someone else would call...didn’t want to testify in court and take time off work to do so serial murder ● killing 3+people in a period of time (according to the FBI); example Jack the Ripper & Ted Bundy mass murder ● 4+ people killed in a single episode; example Virginia Tech & Columbine ● “going postal” kill people in the workplace collective murder ● more than one murderer killing more than one person in a short time frame; example Charles Manson & his followers; special type of mass murder helter skelter killing of Sharon Tate genocide ● collective murder that is directed at a certain group of people; deliberate killing of one ethnic group ; example Ottoman Turks killing Armenians, Stalin killing Russians; Darfur; Bosnia, WWII ● political murder on a large scale ethnic cleansing ● the mass killing of members of an unwanted ethnic or religious group in a society; aka genocide ( holocaust?) assassination ● political murder on a small scale; example Julius Caesar & Brutus, JFK, Lincoln, Garfield, and McKinley ● 25% of those who have been president in the US have had attempts on their lives terrorism ● use of threats/violence to intimidate and coerce; aim to frighten, anger, and emotionally arouse usually civilians; usually political in aim ● can result in murder, mostly carried out against civilians CAPITAL PUNISHMENT ARTICLES [summary]: #13: Yes, the Death Penalty is Morally Permissible by Louis P. Pojman The author argues that the death penalty is justified on the basis of both retribution and deterrence. Retributive justice demands those who take the lives of others pay for it with their own life. Since there is no parallel between death and even the most miserable life. Second, even though there is no solid evidence on capital punishment deters others from committing murders, the society’s best bet is to use the penalty, since the bet is against the criminals and for the innocent. The author also responds to a few objectives to capital punishment. He argues that it is because we respect the life of the victim so we use capital punishment to honor the dignity of victim’s life. The criminal forfeits his right to life by deliberately murdering the victim. Occasional error in judicial system (i.e. convicting an innocent person) may be regrettable but not sufficient to abolish the death penalty. the author also says that if the society is secure (very low murder rate), it could show mercy and not execute the criminal. Does not see US as secure society. RELATED CLASS OUTLINE: history ● code of Hammurabi ( eye for an eye); execution of slaves in ancient history ● ancient Rome: wife could be executed for taking wine from cellar without husband’s permission ● Ancient Egyptians: worshiping false idols ● Persia ( Iran): accidentally touching king’s throne ● Middle Ages: crimes against the church or state ● US colonies: only adopted a few of the laws that when broken would result in capital punishment ( e.g. adultery, blasphemy, idolatry, sodomy, witchcraft, etc.) cruel and inhumane methods approved ● tortured and then executed; wood through tongue; boiled; flogged; burned at the stake; beheadings; stoning; crucifixion’ guillotine; hanging; eaten alive by animals; crushing between board and rock; in early 1960s, England abolished capital punishment; in order to become an EU member, CP had to not be practiced in our country. 1. Furman vs. Georgia 1972 ○ abolished death penalty) vote 5:4, reinstated 1976 ○ “cruel and unusual punishment” was unconstitutional. ○ Reinstated in 1976: methods couldn’t be cruel and unusual; constitutional as long as it was done thoughtfully, carefully, and under the right circumstances; legal in 31 states today. methods of execution 1. hanging ○ been around for a long time; different from lynching; have scaffold and a trap door; cloth bag over head; arms and legs tied; spinal reflex still firing; considered barbaric ○ noose is placed over head and over major blood vessels on the right or left side so that when dropped, the weight of the body causes the vessels to tear and the separation of the spinal cord until respiration slows and the heartbeat slows and stops 2. shooting ○ firing squad; still used in Utah; blindfolded and tied to a chair with a stack of sandbags behind; paper target placed over the heart; blood loss; considered barbaric ○ used by military for a long time ○ only men have taken part in firing squad, tradition= five men and each one takes a rifle, but one rifle has a blank….so they all shoot at the same time possibly thinking they had the blank 3. electrocution ○ developed to be more humane; Edison and Westinghouse in 1888; intended to be quicker and less painful; strapped to a chair; moistened copper terminals on rubber strips attached to leg and across the head with a device that looks like a colander, 2000 volts at a time for 30 seconds, increased until death occurs; smells like cooking meat/burning flesh 4. lethal gas ○ more humane; blindfolded and hooded; strapped to a chair and placed in a pod (looks like a telephone booth) with a window, bucket filled with sulfuric acid with sodium cyanide crystals added to make hydrogen cyanide gas; causes difficulty breathing than asphyxiation, painful; body spasms, can take seconds to minutes 5. lethal injection ○ 1978; strapped on a surgical table; IV put in both arms ( as backup); cannula put into veins to hold them open and make the process go faster; takes 5 mins to administer anesthetic; then barbiturate; paralysis of muscles ○ three drugs used: sodium pentathol (put to sleep), pancuronium bromide (stops breathing and causes paralysis) and potassium chloride (stops heartbeat) WAR ARTICLES [summary] #14: Born on the Fourth of July Ron Kovic The soldier in Vietnam just killed his own people, a young corporal from Georgia. He went back to the battalion area and reported this to the lieutenant. At night, the man contemplated suicide, killing one of his own was too much for him to carry. He felt crazy and guilty. Then he decided to live on with that fact. The other morning, he told the story once again to the major and confessed he thought he might have killed the corporal but the major didn’t believe him. Then the chaplain held a memorial for the dead corporal and the man thought he might never be able to feel happy anymore. He tried to figure it out how this could happen and why the good guys were killing good guys and he never got the answer. RELATED CLASS OUTLINE War legal, political murder on a large scale; viewed by some as heroic; “approved organized killing of humans defined as enemies; the number of death= amount of success/progress; killing should be done expediently with minimal losses to our own; aggregates conventional sanctions; moral and legal codes stand in opposition; own set of rules for moral conduct in war that are approved and accepted; “institutionalized murder” Objectives: o Minimal losses of one’s own side o War aggregates the conventional sanctions o In war killing isn’t only acceptable and necessary but possibly heroic o In war killing is § Acceptable § Necessary § Heroic death work: take civilians and turn them into soldiers 1. calling: for some people, it is calling (ie Pat Tillman) 2. job: for majority of people, it is job, considered contribution to society, something to be done to the best of your ability 3. slavery: it is called slavery because elements of choices are limited, ex= draft/ conscription, technically a choice because you could go to prison or flee the country, this form is highly resented and sometimes men would become hostile and turn on their own officers Socialization to death work 1. “ the rabbit lesson” : the sergeant killed the rabbit with bare hand in front of the newly recruited soldiers to teach them to do whatever is necessary to survive.this was given to newly trained civilians before shipping them out to be part of war 2. euphemisms: “mopping up” operations= going to small areas and killing everything, “collateral damage”= killing of civilians who aren’t involved etc 3. enemy as inferior: the enemies are not deserved of human calling. Japanese as “Japs”, Crouts, Gook, Rag Head 4. ethnocentrism= belief in the superiority of one’s ethnic group/culture 5. patriotism: value that supports war 6. invulnerability: God’s on one’s side: justified in whatever we are doing 7. correctness of one’s leaders: “The president must be right.” Mass murderer could be a hero in war. 8. training civilians to be combat soldiers is difficult and an important part is discipline- learning to follow orders without questioning them→ resulted in Abu Ghraib, there’s a limit to this Johnny Got His Gun: Trumbo (1939) an antiwar novel written by Dalton Trumbo. Joe Bonham, a young American soldier serving in World War I lost his arms, legs, face in explosion. He was so badly injured that the doctor decided to study him as a science project. He cannot hear, see, talk, only able to breathe with machine but he can fee l.At first Joewishes to die, but later decides that he desires to be placed in a glass box and toured around the country in order to show others the true horrors of war. Joe successfully communicates these desires with military officials by banging his head on his pillow in Morse code. However, he realizes that neither desire will be granted, and it is implied that he will live the rest of his natural life in his condition. This book is to show people the reality of war. nuclear holocaust: nuclear destruction possible complete or nearly complete of annihilation of human life through nuclear weapons. Under such a scenario, all or most of the Earth is made uninhabitable by nuclear warfare in future world wars. Manhattan Project- involves American and some European scientists who works on atomic bomb in three locations→ Oppenheimer realized there would have to be a test and so they tested in New Mexico, effects of the bomb were felt from very very far away, Truman heard about success and warned Japanese that something like this would happen if they didn’t surrender Hiroshima and Nagasaki huge death toll, many died from radiation sickness, August 9th, plutonium bomb on Nagasaki growth of nuclear weapons led to people building bomb shelters and schools holding fire drills, air raid drills etc other forms of global annihilation chemical warfare biological weapons (anthrax) population headed for 9 billion mark pollution- Mexico City, Beijing→ air not fit to breathe climate change/ global warming “armageddon” religious belief in end of the world asteroid hitting the earth→ ice age disasters life threatening event that affects many people in relative short time and brings sudden and great misfortune. 1. natural: the acts of God. Flood, mudslide, earthquakes, tsunami. Hurricane, typhoon, tornados, volcanoes, and lightning caused forest fire. 2. man made: crashes, chemical spill. nuclear contamination aging and death gerontology: The study of the social, psychological, cognitive, and biological elements of aging. geriatrics: the branch of medicine that deals with the health of elderly people. Erikson: integrity vs. despair: The 8th of Erikson’s Psychosocial stages. It refers to the last “crisis” of an individual in his or her life. As we become elderly (65+), we have to look back on our lives and either feel that we’ve lived a good life, contributed to society, etc., (integrity) or fall into despair. If this crisis is successfully navigated, we become wise old people instead of falling into depression and misery. Butlerlife review “it’s not just reminiscing, it is active, dynamic and requires more than just simple recall and enjoyment of those memories” ● very concentrated attempt to analyze past experiences ● purpose= to resolve conflicts you’ve had and arrive at the acceptance of those conflicts felt that life review is motivated by realizing that death is pending and reflecting on accomplishments and failures, memories that are sad/happy is a way to integrate meaning into life as an older person ● as people struggle with transition of advanced age, life review is important catharsis disengagement theory: Decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system the elderly person belongs to. activity theory: those who age the most successfully have maintained their interest in activities from middle age maybe retired: go to non profit and give some of their time passion for reading have audiobooks needlework: take up knitting, etc social death Isolation and abandonment. Treating you as if you’re already dead; making decisions for you; talking about you as if you’re not there. social clock: arbitrary time tables we have for people, of which many are myths. the ages beyond which people shouldn’t do specific things: AKA elderly people shouldn’t have sex, women over 50 can’t be sexy, etc.. bereavement overload: When a series of unfortunate events occur in succession to the people around you. Common in the elderly as their friends/loved ones die of old age. They are not given a chance to mourn and recover from one loss before dealing with another. suicide ● suicide rate: 16 per 100,000 ○ highest rate: old white men ■ loss of status contributes to that ■ most likely to be intolerant of things like helplessness, pain, etc ■ may feel irrelevant, unloved ● more motivated to go through with it ● often times they use the “balance sheet” to weigh what’s unacceptable/intolerable vs. possibility for improvement ● causes: loneliness, loss of roles, loss of dignity, loss of mental function ○ may need therapy for bereavement overload ○ going through life review to find meaning in life and resolve conflicts ○ starvation? ○ youthfulness is worshiped & old are abhorred 1. balance sheet suicide; portwood QUESTIONS FROM PAST FINAL EXAMS 1. Dr. Anonymous ended the life of Debbie, a 20 year old woman with ovarian cancer. What are the issues surrounding the actions of the physician 2. trace the history of abortion from ancient times up to the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973. 3. How are new recruits in the military socialized to carry out death work? 4. in 1897, Emile Durkheim’s book Le Suicide was published. Describe Durkheim’s sociological theory of suicide 5. What is known about the emotional needs and problems of those who survive a disaster? 6. Review the history of capital punishment from ancient times to the present 7. Sigmund Freud had a psychological theory of suicide and Emile Durkheim had a sociological theory. Select one man’s theory and write about it. 8. Describe the doctor assisted death of either Debbie or Diane 9. Trace the history of abortion ( do not include current methods) 10. What is experienced by bereaved survivors (family and friends of a suicide victim)? 11. Select one case from “ do you have to be dying to have the right to die” and summarize the case and issue 12. Describe Kastenbaum’s death system 13. identify and describe the four types of suicide that has been delineated by Durkheim. Include in your description the particular way in which people who commit suicide are connected to their society 14. The death penalty was reinstated in the United States in 1976. Explain the ways that it is carried out 15. identify and describe the seven functions of Kastenbaum’s death system 16. how has the biomedical definition of death changed over time? 17. What contributes to the socialization to the death work in time of war? 18. Describe the mechanical ( surgical) methods of abortion 19. Compare and contrast suicide in young people ( ages 1524) with suicide in the elderly 20. execution by lethal injection 21. durable power of attorney for health care 22. collective murder 23. 38 Who Saw Murder 24. }”]\ 25. conditional viability 26. egoistic suicide 27. Describe the history of physician assisted suicide in the state of Oregon 28. present Emile Durkheim’s sociological theory of suicide 29. Select either Kastenbaum’s individual meanings of suicide or cultural meanings of suicide and explain each one 30. some patients have had their life foreshortened even though they were not dying. Describe one of these cases giving the history and moral ethical is
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